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Denmark's Aquaporin in US$ 10 million Chinese joint venture

Chinese water treatment company, Heilongjiang Interchina, has signed a memorandum of understanding with Danish water purification specialist Aquaporin and Chinese environmental engineering company Poten Environment Group to set up joint venture in China.

Algae biomass membrane order for Denmark's LiqTech

Denmark's LiqTech International Inc has received a purchase order of around US$ 300,000 for a prototype filtration system to be used in an algae biomass project.

LiqTech lands follow-up membrane order from China

LiqTech International Inc of Denmark has received an additional purchase order for its silicon carbide (SiC) membranes from RIPE (Huzhou), a Chinese membrane system integrator.

Finn Helmer appointed CEO of LiqTech International

Denmark's LiqTech International Inc, manufacturer of silicon carbide membrane filtration technologies, announced the appointment of Finn Helmer as its new CEO on 27 March 2013.

LiqTech ties up oil & gas agreement with FMC

Denmark's LiqTech International Inc announced on 25 March 2013 that it had entered into an agreement with US oilfield equipment and services company FMC Technologies Inc for the use of LiqTech's silicon-carbide membrane technology for oil & gas applications.

Danes launch biomimetic separation/sensing platform

A DKK 45 million (US$ 8 million) development platform has been launched in Denmark to explore and demonstrate the potential of industrial-scale biomimetic separation and sensor applications.

US ceramic membrane company expands to Singapore

Ceramic filter-maker LiqTech International Inc of Nevada, USA, announced on 17 January 2012 the opening of an expansion office in Singapore.

(from left) PUB assistant chief executive Harry Seah, PUB chief executive Ng Joo Hee, Danish ambassador to Singapore Dorte Bech Vizard, Grundfos managing director Asia Pacific Kim Jensen, and Grundfos head of innovation Gao Xin

PUB and Grundfos deepen water research partnership

Singapore's national water utility PUB and global pumps firm Grundfos, of Denmark, have unveiled a strategic partnership that is developing new capabilities in water quality monitoring, among other initiatives.

California considering CEC monitoring in water reuse

The California State Water Resources Control Board is to consider adding monitoring of constituents of emerging concern (CECs) to its requirements for recycled water at its board meeting on 16 October 2012.

Yokogawa to provide control system for Jubail SWRO plant

Yokogawa Middle East & Africa has received an order from Petroleum, Chemicals & Mining Company Limited (PCMC) to supply the control system for the SWRO-4 desalination plant, which is being built in Jubail, Saudi Arabia, by the Power & Water Utility Company for Jubail & Yanbu (Marafiq).

Modern Water gets £ 9.5 million from share issue

UK forward-osmosis (FO) and monitoring specialist Modern Water plc announced on 12 February 2013 that it had raised, subject to certain conditions, £ 10.0 million (approximately £ 9.5 million net of expenses) by way of a placing of 20,000,000 new ordinary shares with both new and existing institutional shareholders at a price of £0.50 per ordinary share.

Modern Water appoints US monitoring sales VP

UK-based Modern Water plc has appointed a vice president of sales, Americas, for its Monitoring division. This appointment will strengthen the geographical reach of the division and will drive Modern Water's sales activity in North, Central and South America.

The Global Water Awards winners are awarded through voting by industry professionals

Suez and Middle East plants top 2018 Global Water Awards

Suez has scooped the Desalination Company of the Year Award, and Middle East facilities topped the desal plant categories at this year's Global Water Awards from Global Water Intelligence (GWI).

New Grundfos director seeks to double Asia Pacific revenue

Pump manufacturer, Grundfos, has charged newly appointed Asia Pacific regional managing director Okay Barutçu with doubling the company's revenue in the region.

GE appoints WIBAX as Nordic water tech distributor

GE announced on 27 May 2014 that the Swedish company WIBAX Energy AB, part of the WIBAX Group, would distribute GE's water technologies in the Nordic region.

Saudi boost for LiqTech ceramic membranes

The Saudi Arabian Ministery of Water & Electricity has announced that ceramic flat-sheet membranes are the technology of choice for groundwater applications, according to Danish company LiqTech International.

