Middle East, Australia, Environment, UAE, Tender, Tanks


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Major water-sector contractor formed in Dubai

The Leighton Group, which has been involved in the construction of three of Australia's large seawater desalination plants, has brought two group companies together in Dubai, UAE, to create a strong water and environment contracting company.

Gulf red-tide early-warning system funding 'soon'

A new early-warning system in the Gulf for harmful algal blooms (HABs), also known as red tides, using satellite imagery, remote sensing, and modeling could be one result of a conference on HABs held on 16‑17 April 2014 by the Middle East Desalination Research Center (MEDRC).

Bidding for largest solar desalination plant opens soon

Tenders for the world's largest solar-powered seawater desalination plant in Ras Al Khaimah, UAE, will be invited next month by utility company Utico Middle East.

Dr Corrado Sommariva

Sommariva secures International Desalination Association presidency

Dr Corrado Sommariva, managing director of ILF Consultants Middle East, was elected president of the International Desalination Association on 5 September 2011, the first day of the IDA's World Congress in Perth, Australia.

The project site is U-shaped, and is surrounded by lots filled by industrial operators and their associated infrastructure

Jebel Ali project is a new direction for DEWA and Besix

The $237 million contract awarded by Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) for a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant represents a big step for the client, and for Besix Concessions & Assets, which won the work in partnership with Acciona Agua.

Doosan Babcock wins maintenance and support deal at giant Taweelah plant

Energy engineering company, Doosan Babcock, has won a contract with Taweelah Asia Power Company (Tapco) to provide essential maintenance and technical support services for Tapco's desalination plant in Abu Dhabi.

Agency approves W Australian desalination plant

Western Australia's Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on 13 February 2012 announced conditional approval for Grange Resources Ltd's proposal to construct and operate the Cape Riche Desalination Plant.

Olympic Dam desalination plan approved with conditions

BHP Billiton's proposed 200,000-280,000 m³/d desalination plant in southern Australia's Upper Spencer Gulf will be covered by the 100-plus conditions imposed by national and state government approval of the Olympic Dam uranium mining project announced on 10 October 2011.

Leading desalters to address AWA university meeting

In conjunction with the University of Adelaide, the Australian Water Association is presenting two lectures at the university in the evening of 27 July 2011 from leading desalination figures on Desalination: Future Directions for Australia's World Class Facilities.

Olympic Dam supplementary EIS satisfies opposition leader

South Australia's opposition leader, Isobel Redmond, was quoted on 20 June 2011 in the Australian media as being "satisfied" that the Olympic Dam desalination plant will not cause any damage to the local environment, including the area's giant cuttlefish population.

City of Sydney seeks water recycling masterplan

The City of Sydney is seeking tenders to develop a decentralised water masterplan to produce more 10 % of the Australian city's water supply from local sources.

S Australia government questions Billiton desalination EIS

Desalination discharge led the list of concerns raised by the South Australia government in its submission on 24 April 2009 to BHP Billiton's environmental impact statement (EIS) related to its proposed expansion of its Olympic Dam mining operations.

BHP Billiton asked to rethink desalination plant site

The Parliament of South Australia's Environment, Resources & Development Committee has recommended mining company BHP Billiton reconsider its proposed site for a 250,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant at Port Bonython in the upper Spencer Gulf.

Second Perth desalination plant gets government approval

The Australian government has given conditional approval to the Southern Seawater Desalination Project at Binningup, Western Australia, but has imposed "strict" conditions to minimise impacts on nationally threatened and migratory species.

The Perth desalination plant

Perth desalination plant's impact "still uncertain"

The West Australia government's Environmental Protection Authority has concluded that the significance of impacts to the marine environment from the discharge of brine by the Perth Metropolitan Desalination Plant is still uncertain and that the marine environment of Cockburn Sound continues to be under stress.

Olympic Dam desalination threatens cuttlefish, say researchers

Brine discharge from the proposed Olympic Dam seawater desalination plant in South Australia poses a potential threat to the unique spawning aggregation of the giant Australian cuttlefish, in the upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia, according to two researchers.

