Monitoring, Health, Kenya, Malta


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USEPA tightens monitoring rule for TC in drinking water

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced on 17 June 2010 that it is proposing to revise the 1989 Total Coliform Rule to incorporate improvements recommended by a federal advisory committee.

Kenya signs MoU for Mombasa desalination study

The government of Kenya has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) for Toyota Tsusho Corporation to carry out a feasibility study for a 100,000 m³/d desalination plant in the Mombasa district.

IDE to hold workshop at key UNEP meeting in Kenya

Leading desalination company IDE Technologies will be presenting its Progreen™ reverse-osmosis desalination technology at the 12th Special Session of the Governing Council/Global Ministerial Environment Forum (GC/GMEF) of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in Kenya on 20-22 February 2012.

The Innova 100 m³/d automatic RO system

Automatic Italian RO bought by Kenyan resort

A means of getting reverse-osmosis (RO) into sub-Saharan Africa has been provided by Italy's Innova Ltd, which recently delivered its first automatic seawater RO desalination plant with 100 m³/d capacity to a tourist resort in Kenya.

Indians providing MBR wastewater treatment in Africa

Indian water technology provider Shivsu Canadian Clear International Ltd has won orders worth US$ 6 million from private organizations and governments in Africa to set up membrane-based industrial wastewater treatment plants in Kenya, Tanzania and Ethiopia.

Mombasa is hoping to become the first African city to host the IDA World Congress

Kenya's a contender for IDA 2021 World Congress

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has shortlisted Mombasa, Kenya, among four finalists to host its 2021 World Congress, reports The Star.

The city of Mombasa on the Indian Ocean has an estimated population of 1.2 million

Reports: Mombasa awards desalination contract

Mombasa County, Keyna, has awarded a design, build and operate contract for new desalination capacity, reports Daily Nation.

Tunisia and Malta to share desalination expertise

Tunisia has signed an agreement with the Mediterranean island of Malta involving sharing of expertise on desalination plants.

RO consumes 4% of Malta's electricity, says new group

Reverse-osmosis desalination plants consume almost 4% of Malta's electricity supply, according to a statement from the newly-formed Malta Water Association (MWA) on 22 March 2011. The group, made up of hydrologists, engineers and other water experts, warned that urgent action is needed to protect Malta's water resources, which "are among the scarcest in the world and under severe stress."

Ceramic nanofiltration company gets big investor

ItN Nanovation AG, a start-up company in Saarbrucken, Germany, making nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 9 December 2010 a framework investment agreement with the US investment fund YA Global Master SPV Ltd, part of the Yorkville Group.

The island of Gozo, part of Malta, currently relies on groundwater extraction for its water supply

Malta to redevelop defunct desalination facility on Gozo island

A defunct desalination facility on Malta's Gozo island is to be redeveloped and brought back into use.

WHO book examines calcium and magnesium in water

The desalination industry spends a lot of its time removing calcium and magnesium from water, so a book on the role and possible health benefits of these minerals should be of great interest.

Nanoparticles for water and desalination - how safe are they?

The potential dangers from the use of engineered nanoparticles, such as nanotubes, metal oxides or nanodots, some of which form the basis of new solutions for desalination and water treatment, are outlined in a new European Union publication.

Massive health grant aids Chino desalters expansion

California's Western Municipal Water District announced on 28 June 2012 that it had received a "monumental" US$ 51 million grant from the state's Department of Health towards the US$ 130 million expansion of the Chino desalination plants.

NSF publishes commercial/residential water-reuse standard

The first US national standard for commercial and residential onsite water-reuse treatment systems was published on 15 November 2011 by NSF International, the US-based public health and environmental organization.

November deadline for Singapore convention abstracts

A deadline of 15 November 2011 has been set for the receipt of abstracts for the Water Convention at the Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) in July 2012.

PPCP Toolkit developed by WateReuse foundation

The WateReuse Research Foundation (WRF) has developed a toolkit for briefing elected officials, policy makers, or the general public about the presence of trace concentrations of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) found in recycled water.