LiqTech specialises in developing technologies to clean up water and emissions from industrial sites including power plants

LiqTech International hails 'breakthrough' with Finnish industrial reuse contract

New York Stock Exchange-listed LiqTech International has hailed an "international breakthrough" after it won an industrial water reuse contract for a power plant in Finland.

Pressure-exchanger court case goes to Hauge

The latest round of the "pressure-exchanger wars" between inventor Leif J Hauge, his company Isobarix Inc and energy-recovery equipment manufacturer Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) has gone in favour of Hauge.

Aquaporin Inside membranes replicate nature's own way of filtering water using aquaporin protein

Aquaporin acquisition secures supply of membrane protein

Aquaporin of Denmark is to acquire Golgi, a company established in 2016 that is able to produce aquaporin protein in large quantities.

Grundfos headquarters in Bjerringbro, Denmark, is the base for a global pumps business

Grundfos gains outpace global pumps market

Pumps manufacturer Grundfos has reported organic sales growth of 0.5 per cent for 2016, helped by a strong second half.

A mixture of fixed charges, variable charges, and environmental charges for water are in use worldwide

IWA highlights levels of water consumption and tariffs globally

Households in Washington DC, US, are the biggest consumers of water compared to 169 other world cities, while households in Jinja, Uganda, use the least amount of water, a new report shows.

Australian utility left seeking wastewater dump site as locals object

Australian utility, Water Corporation, remains without an alternative dumping site for wastewater from its desalination system in Denmark, Western Australia after its original choice of a temporary site was thrown out by the local community.

Memco's ERI PX-180 (left) and its Isobarix replacement (right)

Second Isobarix ER unit installed in Mexico

Isobarix has installed its second commercial XPR energy-recovery unit for Memco Sistemas de Separacion SA de CV, who operate several seawater reverse-osmosis plants at resorts in Cancun and Los Cabos, Mexico.

Aquaporin eyes commercial membrane sales in 2013

Danish membrane treatment startup Aquaporin A/S is preparing for commercial sales of its Aquaporin Inside™ membranes by the end of 2013.

Grundfos buys American UV disinfection specialist

Danish pump manufacturer Grundfos announced on 5 June 2012 that it had acquired Enaqua, a San Diego-based company specializing in ultraviolet disinfection technology and specialized membranes for water purification.

Town looks to pipeline and desalination

The Western Australian Water Corporation plans to build desalination units before next summer to secure the water supply at Denmark after the southern Western Australian town's second driest year ever.

The Isobarix XPR pressure exchanger.

New XPR technology expands ERD market potential

Frequent starting and stopping for PX energy-recovery devices (ERDs) at a pair of power stations in Denmark, led to troubles with the pressure-exchangers, with one eventually being removed entirely from one train. In March this year, the remaining train was successfully retrofitted with an XPR ERD, which to date is working flawlessly. The author looks at the history of ERDs and the introduction of the XPR device which might open lower energy-cost markets to isobaric energy-recovery. This article first appeared in the August/September 2011 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

IDA scholarships for PhD students in US and Singapore

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has awarded its Channabasappa Memorial Scholarship for 2011 to Errol M Glenn of the USA and Sim Siang Tze Victor of Singapore.

More desalination and reuse potential in Western Australia

Western Australia's Water Corporation is considering up to three seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plants along the southern coast of its area, known as Lower Great Southern, as part of a potential portfolio of water resources for the next 30 years.

Siemens signs wind desalination MoU in Australia

Siemens Australia has announced a partnership with Windesal, a South Australia company using technology designed in Denmark, to develop clean technologies and wind-powered desalination plants.

New head announced for Danfoss high-pressure systems

Developing Danfoss' small desalination systems will be one of the tasks facing the company's new senior vice-president of Danfoss High Pressure Systems, Palle Kruse.

Aquaporin-embedded membranes to fight water scarcity

Biomimetics - nature-inspired innovation - is one of the emerging technologies racing to become the first to effectively bring down the energy costs of desalination. Several groups and companies around the world are working on copying nature s method of transporting pure water across a membrane. One of them is Denmark-based Danfoss AquaZ A/S and its subsidiary Danfoss AquaZ Inc in Cincinnati/Ohio, which is striving to incorporate functional aquaporin water channels into revolutionary new and cost-effective desalination membranes. This article first appeared in the August/September 2010 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Membrana filtration curbs corrosion in Disney Shanghai cooling

Membrane manufacturer Polypore has supplied its Membrana ultrafiltration units for Shanghai Disneyland to curb corrosion in the resort's cooling water system.