Environment approval for W. Australia desalination project

Western Australia's water minister, Dr Graham Jacobs, said on 22 April 2009 that he was confident that conditions under which the Water Corporation had been given state government environmental approval to build and operate the Southern Seawater Desalination Project will ensure the plant will meet all environmental objectives.

Australian govt conditionally approves Melbourne desalination plant

The seawater desalination plant which will supply up to 150 million m³/year of drinking water for Melbourne was given conditional approval by Australia's environment minister Peter Garrett on 20 March 2009.

Final go-ahead for Adelaide desalination plant

Adelaide's 150,000 m³/d desalination plant was given the final go-ahead on 26 February 2009 by the South Australia state government.

Environment review released for West Australia's 2nd desalination plant

Western Australia's Water Corporation released an environmental review of its proposed Southern Seawater Desalination Plant at Binningup on 3 February 2009 following approval by the Department of Environment, Water, Heritage & the Arts.

Minister agrees Melbourne inquiry recommendations

The Aus$ 3.1 billion (US$2.2 billion) seawater desalination plant for Melbourne, Australia, passed a significant hurdle on 9 January 2009 when Victoria state's planning minister, Justin Madden, accepted all but one of the 42 recommendations of an independent inquiry into the project.

Reynolds to lead CH2M Hill in MENA and India

Chartered engineer Neil Reynolds has been appointed regional managing director for CH2M Hill's operations in Middle East/North Africa (MENA) and India.

Oman desalination workshop to look at red tides

Experts from the Middle East and Australia are organizing a joint expert workshop on the dangers for desalination plants of harmful algal blooms (HABs), commonly called "red tides" in Oman on 8- 9 February 2012.

Environnement in global revamp

Suez Environnement has merged its Degrémont subsidiary into its international operating division under a major restructuring of the group's operations outside of Europe that will create five new regional businesses.

Aerial view of the Sydney construction site.

Sydney desalter construction reaches halfway point

Construction of Sydney's 250,000 m³/d Kurnell seawater desalination plant is just over 50% complete, D&WR has been told by Sydney Water. The intake and outlet tunnels were completed in December 2008.

South Australian town to get new desalination plant

South Australia's water minister, Ian Hunter, announced on 1 May 2013 that a brackish-water desalination plant to deliver improved water quality to the town of Hawker, in the Flinders Ranges 100km north of Port Augusta, had been approved for construction.

The schedule of tenders on Tuas Nexus was unveiled at Singapore International Water Week 2018 at Marina Bay Sands, Singapore

Singapore to tender S$5 billion of water and waste works

Singapore's PUB and National Environment Agency (NEA) are to tender more than S$5 billion ($3.7 billion) of works covering civil, mechanical and electrical engineering for Tuas Nexus, an integrated wastewater and waste treatment facility.

West Basin demonstrating desalination intake and outfall technologies

One of the first seawater desalination demonstration facilities to employ ocean-protection technology at the source of intake and discharge has begun construction in Southern California, USA.

Consultants sought for Ajman SWRO desalination

The Federal Electricity and Water Authority (FEWA) in the UAE has issued a tender (19W/2013) for consultancy services for a seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant at Al Zawra, Ajman.

RFP to follow UAE renewable-energy desalination launch

A pilot program to test and develop advanced energy-efficient seawater desalination technologies that could be powered by renewable energy sources was launched on 17 January 2013 by Masdar, the UAE renewable energy company.

Pentair X-Flow wins UF order for Ghallilah desalination

Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes and skids are to be supplied to the 15 MIGD (68,000 m³/d) seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant at Ghallilah, Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates, by Pentair X-Flow.

ERI pressure-exchangers chosen for Fujairah expansion

Acciona Agua has chosen Energy-Recovery Inc to provide its PX® Q line of energy-recovery devices (ERDs) for the Fujairah 1 Expansion desalination project in the UAE.

The Orange County Groundwater Replacement System

Go-ahead for 113,500 m³/d Orange County GWRS expansion

Orange County's world-renowned membrane-based Groundwater Replenishment System (GWRS) in California is to be expanded by another 30 MGD (113,500 m³/d) following approval by the board of the Orange County Water District (OCWD) on 30 March 2011.

Water rights row could delay Western Australia desalination plant

A row over water rights in the north-west of Australia could lead to delay in the construction of the West Pilbara Seawater Desalination Plant, despite assurances in February 2011 from Western Australia's (WA) state government that the project was on track.