Desalination help published with WHO drinking water standards

The World Health Organization launched the 4th edition of its Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (ISBN: 978 92 4 154815 1) at the Singapore Water Week on 4 July 2011 - and also launched a separate guide for desalination.

Sydney's desalination plant

Minister reassures public about Sydney's desalinated water

The minister for water for the Australian state of New South Wales, Phil Costa, reassured the public on 7 November 2011 that Sydney's drinking water remains completely safe for consumption and poses absolutely no health risk.

Desalination health and environment book to be published in June

A book on the health and environmental impacts of desalination is to be published by CRC Press in collaboration with the World Health Organization on 25 June 2010.

GWI's Global Water Summit 2017 in Madrid brought together water industry leaders from across the globe

View From: GWI Global Water Summit 2017, Madrid

The annual get-together of water business executives and municipal leaders from around the globe was suffused with conversation about change in Madrid 2017.

The new manual, Harmful Algal Blooms and Desalination: A Guide to Impacts, Monitoring, and Management, synthesizes knowledge from multiple case studies

First guide to harmful algal blooms launches at IDA World Congress 2017

UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) and Middle East Desalination Research Centre (MEDRC) introduced the world's first guide to harmful algal blooms (HABs) on Tuesday 17 October 2017, at IDA World Congress.

WHO's guidance includes case studies on potable reuse from around the world

WHO issues guidance on potable reuse

The World Health Organisation (WHO) has issued guidance on potable reuse for drinking water suppliers and regulators.

The IDA International Conference on Water Reuse and Recycling 2018 will feature two days of plenary, panel and technical sessions

IDA unveils lineup of speakers for water reuse conference

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has secured a stellar lineup of keynote speakers for its International Conference on Water Reuse and Recycling 2018, led by Spain's secretary of state for the environment, Maria Garcia Rodriguez.

Two direct potable reuse projects are currently in operation worldwide, in Texas, US, and Windhoek, Namibia

The Long Read: Do we have the technology for potable water reuse?

Water reuse for drinking purposes is racing up the agenda in the US and elsewhere. Work to draw up new rules for potable reuse is advancing in states including California and Arizona, as well as in Canada and the European Union. Technologies are being piloted, and plants permitted.

'Challenges are shared across the border', Mitch Thompson, Otay

Water from NSC Agua's desalination plant in Rosarito, Baja California, is a critical component of Otay's diversification efforts.

'Challenges are shared across the border', Mitch Thompson, Otay

Water from NSC Agua's desalination plant in Rosarito, Baja California, is a critical component of Otay's diversification efforts.

The Victorian Desalination Plant is located at the southerly most tip of Australia on the Bass Coast

AquaSure's Victorian Desalination Plant secures its first water order

The Victorian Desalination Project (VDP) is a mega-size seawater RO facility, able to produce up to 150 billion litres of water a year when running at full capacity. Located at the southerly most tip of Australia on the Bass Coast, it was procured by the Victorian State government from AquaSure, a joint venture of Degrémont (now Suez), Macquarie Capital, and Thiess (now Ventia), in 2009, for a capital cost of $3.5 billion.

Seven potable reuse study schemes win US$ 1 million funding

The WateReuse Research Foundation has approved funding for seven new direct potable reuse (DPR) research projects, valued at more than US$ 1 million.

Contamination security white papers released in USA

New security technologies for detecting and monitoring water supplies could be developed as a result of a contamination warning system (CWS) demonstration pilot project in the USA undertaken by CH2M Hill and the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD).

Carollo selected for Texas DPR health check

Carollo Engineers has been selected by the Texas Water Development Board to carry out detailed public health analysis of the first direct potable water reuse (DPR) facility in the USA.

IDA issues Gulf environmental Blue Paper

Better availability and sharing of environmental data between the Gulf states is among the recommendations contained in a "Blue Paper" released on 18 July 2011 by the International Desalination Association (IDA).

Commission warns Australia about gas-production wastewater

Handling the wastewater resulting from coal-seam gas (CSG) production in Australia is likely to require a precautionary approach that will demand innovation from water managers and planners, and significantly greater coordination with existing project approval processes, the National Water Commission warned in December 2010.