GE sets up reuse online forum

GE Water and Process Technologies has launched an online platform focussing on water reuse.

Seven potable reuse study schemes win US$ 1 million funding

The WateReuse Research Foundation has approved funding for seven new direct potable reuse (DPR) research projects, valued at more than US$ 1 million.

GHD appoints Western Australia leader

Engineering, architecture, environmental and construction services group, GHD, has appointed Blair Shackleton as market leader - water for Western Australia.

Texas gives go-ahead to potable reuse project

The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality has conditionally approved full-scale operation of Wichita Falls' temporary direct potable reuse project (DPR). The approval is for up to six months.

SEDA to hold May Day membrane cleaning workshop

The Southeast Desalting Association is holding a workshop in Cape Coral, Florida, on 1 May 2014 focused on reverse osmosis (RO) membrane cleaning.

Mott MacDonald absorbs Australasian water specialist

The Mott MacDonald consultancy group has taken in AWT, a specialist water technology and consulting company based in New Zealand and Australia.

Registration open for WateReuse research conference

Registration is open for the 18th Annual Water Reuse & Desalination Research Conference to be held by the WateReuse Research Foundation in Las Vegas on 19-20 May 2014.

Abstracts invited for WateReuse symposium in Dallas

The WateReuse Association (WRA) has issued a call for presentations and posters for its 29th Annual WateReuse Symposium, which will be held on 7-10 September 2014 in Dallas, Texas, USA.

Monterey boreholes reveal good slant-well conditions

California American Water (Cal Am) reported on 20 December 2013 that data from its ongoing investigation into subsurface slant well intakes for its proposed Monterey desalination plant were showing promising results.

The algal bloom hit Barka desalination expansion plants 1 and 2 in the Gulf of Oman

Abunayyan resigns as chair of ACWA Power Barka

Mohammad Abdullah Abunayyan has resigned as chairman and board director of ACWA Power Barka in Oman, citing personal reasons.

Modern Water set for first FO desalination plant in China

Modern Water is set to build a forward-osmosis (FO) desalination plant in Xugong Island, China, as a result of one of three deals signed by the UK company during a trade mission to China led by UK prime minister David Cameron.

Modern Water opens new office in Shanghai

UK company Modern Water announced on 26 November 2013 the formation of Modern Water Technology (Shanghai) Co Ltd and the opening of its new office in Shanghai, China.

LACSD signs up Desalitech for chloride‑removal test

Desalination system developer Desalitech is to support a pilot project with the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (LACSD) to upgrade two Santa Clarita Valley wastewater treatment plants in order to meet state‑mandated chloride limits, the company announced on 2 October 2013.

Papers invited for 3rd salinity forum in June 2014

Papers have been invited for the 3rd International Salinity Forum in Riverside, California, in June 2014.

Contamination security white papers released in USA

New security technologies for detecting and monitoring water supplies could be developed as a result of a contamination warning system (CWS) demonstration pilot project in the USA undertaken by CH2M Hill and the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD).

Carollo selected for Texas DPR health check

Carollo Engineers has been selected by the Texas Water Development Board to carry out detailed public health analysis of the first direct potable water reuse (DPR) facility in the USA.

Suez supports a biological treatment system for water reuse at the Bashneft oil refinery, Russia

Suez and Rosneft to build on 'exploratory agreement'

Suez's new agreement with Russian oil and gas giant Rosneft, signed in May 2018, aims to support improved water treatment across the oil company's vast portfolio.

IWA looks at organic matter in treatment and reuse

The International Water Association (IWA) is holding a specialist conference with the Australian Water Association (AWA) in Perth in October 2013 on natural organic matter (NOM), which will look at its effects on water treatment and reuse, and desalination.