More desalination and reuse potential in Western Australia

Western Australia's Water Corporation is considering up to three seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plants along the southern coast of its area, known as Lower Great Southern, as part of a potential portfolio of water resources for the next 30 years.

GHD leads Sydney water recycling consortium

A consortium led by engineering consultants GHD has been selected by the City of Sydney, Australia, to develop a decentralised water masterplan for the Local Government Area (LGA), which would include Australia's first city-wide recycled water network and significantly reduce demands on drinking water supplies.

Commission warns Australia about gas-production wastewater

Handling the wastewater resulting from coal-seam gas (CSG) production in Australia is likely to require a precautionary approach that will demand innovation from water managers and planners, and significantly greater coordination with existing project approval processes, the National Water Commission warned in December 2010.

Garden roof for Melbourne desalination plant

The premier of Victoria state in Australia, John Brumby, announced on 16 September 2010 that the new Melbourne desalination plant will feature a living 'green roof' larger than the Melbourne Cricket Ground and the biggest in the southern hemisphere

UNEP report informs financiers about power-water relationship

The opportunities available to financial institutions to encourage the adoption of best practices, which may include the introduction of eco-friendly technologies, such as membrane technology to recycle wastewater, are stressed in a report just published by the UN Environment Programme's Finance Initiative (ENEP FI).

Australian recycling centre seeks proposaIs for validation framework

The newly launched Australian Water Recycling Centre of Excellence has issued its first call for proposals.

The new desalination plant at Playas de Rosarito will be on the coast adjacent to the existing power station

Consolidated Water lines up Mexican mega-project

The Playas de Rosarito seawater RO desalination mega-plant project has been six years in the making. It began as a twinkle in Consolidated Water's eye even before Mexico had introduced its new public-private partnerships law, but the act's introduction in 2012 gave the project a clear structure for moving ahead.

Australia funds water study for coal-seam gas industry

The Australian government is spending up to Aus$ 3.88 million (US$ 3.61 million) on a water feasibility study for the Queensland coal-seam gas industry.

IDA announces four new desalination events

The International Desalination Association (IDA) announced four new events on 22 February 2010, including its next World Congress in Perth, Australia, which will be held during 4-9 September 2011.

Osmoflo sending desalination units to Gorgon gas field

Australian supplier Osmoflo has begun despatching desalination equipment to the Gorgon gas field project located 130-200km off the north-west coast of Western Australia.

Work starts on Queensland desalination plant

Preliminary work is beginning at the start of 2010 for a desalination plant to serve the Agnes Water and Seventeen Seventy communities in Queensland, Australia.

S Australia Water identifies potential desalination sites

South Australia Water has identified three potential sites for construction of a desalination plant to supply drinking water supply to the Eyre peninsula.

Construction starts on Melbourne desalination plant

Construction started on 6 October 2009 on the Melbourne Desalination Project in Australia, which will provide up to 150 million m³ of water each year to the city from the end of 2011.

Dry Australian state mulls starting up desalination plant

A A$ 4 billion (US$ 2.93 billion) desalination plant in Australia's Victoria state could make its debut as parts of the state are suffering their driest period on record.

Spanish prominent in Al Ghubrah desalination bidders

Spanish companies are involved with five of seven bidders that have been invited by the Oman Tender Board to submit proposals for the Al Ghubrah Independent Water Project (IWP).

US$ 2.9 billion Melbourne desalination contract goes to Degremont group

The Suez/Degremont-led consortium Aquasure has been awarded the contract to build the 150 million m³/year seawater desalination plant for Melbourne, Australia.

Sydney Desalination Plant leased for US$ 2.3 billion

The New South Wales state government in Australia accepted on 10 May 2012 a binding offer for refinancing the Sydney Desalination Plant (SDP) from a consortium of Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan (OTPP) and Hastings Funds Management.

Sydney desalination lease shortlist now only three - report

The shortlist for the lease to run the 250,000 m³/d capacity Sydney desalination plant is reported to have been narrowed to three consortia.