IDA is seeking original work for its 2018 International Conference on Water Reuse and Recycling

IDA issues final call for papers for upcoming reuse conference

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has issued a final call for abstracts for its 2018 International Conference on Water Reuse and Recycling, 24 to 27 June, in Valencia, Spain.

Dow to supply membranes for new Perth plant

Dow Water & Process Solutions is to supply FilmTec™ reverse osmosis (RO) elements for the Southern Seawater Desalination Plant (SSDP) outside Perth, Australia.

Singapore's NEWater reused wastewater passes latest test

The reclaimed wastewater from Singapore's NEWater plants passed its 12th bi-annual drinking-water test by an independent international audit panel with flying colours during the country's Water Week.

Interview: Kati Bell, Stantec global reuse leader

Canadian engineering giant Stantec acquired water business MWH Global for $795 million, back in 2016. Now that the dust has settled on the deal, how well is the integration of the two organisations proceeding, and as the global water reuse practice hits its stride, how could its work help to shape the water markets of the future?

Water scarcity is the biggest driver of water reuse, say respondents to our industry survey

Water reuse: a growing market of opportunity and challenge

Survey findings suggest a market with the technical expertise, innovative ideas, and will to service customers' water needs, while a lack of money, reluctance to take chances on new technology, and instances of poor governance present challenges.

Lamu old town, Kenya, is a UNESCO World Heritage site

Kenya authorities signal desalination project in Lamu County

The LAPSSET Authority is to build a desalination facility in Lamu County, Kenya, reports Kenya News Agency.

Wellthy has tested its system on waters from Yangon river, whose turbidity is rising due to lengthening rainy seasons in Myanmar

Tokyo's Wellthy Corp forms joint venture in Myanmar

Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation subsidiary Wellthy Corp has formed a joint venue with Myanmar Water Engineering & Products (MWEP) to provide EPC and water quality analysis services in Myanmar.

Mombasa City on the coast of Kenya is the country's second largest city behind capital Nairobi

Kenya's Mombasa County poised to issue RFP for desalination project

Mombasa County, Kenya, is to issue a request for proposals for new desalination capacity to five shortlisted companies in May 2017.

Mombasa County in Keyna is looking to seawater desalination to make up a 73 per cent water supply shortfall

Kenya's Mombasa County seeks bids for desalination project

Mombasa County, Kenya, is inviting sealed bids and expressions of interest for a contract to manage procurement of a major desalination project.

California considering CEC monitoring in water reuse

The California State Water Resources Control Board is to consider adding monitoring of constituents of emerging concern (CECs) to its requirements for recycled water at its board meeting on 16 October 2012.

Yokogawa to provide control system for Jubail SWRO plant

Yokogawa Middle East & Africa has received an order from Petroleum, Chemicals & Mining Company Limited (PCMC) to supply the control system for the SWRO-4 desalination plant, which is being built in Jubail, Saudi Arabia, by the Power & Water Utility Company for Jubail & Yanbu (Marafiq).

Modern Water gets £ 9.5 million from share issue

UK forward-osmosis (FO) and monitoring specialist Modern Water plc announced on 12 February 2013 that it had raised, subject to certain conditions, £ 10.0 million (approximately £ 9.5 million net of expenses) by way of a placing of 20,000,000 new ordinary shares with both new and existing institutional shareholders at a price of £0.50 per ordinary share.

Methane to power Queensland CSG desalination plant

A desalination plant in southwest Queensland for the burgeoning coal-seam gas (CSG) industry is to be built by a consortium of GE and Laing O'Rourke for leading Australian gas explorer and producer QGC.

The solar-powered WaterKiosk units are suitable for decentralised and off-grid locations

German firm constructs solar plants in Kenya

German technology company Boreal Light is to construct 19 solar-powered desalination plants across Kenya, reports energysiren.

Modern Water appoints US monitoring sales VP

UK-based Modern Water plc has appointed a vice president of sales, Americas, for its Monitoring division. This appointment will strengthen the geographical reach of the division and will drive Modern Water's sales activity in North, Central and South America.