IDA launches reverse-osmosis certification program

The International Desalination Association (IDA) is to launch a reverse‑osmosis training certificate associated with its recently launched IDA Desalination Academy.

Evoqua's acquisition of ProAct Services will add mobile and temporary solutions for industrial customers

Evoqua pays $132 million for ProAct Services

Evoqua has acquired ProAct Services, a provider of on-site treatment services for contaminated industrial wastewater, for $132 million.

Agreement over failed Monterey desalination plan

Agreement was reached on 4 December 2012 on legal and monetary issues resulting from the failed Monterey Regional Desalination Project, which was abandoned earlier this year.

Modern Water ties in with Chinese partner

UK forward-osmosis desalination developer Modern Water plc has signed a framework agreement with Hangzhou Development Center of Water Treatment Technology Company Ltd (Hangzhou Water) in China.

Proposals sought for membrane-integrity test method

The WateReuse Research Foundation has issued a Request for Proposals to create a method for testing the integrity of high-pressure membranes used for nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) in water treatment and desalination.

The IDA International Conference on Water Reuse and Recycling 2018 will feature two days of plenary, panel and technical sessions

IDA unveils lineup of speakers for water reuse conference

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has secured a stellar lineup of keynote speakers for its International Conference on Water Reuse and Recycling 2018, led by Spain's secretary of state for the environment, Maria Garcia Rodriguez.

CH2M Hill reports to USEPA on industrial water use

Water reuse is one of a number of trends for water usage in American industry identified in a report just published by engineering company CH2M Hill for the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA).

AMTA workshop to look at SCADA and PLCs

The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) is to hold a technology transfer workshop on SCADA/Instrumentation & Controls for Membrane Facilities in Fairfax, Virginia, on 17‑18 July 2012.

MBR/RO at heart of PepsiCo reuse plant in Chile

A membrane bioreactor (MBR), reverse osmosis (RO) and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection are all part of a wastewater treatment and reuse plant upgrade being completed by Siemens Industry Automation Division for PepsiCo in Chile.

Canada/Norway study of pretreatment for osmotic power

Pretreatment of fresh water for an osmotic power plant is to be studied by Canada's Hydro-Quebec as part of a three-year agreement with Norway's Statkraft to speed up the development of osmotic power.

Control contract as GWRS expansion breaks ground

KDC Systems has been awarded a contract to install and/or integrate process control systems for the expansion of the membrane-based Groundwater Replenishment System (GWRS) for Orange County Water District, which broke ground on 17 January 2012.

California approves bond issue for Carlsbad desalination

Poseidon Resources has submitted and had approved an application for US$ 780 million in tax-exempt bonds for the Carlsbad seawater desalination project.

Carmine Ciccocioppo, general manager operations for Osmoflo, and Matt Reed, general manager mines and export, for OneSteel at the commissioning.

Osmoflo commissions 4,000 m³/d SWRO desalination plant

A 4,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant has been commissioned in Whyalla, South Australia, for steel manufacturer OneSteel.

Desalination and reuse in Mexico-Israel water agreement

Desalination and wastewater treatment and reuse were part of an agreement signed on 14 November 2011 between the Mexican national water agency, Conagua, and Israel's Ministry of Industry, Trade & Labor.

Olympic Dam desalination plan approved with conditions

BHP Billiton's proposed 200,000-280,000 m³/d desalination plant in southern Australia's Upper Spencer Gulf will be covered by the 100-plus conditions imposed by national and state government approval of the Olympic Dam uranium mining project announced on 10 October 2011.

IDA issues Gulf environmental Blue Paper

Better availability and sharing of environmental data between the Gulf states is among the recommendations contained in a "Blue Paper" released on 18 July 2011 by the International Desalination Association (IDA).

Aquatech awarded SWRO plant in Ras Al Kaimah

Aquatech is to build a 15 MIGD (68,000 m³/d) seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination facility at Ghalilah for the emirate of Ras Al Khaimah, UAE.

The Yuma desalination plant

Yuma desalination plant pilot run concluded successfully

The year-long pilot run of the revamped Yuma desalination plant on the Colorado river in the USA has ended in success, the Bureau of Reclamation announced on 1 April 2011.