Reuse highlighted in WSAA urban water roadmap

The volume of water being recycled by the largest water utilities in Australia has increased by 117% since 1999/2000. In addition, it is estimated that, by 2013, 460 million m³/year will be supplied to Australia's growing cities by desalination plants.

Veolia given Sydney wastewater reuse licence

New South Wales premier Nathan Rees announced on 7 May 2009 that Veolia Water has been issued the first licence under the Water Industry Competition Act 2006 to construct, maintain and operate a new recycled water plant at Fairfield, Sydney Australia, as part of the Rosehill Recycling Scheme.

Australia failing to meet wastewater reuse targets

Australia is falling well behind in the targets it has set itself for wastewater reuse, according to a study carried out for the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population & Communities by Marsden Jacob Associates (MJA).

Australian reuse project wins US$ 10 million grant

The council for the Light region of South Australia has won a A$ 10.7 million (US$ 10 million) federal grant to complete funding for a "foundation" programme, the Gawler Water Reuse Project.

A carpet shark

Shark makes home in Perth II desalination plant

The Water Corporation in Western Australia has confirmed that a wobbegong (carpet) shark has been found in the seawater intake station at the Southern Seawater Desalination Plant during scheduled maintenance work.

West Australia mine desalination plant review published

A public environmental review (PER) was issued on 26 September 2011 for a 35,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant at Cape Riche in Western Australia, 90 km northeast of Albany.

Adelaide size may be doubled as Acciona emerges in front

The consortium led by Spain's Acciona Agua was announced as preferred bidder for the Adelaide desalination project on 19 February 2009, as Australian media reported that the capacity of the new plant was to be doubled from 150,000 m³/d to 300,000 m³/d.

Alliance bids sought for W Australia water-reuse plant

Western Australia's Water Corporation has invited proposals from suitably experienced organizations to form an alliance with the water supplier to design and build the Beenyup Advanced Water Recycling Plant at Craigie.

Osmoflo wins industrial water-reuse project

Australia's Osmoflo has won a tender to design, build, operate and maintain a Aus$ 5 million (US$ 5.3 million) water-recycling plant and reticulation system at the Nyrstar Port Pirie smelter north of Adelaide in South Australia.

Fourth IDE Progreen unit to go to Australian resort

IDE Technologies is to install its Progreen™ desalination system - the fourth installation worldwide - at a five‑star island resort on Australia's Great Barrier Reef to replace an existing thermal desalination plant.

Australian government to fund stormwater reuse

The government of Australia has invited funding applications by 7 December 2011 for support of stormwater harvesting and reuse projects.

The intake at the Adelaide desalination plant during construction.

Intakes opened for Adelaide desalination project

Commissioning is now closer for the Aus$ 1.824 billion (US$ 1.905 billion) Adelaide Desalination Project, after the 1.4 km intake began taking in seawater last week.

Audit says Adelaide desal expansion failed cost/benefit test

The awarding of two federal grants totalling Aus$ 328 million (US$ 333 million) for the Adelaide Desalination Plant (ADP) in South Australia has been heavily criticised in report published on 7 May 2013 by the Australian National Audit Office (ANAO).

Olympic Dam desalination EIS released by BHP Billiton

The desalination plant in South Australia to feed BHP Billiton's Olympic Dam mining development moved a step closer when the company released the final supplementary environmental impact statement (SEIS) for the project on 13 May 2011.

Oman's Sur desalination plant seeks large expansion

The owner and operator of Oman's Sur seawater desalination plant, Sharqiyah Desalination Company (SDC), has filed a bid with the Oman Tender Board for approval of a proposed expansion of 10.6 MIGD (48,000 m³/d) to the plant.

Xylem appoints new emerging markets head

Water technology firm, Xylem, has appointed Steven Leung as senior vice president and president, emerging markets, In this newly created position, Leung will lead the company's commercial operations in China, greater Asia, India, the Middle East, Africa and Latin America, as well as Australia and New Zealand.

The formation of a new, market-leading, industrial-focused water business is changing the dynamics of the global industrial water market

The Long Read: The changing EPC landscape

There is a big shift going on in the water sector, and it's exemplified by the Suez-GE deal. While the focus of services offered by engineers has always ebbed and flowed along a spectrum of consultancy, design work, systems integration, and delivery, nowadays customers' decision-making processes are pushing at the boundaries of these traditional project service offerings.