The new desalination plant will serve residents of Kenya's Mombasa County

Kenya awards Almar and Aqua Swiss with desalination contracts

Kenya has awarded Almar Water Solutions a 100,000 m3/d desalination plant project in Mombasa and AquaSwiss a 30,000 m3/d project in Likoni.

Kwale County, Kenya, is looking to capacitive desalination to produce fresh water and energy

Kenya considers plans for capacitive desalination plant

A 25-year project to transform the Kwale County region of Kenya is to include a capacitive desalination project, reports Citizen News.

Qala village is at the eastern most point of Gozo Island, close to the main Maltese archipelago

Malta tenders Euro 10 million desalination project

The Water Services Corporation of Malta has issued a tender for a reverse osmosis plant at Hondoq Bay on the Island of Gozo.

IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse will make a return visit to Dubai in 2019

IDA to return to Dubai for World Congress 2019

The International Desalination Association (IDA) is to return to Dubai, United Arab Emirates, for its World Congress in 2019, building on the earlier success of the IDA World Congress held in the emirate in 2009.

LG Chem bags five orders worth US$ 8 million

LG Chem has acquired new orders for water purification filters totalling US$ 8 million under exclusive deals with five desalination projects. The projects are at sites in Israel, Spain, Malta, Egypt and Mexico, the company said.

Maltese desalination test-bed shows SalTec energy-recovery advantages

Throughout the desalination industry, plant operators are looking for long-term solutions with lower lifecycle cost because of the link between water costs and energy costs. In order to meet operators' demands and requirements, equipment manufacturers are investing considerable resources in the development of new technologies that will reduce energy costs. The Water Services Corporation in Malta is one example of a forward-looking operator of a seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant seeking to ensure the production of high-quality drinking water at an affordable price. Established in 1993 to produce and distribute potable water on the islands of Malta and Gozo, WSC has an annual production target of 35 million m to satisfy the needs of its 400,000 residents and in excess of one million tourists. With the drive to produce greater efficiencies and water quality WSC has taken an opportunity to investigate and monitor the potential of a new technology from KSB, the SalTec pressure boosting and energy recovery system. The SalTec DT pressure exchanger in combination with KSB's HGM RO high-pressure pump creates a highly attractive proposition for RO plant designers and operators. The SalTec DT system provides a nominal capacity of 250 m /h, giving it the capability to operate in plants with train sizes ranging between 4,400 m /d and 5,000 m /d of permeate at common recovery rates.

Santa Barbara OKs US$644k desalination study funding

US city, Santa Barbara, has approved US$ 644,000 to fund studies needed before its dormant desalination plant can reopen. Without the plant the city faces a potential water supply crisis.

Osmoflo wins US$ 15m wastewater reuse contract

Water and wastewater firm, Osmoflo, has won a US$ 15 million contract for the design, construction and commissioning of a wastewater treatment plant in northern Western Australia to produce reclaimed water for use in irrigation.

San Diego approval leads large SoCal water reuse surge

The board of the San Diego County Water Authority on 22 May 2014 approved support for the City of San Diego's proposed large-scale water recycling project, Pure Water San Diego, which the water authority has identified as the region's most likely next source of local supply.

Florida legislates in favor of water reuse expansion

The state legislature of Florida, USA, on 2 May 2014 passed a bill (SB 536), which directs the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), in coordination with stakeholders, to conduct a comprehensive study and submit a report on the expansion of the beneficial use of reclaimed water, stormwater and excess surface water in Florida.

Algae biomass membrane order for Denmark's LiqTech

Denmark's LiqTech International Inc has received a purchase order of around US$ 300,000 for a prototype filtration system to be used in an algae biomass project.

Governor signs bill to accelerate California direct reuse

The governor of California, Jerry Brown, signed legislation on 8 October 2013 designed to accelerate direct potable reuse throughout the US state.

NWMOA Annual Symposium brochure available

The Northwest Membrane Operator Association has published full details of its September 2013 Annual Symposium to be held in Vancouver, Washington, USA.

Perth groundwater replenishment project gets go-ahead

The Western Australia state government announced on 1 August 2013 that it was adopting groundwater replenishment with reused municipal and industrial wastewater to help secure Perth's water supplies.