IDA announces scholarship program winners

Students from Brazil and Singapore are this year's winners of the Channabasappa Memorial Scholarship awarded by the International Desalination Association (IDA).

Desalination worries for Hyflux in Libya

Singapore-based contractor Hyflux is "closely monitoring" the situation in Libya, where it is due to start work shortly on a 40,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis facility under a contract awarded in November 2010 by the General People's Committee for Utilities (the Ministry of Utilities in Libya).

Ratepayer group challenges Monterey desalination approval

California's Division of Ratepayer Advocates (DRA) has appealed against the approval of the Coastal Water Project on the Monterey peninsula, stating that the state Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) surrendered its oversight responsibilities to the promoters of the project, which includes a seawater desalination plant.

Commission warns Australia about gas-production wastewater

Handling the wastewater resulting from coal-seam gas (CSG) production in Australia is likely to require a precautionary approach that will demand innovation from water managers and planners, and significantly greater coordination with existing project approval processes, the National Water Commission warned in December 2010.

Permit sought for RO discharge to Great Salt Lake

A proposal from the Jordan Valley Water Conservancy District (JCWCD) in Utah, USA, to discharge reject brine from a 7-14 MGD (26,000-53,000 m³/d) reverse-osmosis desalination (RO) plant into the Great Salt Lake is out for public comment from 1 December 2010 as part of the permit process.

Parkson breaks new ground with Saudi MBR plant

A 2,000 m³/d wastewater-reuse plant based on membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has just been commissioned in Rabigh, Saudi Arabia, by Florida-based Parkson.

The facility site at SEA Lab

West Basin district dedicates desalination demo facility

California's West Basin Municipal Water District is nearing completion of its new desalination demonstration facility, following formal dedication of the plant on 12 November 2010.

Swiss venue for IWA conference on nanotech in water

The International Water Association has announced a conference on nanotechnology in the water sector to take place in Switzerland on 15‑18 May 2011.

Dan McCarthy, president and CEO of Black & Veatch

B&V puts forward four water-reuse recommendations

Four key recommendations have been put forward by Dan McCarthy, president and CEO of Black & Veatch's global water business, for overcoming global barriers to reuse of water as part of an integrated water industry portfolio.

IDA publishes program for Gulf desalination and environment seminar

The International Desalination Association has published details of program sessions and topics for its seminar on Desalination and the Gulf: The Relationship between the Environment and Meeting the Region's Water Needs, which will take place in Bahrain on 6-7 December 2010.

USEPA tightens monitoring rule for TC in drinking water

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced on 17 June 2010 that it is proposing to revise the 1989 Total Coliform Rule to incorporate improvements recommended by a federal advisory committee.

CCC to rule on Cambria desalination plant studies

California Coastal Commission (CCC) staff have advised the commission at its meeting this week to agree to a US Army Corps of Engineers proposal to test a beach in the Cambria region, near San Luis Obispo, for use as beach wells for a desalination plant.

Membrane 'summit' will precede AMTA conference

The 2nd Osmosis Membrane Summit will precede this year's annual conference of the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) in San Diego.

MWH lab develops contaminant detector for recycled water

A new method for identifying wastewater in recycled water was announced on 29 January by MWH Laboratories, a division of MWH, the global wet infrastructure consultant.

Dow to supply membranes for new Perth plant

Dow Water & Process Solutions is to supply FilmTec™ reverse osmosis (RO) elements for the Southern Seawater Desalination Plant (SSDP) outside Perth, Australia.

Innovations in IDA Congress technical program

Round-table sessions and touch-screen availability of poster presentations will be used for the first time in the International Desalination Association's World Congress in Dubai on 7-12 November 2009, IDA announced on 19 October 2009.

CaribDA, ERI and Dow back operator training

In co-operation with Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) and Dow Water & Process Solutions, the Caribbean Desalination Association is organising a two-day operator training program at the Westin Dawn Beach Resort in St Maarten on 17-18 September 2009.

BHP Billiton asked to rethink desalination plant site

The Parliament of South Australia's Environment, Resources & Development Committee has recommended mining company BHP Billiton reconsider its proposed site for a 250,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant at Port Bonython in the upper Spencer Gulf.