Scientists to probe outlet brine risks to sealife

Scientists have been commissioned to investigate whether brine waste from two proposed 150 Ml/d seawater reverse osmosis desalination plants could damage or alter the marine environment along the KwaZulu-Natal coastline in South Africa.

OPWP seeks consultant for two desalination projects

The Oman Power and Water Procurement Company SAOC (OPWP) has invited specialized companies to submit offers for supervisory consultancy services for the Ghubrah IWP and Barka I water projects, both of which involve desalination plants.

The most-read stories on desalination and water reuse in 2018 around the globe

Most-read: our top 20 stories of 2018

The year 2018 was dominated by big project tenders in the Middle East, especially Saudi Arabia. Water. desalination + reuse rounds up the top stories from our industry.

Ex-Adelaide desalination chief joins Singapore's Hyflux

Milind Kumar, formerly project director of the Adelaide Desalination Plant for South Australia Water, has been appointed to a senior position in Singapore group Hyflux Ltd.

NCED/MEDRC workshop will look at red tide and desalination

A joint workshop on the dangers of the red-tide marine phenomenon for desalination plants is to be held in Oman by the National Centre for Excellence in Desalination Australia and the Middle East Desalination Research Center.

Seven groups bid for giant Oman scheme

Seven multinational company-led consortiums have pitched for the Oman's largest independent water desalination project. The 330 Ml/d scheme will include two sites at Barka and Sohar on Oman's Batinah coast.



Dr Michael Lamminen

Parkson appoints international business director

Water recycling and treatment specialist Parkson Corporation has named Dr Michael Lamminen to a new post of international business director to market the company's lineup of cost-efficient and environmentally-sustainable technology around the world.

Left to right: City of Rockingham Mayor Barry Sammels with Parliamentary Secretary for Regional Development Gary Gray and Murdoch University Professor John Yovich at Murdoch's pilot desalination plant in Rockingham.

Australia's desalination centre sited at Murdoch University

Australia's new National Centre of Excellence in Desalination is to be hosted by Murdoch University's Rockingham campus as a result of a Aus$ 20 million (US$ 15.5 million) award from the federal government.

Joint venture to build US$ 196 million desalination plant at Ras Al Khaimah

A joint venture between Spain's Grupo Cobra and Emirates-based Utico Middle East is building a Dh 719 million (US$ 195.7 million) desalination plant in northernmost emirate, Ras Al Khaimah.

RO plant commissioned for US military base

A reverse-osmosis (RO) drinking-water plant supplied by ThermoEnergy Corporation to a major US military base at an undisclosed location in the Africa/Middle East region was commissioned in early December 2011.

Sasakura eyes large Middle East desalination units

Sasakura Engineering Co is teaming up with fellow Japanese company Itochu Corp to enter the business of large-scale desalination plants in the Middle East.

Total world desalination capacity close to 60 million m³/d

The total capacity of desalination plants around the globe is 59.9 million m³/d, according to the 22nd GWI/IDA Worldwide Desalting Plant Inventory. Details were released at a briefing held by the International Desalination Association at its World Congress in Dubai on 8 November 2009.

Construction completed on Australia's largest recycled water project

Wastewater reuse is a hot topic in Australia, with the "toilet-to-tap" label being trotted out on many occasions. In the state of Queensland, it has a lot more relevance because, as well as a brand new desalination plant at Gold Coast, the state now has a giant new municipal water reuse scheme. This article discusses completion of the Western Corridor Recycled Water Project, the southern hemisphere's largest recycled water project, and provides a technical overview of the international award-winning Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant. Producing up to 232,000 m /d of water, the WCRWP is the largest in the southern hemisphere and the third largest in the world. It provides purified recycled water, a climate- and rainfall-resilient source of pure water, to three power stations located in South East Queensland. In the future, the project will supply water to industry and potentially agricultural users, and, should the region's drinking water supplies fall below 40%, the Wivenhoe Dam. The project includes a network of more than 200 km of large-diameter underground pipes, three advanced water treatment plants, nine storage tanks and 12 pumping stations. It also provides significant environmental benefits by removing up to 50% of nutrients that would previously have been released to waterways feeding environmentally sensitive Moreton Bay. This article appeared in the May/June issue of D&WR magazine.