MottMac buys up South African engineering firm

Johannesburg-based engineering specialist PD Naidoo & Associates has been acquired by global engineering firm Mott MacDonald.

Berman joins D&WR/IDA online symposium team

Tom Berman, research professor emeritus of the Kinneret Limnological Laboratory, Israel, who is a leading expert on biofouling and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in reverse osmosis, has been added to the speakers for the International Online Symposium on Pretreatment for Seawater Reverse-Osmosis Desalination.

Papers invited for 2014 Singapore Week

A call for papers has been issued for the Water Convention during the Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) 2014, which will be held on 1-5 June 2014.

Asia-Pacific water-recycling conference calls for papers

The Australian Water Association (AWA), an affiliate of the International Desalination Association has collaborated with the Water Services Association of Australia and WateReuse Australia to present the Asia Pacific Water Recycling Conference 2013.

Seprotech to acquire Canadian consulting group

Canadian membrane water treatment and reuse provider Seprotech Systems Incorporated has reached agreement to acquire 100% of WESA Group Inc, a professional services company with eight North American offices and one in El Salvador.

'The industry's tendency to evaluate technology on capital cost, as opposed to total lifecycle cost, impedes the application of new technologies,' Joe Gifford, Nanostone

Five Minutes With: Joe Gifford, Nanostone vice president of research and development

Joe Gifford, who is listed as an inventor on water technology patents in the US and globally, is Nanostone's new vice president of research and development

Tianjin Dagang Desalination Plant

IDA issues call for Tianjin World Congress papers

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has issued a call for papers for its World Congress 2013 - Desalination: A Promise for the Future which will take place in China.

Water-reuse bill to be debated in California assembly

A bill to completely revise California's water-reuse legislation was passed for its third reading on 25 May 2012 and will come up on the floor of the state assembly this week.

Final draft of San Diego water-reuse scheme published

The City of San Diego, California, has published the final draft of its Recycled Water Study - the culmination of a two-year process to develop a new vision for water reuse in the San Diego region.

NRDC report urges control and reuse of fracking wastewater

The US Environmental Protection Agency and individual states should ban or more strictly regulate the discharge of shale gas wastewater (SGW) from hydraulic fracturing (fracking) to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs). They should also update pollution control standards for centralised waste treatment facilities (CWTs) that accept SGW.

NSF/JWPA developing iodine water filtration protocol

A joint protocol to evaluate the ability of certain water filtration products - such as reverse osmosis - to reduce iodine (including radioactive iodine) from drinking water currently being completed by NSF International and the Japan Water Purification Association (JWPA).

Financial meetings held over Gaza desalination project

The Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) announced on 18 January 2012 that a delegation headed by deputy secretary general Rafiq Husseini visited Kuwait and Saudi Arabia during the previous week to present the Gaza water desalination project to financing institutions.

UCLA water summit will look at desalination/reuse

Seawater desalination and wastewater reuse will be key topics at a one-day summit on the Future of Water in Southern California to be held by the University of California, Los Angeles, on 27 January 2012.

The development is situated to the north of Aqaba, Jordan's only coastal city

Jordan's $2.82 billion development to include desalination

Jordan has unveiled a project to develop a zone north of Aqaba of 109 kilometres squared, to include desalination capacity of 329,000 m3/d.

US to develop natural-gas wastewater standards

Over the coming months, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to begin the process of developing a proposed standard for wastewater discharges produced by natural-gas extraction from underground coalbed and shale formations.

'I see great opportunities in the water utility and building services segment in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan.' Hideo Shirakawa, East Asia managing director, Grundfos

Five Minutes With: Hideo Shirakawa, East Asia managing director, Grundfos

The 2016 Summer Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro and 2014 Winter Olympic Games in Sochi are among the Grundfos projects to inspire newly-appointed East Asia managing director Hideo Shirakawa

Dr Corrado Sommariva

Sommariva secures International Desalination Association presidency

Dr Corrado Sommariva, managing director of ILF Consultants Middle East, was elected president of the International Desalination Association on 5 September 2011, the first day of the IDA's World Congress in Perth, Australia.