The Gold Coast  seawater desalination plant in Queensland, Australia

Some Gold Coast desalination issues still unresolved

A large number of non-compliance issues relating to the Gold Coast seawater desalination plant in Queensland, Australia, have been listed in a letter sent on 2 July 2009 by Keith Davies, CEO of WaterSecure, who are taking over the project, to the Queensland Department of Infrastructure & Planning.

Singapore's NEWater reused wastewater passes latest test

The reclaimed wastewater from Singapore's NEWater plants passed its 12th bi-annual drinking-water test by an independent international audit panel with flying colours during the country's Water Week.

The Perth desalination plant

Perth desalination plant's impact "still uncertain"

The West Australia government's Environmental Protection Authority has concluded that the significance of impacts to the marine environment from the discharge of brine by the Perth Metropolitan Desalination Plant is still uncertain and that the marine environment of Cockburn Sound continues to be under stress.

IDA Fellowship winners from Iran and Japan

This year's winners of the International Desalination Association's Fellowship awards come from Iran and Japan, IDA announced on 27 April 2009.

Santa Cruz pilot desalination results in 3-4 months

The Water Department of the City of Santa Cruz (SCWD), California, USA, confirmed on 23 March 2009 that its year-long seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) pilot plant test will be ended in mid-April with a report due in June or July 2009.

Final go-ahead for Adelaide desalination plant

Adelaide's 150,000 m³/d desalination plant was given the final go-ahead on 26 February 2009 by the South Australia state government.

SWCC hires privatization advisors

Seven letters of intent have been signed by the governor of Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC), Fehied F Al Shareef, to hire international and local advisors for the state desalination company's Privatization & Restructuring Implementation Program.

Phase 1 of Palm desalination plants finished in Dubai

The first phase of a $ 120 million contract to build two identical seawater desalination plants on the Palm Jumeirah island development in Dubai, UAE, has been completed by ACWA Emirates LLC.

The reverse osmosis pilot plant at Ras Abu Jarjur

Experience helps boost production and stability at Ras Abu Jarjur

Improving production with reduced expenditure could be the main targets of any desalination facility around the world. Such feats are being methodically achieved at Ras Abu Jarjur reverse-osmosis (RO) plant in Bahrain as a result of a series of improvements. Of the many available desalination techniques, RO was seen from the earliest days as a reliable and cost-effective technology and was therefore employed at Ras Abu Jarjur. From the huge quantity of groundwater (40 million m /year) extracted from borewells, potable water totalling 29 million m /year is produced. The other 30% of water is being rejected to the Arabian Gulf, which has a similar salinity level and higher temperatures. Trials are being carried out to extend the brine staging by one more stage from two to three for the ninth and tenth trains and from three to four for the first to eighth trains, as the reject water from the trains is already filtered, acidified, dosed with antiscalant and most importantly possessing the required pressure energy (minimum of 38 bar) to be used. This strategy would increase the overall water recovery by another 4.5%. By closely following the guidelines of the scaling indices, solubility product limits of potential scale-forming constituents in the water and various performance-monitoring tools, it would be possible to recover another 2% of the water. The full article first appeared in the November/December 2008 issue of D&WR magazine. The paper on which it was based was awarded the prize for Best Oral Presentation at the International Desalination Association World Congress in Maspalomas in 2007.

IDA is seeking original work for its 2018 International Conference on Water Reuse and Recycling

IDA issues final call for papers for upcoming reuse conference

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has issued a final call for abstracts for its 2018 International Conference on Water Reuse and Recycling, 24 to 27 June, in Valencia, Spain.

Interview: Kati Bell, Stantec global reuse leader

Canadian engineering giant Stantec acquired water business MWH Global for $795 million, back in 2016. Now that the dust has settled on the deal, how well is the integration of the two organisations proceeding, and as the global water reuse practice hits its stride, how could its work help to shape the water markets of the future?

The Gulf of Oman suffers blooms of noctiluca scintillans, or sea sparkle, during the wintertime

Red tide threatens Barka desalination plant, Oman

Oman's Public Authority for Electricity and Water (PAEW) has urged residents near to Barka desalination plant to conserve water amid an algal bloom that is threatening production.


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