Innovations in IDA Congress technical program

Round-table sessions and touch-screen availability of poster presentations will be used for the first time in the International Desalination Association's World Congress in Dubai on 7-12 November 2009, IDA announced on 19 October 2009.

ACWA Emirates' membrane bio-reactor plant at Shaybah Oilfield, Saudi Arabia, recycles water for use at the site's residential complex

ACWA Emirates delivers MBR reuse plant for Saudi Aramco

ACWA Emirates has completed a water reuse plant at Shaybah Oilfield, Saudi Arabia, for crude and natural gas exporter Saudi Aramco.

IDA to support UAE water summit as knowledge partner

The International Desalination Association has announced that it will again be supporting the International Water Summit (IWS) 2014 in Abu Dhabi, UAE, as a knowledge partner.

Parkson breaks new ground with Saudi MBR plant

A 2,000 m³/d wastewater-reuse plant based on membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has just been commissioned in Rabigh, Saudi Arabia, by Florida-based Parkson.

The facility site at SEA Lab

West Basin district dedicates desalination demo facility

California's West Basin Municipal Water District is nearing completion of its new desalination demonstration facility, following formal dedication of the plant on 12 November 2010.

Singapore company wins UF reuse plant in UAE

Boustead Singapore's subsidiary Salcon has won an AED 55 million (US$ 5.6 million) contract to design, engineer and construct a new ultrafiltration wastewater reuse plant.

Schlumberger partners EAD in Abu Dhabi aquifer-recharge symposium

Schlumberger Water Services today announced that it is partnering the Environment Agency of Abu Dhabi to organize the 7th International Symposium on Managed Aquifer Recharge (ISMAR7), which will be held in Abu Dhabi, UAE, on 9-13 October 2010.

Hyflux forecasts end to Middle East desalination doldrums

Following its recent landing of its first major Middle Eastern municipal water contract in five years,  Singapore water treatment firm Hyflux said it anticipated demand in the region to accelerate.

Ras Al Khaimah seawater desalination has algae shield

Northernmost of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Ras Al Khaimah, has opened a 68 Ml/d seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) project in Ghallilah on the emirate's west coast that is equipped to "overcome the red tide phenomena" - the seasonal proliferation of algae that blights the emirates' coastline.

Australia and NZ ferry RO units to Tuvalu

Australia and New Zealand are leading an urgent response to the drought currently afflicting the South Pacific islands of Tuvalu and Tokelau by transporting reverse-osmosis (RO) units to provide a water supply.

Japan funds Cape Verde desalination scheme

Japan's International Cooperation Agency (JICA) is to provide US$ 150 million towards the funding of a US$ 200 million desalination plant for the Cape Verde republic off the coast of West Africa.

PWT to be represented by Omya in EMEA region

Professional Water Technologies announced on 6 September 2011 that it had signed a sales representative agreement with Omya International AG, a leading global producer of industrial minerals, and a worldwide distributor of chemical products.

Desalination plant for Ras Al Kaimah "within two years"

A 68,000 m³/d desalination plant is to be built in Ras Al Kaimah, UAE, within two years, according to a report in a local newspaper.

Groundbreaking for Fujairah 1 IWPP in UAE

The US$ 200 million expansion project for the Furjairah 1 Independent Water & Power Plant (IWPP) in the UAE broke ground on 30 June 2013.

FEDCO moves to new Dubai sales and service center

Fluid Equipment Development Company (FEDCO) has relocated its Dubai sales and service office to a new facility during November.

Acciona Agua makes two new MENA appointments

Spanish desalination company Acciona Agua has appointed José Díaz-Caneja as development manager, Middle East and North Africa.

MEDRC announces new director and deputy

Netherlands ambassador Ronald Mollinger was officially announced as the new director of the Middle East Desalination Research Center (MEDRC) in Oman on 21 January.

Fernandez to boost ACWA's PPP push in MENA

Leading Spanish economist Luis Fernandez has joined environmental solutions provider ACWA Emirates as chief officer concessions for the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region to provide in-depth support for the company's drive into the public-private partnership (PPP) sector.


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