Toray UF membranes online in North Dakota

An ultrafiltration UF system in North Dakota, USA, has become the first large municipal drinking-water system in the US to use Toray HFS-2020 UF membrane modules.

Minton to lead WRRF research programs

Julie Minton has been appointed director of research programs by the WateReuse Research Foundation (WRRF), which conducts and promotes applied research on water reuse and desalination.

The new desalination plant will provide clean drinking water to two million people in Gaza, Palestine

Gaza large scale desal project secures €456 million funding

The European Investment Bank (EIB) is to issue a tender for Gaza Central Desalination Plant and Associated Works Project, after the scheme received pledges amounting to €456 million ($560 million).

Water crises are considered high impact by the World Economic Forum 2018 global risks report

Water crises among top 10 world risks, says Davos report

Water crises are ranked the fifth biggest world risk by impact, before cyberattacks, involuntary migration, and infectious diseases, in the latest global risks report from the World Economic Forum in Davos.

Direct potable reuse to be debated at WRA symposium

The WateReuse Association has announced the program for its annual symposium, including a closing panel discussion entitled Direct Potable Reuse: Not a Pipe Dream Anymore?

Nine projects get Reclamation feasibility funding

The Camp Pendleton desalination project in California is one of nine advanced water treatment and reuse projects in three US states selected for feasibility-study funding by the Bureau of Reclamation.

MBR plant part of new Muscat wastewater reuse program

Work has started in Muscat, Oman, on the Darsait Wastewater Treatment plant, part of the first phase of the Muttrah Water Reuse Project.

Adelaide's desalination plant - built because of government subsidy?

Australia has overinvested in desalination says government report

Australia has overinvested in desalination in recent years, says a draft report from the Australian Productivity Commission, published on 13 April 2011. One alternative it recommends is indirect potable reuse.

EPA funding for Arlington Desalter's biological denitrification

California's Western Municipal Water District (WMWD) confirmed on 10 February 2011 that it had secured a US$ 528,000 federal grant in January for design work on a treatment system that uses naturally occurring bacteria to remove toxic contaminants, including perchlorate and nitrate, from drinking water.

High-visibility reuse demo awarded to APTwater

California-based APTwater, Inc has been awarded a contract to use its technology for a municipal water-reuse system for the City of Anaheim, California.

USEPA chief briefs Senate on dangerous contaminants

Perchlorate, chromium-6 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water were all discussed by the US Environmental Protection Agency's administrator, Lisa P Jackson, in testimony before the Senate Committee on Environment & Public Works on 2 February 2011.

Japanese funds sought for Cape Verde desalination plant

Cape Verde is reported to be looking to Japan for funding for a 40,000 m³/d desalination plant on the island of Santiago.

'We all, as a global community, cannot afford to use water once and dispose of it.' Peter Nichol, CH2M global market director

Q&A: Peter Nicol, CH2M global market director, on Brazil's reuse policy

Peter Nicol, global market director for CH2M, outlines how the firm is helping to develop Brazil's action plan for a national water reuse policy

US powerplant water emission rules to be tightened, say environmentalists

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to tighten up on water emissions from powerplants, according to a press release from a collection of US environmental groups.

The new research paper synthesises data to create a world map of brine production

UN urges desalination industry to improve on brine

The United Nations has called on the desalination industry to clean up its act on brine as the number of desalination plants worldwide continues to climb.

Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant, Queensland, Australia

Bundamba wastewater reuse plant passes second quality test

The second Water Quality Report for the Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant in Queensland, Australia, has confirmed the excellent quality of the purified water it produces and proved that the water is safe to add to the drinking supply, says government agency WaterSecure

IDA issues call for papers for Portofino conference

The International Desalination Association is seeking presentations from industry and related NGOs on how the organization and the desalination community, as a whole, can be more responsive to human needs for clean and affordable potable water.

Reclamation Bureau's water recycling and reuse funding criteria published

The US government's Bureau of Reclamation published on 15 October 2010 the funding criteria under its Title XVI - Water Recycling & Reuse Program for two new funding opportunity announcements in fiscal year 2011.

November deadline for Singapore papers

Papers have been invited for the Water Convention held as part of the Singapore International Water Week, 4-8 July 2011.


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