Microfiltration, Desalination, Alabama, Arizona
IX system improves Alabama MF plant's performance
The City of Oneonta in Alabama, USA, commissioned a 3 MGD (10,500 m³/d) MIEX® ion-exchange system in August 2012 to provide dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal prior to coagulation and microfiltration of Oneonta Utilities' Little Warrior river water source.
Jack August to give AWWA/AMTA keynote speech
Dr Jack L August Jr, historian and executive director of the Barry Goldwater Center for the Southwest and visiting scholar in legal history at Snell & Wilmer LLP will be keynote speaker at the AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition, which opens in Pheonix, Arizona, next week.
AMTA lists tech transfer and AWWA events
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has fixed dates for technology-transfer workshops this year including a joint event with the South West Membrane Operators Association (SWMOA),
Arizona wants DPR/seawater desalination plan to start now
An immediate start on work to prepare for direct potable water reuse and seawater desalination is proposed by the Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) in a report recently published by the US state's government.
Clarifier brings quality increase to UF treatment plant
Alabama is not a US state that immediately springs to mind in connection with membrane water treatment, which is why a poster paper at the recent AWWA/AMTA conference in Arizona caught the eye of D&WR. Opened in January 2011, the High Point Water Treatment Plant has used a solids contact clarifier and ultrafiltration to improve its overall water quality by reducing turbidity, removing pathogens, and meeting secondary standards.This article first appeared in the May/June 2012 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Yuma salinity/desalination conference - abstract deadline nears
Abstracts for the Salinity & Desalination in the Southwest conference in Yuma, Arizona, USA, on 26-27 April 2011 must be in by the end of February.
Yuma desalination plant restarted for pilot run
Representatives from the US Department of the Interior and three municipal water agencies gathered on 28 April 2010 to launch a one-year pilot run of the Bureau of Reclamation's Yuma Desalting Plant.
July abstract deadline for joint AWWA/AMTA conference
A deadline of 22 July 2011 has been set for abstracts for the joint Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition being held in Arizona, USA, next year by the American Water Works Association and the Membrane Technology Association.
Arizona centre opens to address water scarcity
The University of Arizona's Water and Energy Sustainable Technology (WEST) Centre has opened with a brief to "help enable researchers, public officials, and industry leaders to work together in developing new technologies and more energy sustainable solutions to address water scarcity," according to founding member and sponsor, Dow Water and Process Solutions.
FO pilot plant could follow HTI Dubai link-up
Forward-osmosis (FO) system manufacturer Hydration Technology Innovations LLC (HTI) has signed an international distribution, services and cooperation agreement for FO technology with Future Technologies LLC of Dubai. Future Technologies will distribute HTI's FO OsMem membrane technology for industrial applications.
Puretec acquires Layne Christensen's DI assets
California-based Puretec Industrial Water announced at the end of March 2013 that it had acquired the assets of Layne Christensen's Arizona-based deionization water purification and water system maintenance services as from 1 April 2013.
Arizona RO plant opens solar-energy system
A 459 kW photovoltaic (PV) solar power system has been completed at the Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Facility for the Town of Gila Bend, Arizona, by Solon Corporation, the company announced on 13 February 2013.
Large RO membranes at heart of Scottsdale expansion
The 7.1 MGD (26,900 m³/d) expansion of the City of Scottsdale's Water Campus Advanced Water Treatment (AWT) plant in Arizona, USA, is now fully operational creating a total of 20 MGD (75,700 m³/d) of reused wastewater.
Arizona RO plant gets solar energy boost
The Arizona town of Gila Bend is to build a 460 kW photovoltaic solar‑energy system to power its 1 MGD (3,785 m³/d) reverse‑osmosis (RO) water treatment system.
Tri-Tech planning forward-osmosis pilot plants
Chinese water and wastewater treatment company Tri-Tech Holdings announced on 13 May 2011 that its current plans include constructing and operating one or more forward-osmosis (FO) pilot units using technology licensed from Arizona-based Hydration Technology Innovations (HTI).
Arizona panel makes water-reuse recommendations
More than 60 recommendations including many on wastewater reuse have been forwarded to the governor of the US state of Arizona by a "Blue Ribbon" panel formed by the governor, Jan Brewer, in 2009.
Siemens to supply 88,000m³/d UF pretreatment for Scottsdale
Siemens Water Technologies announced on 14 December 2010 a US$ 7 million contract to supply 11 Memcor CP membrane filtration systems for the City of Scottsdale Water Campus Advanced Water Treatment (AWT) Facility expansion in Arizona, USA.
Reverse osmosis to drive US membrane demand to $6.2 billion in 2018
Water and wastewater industry demand for membranes will drive a 7.9%-a-year increase in US demand to reach US$ 6.2 billion by 2018 with reverse osmosis membranes surging 8.6% a year according to report by market research firm, The Freedonia Group.
The Long Read: Do we have the technology for potable water reuse?
Water reuse for drinking purposes is racing up the agenda in the US and elsewhere. Work to draw up new rules for potable reuse is advancing in states including California and Arizona, as well as in Canada and the European Union. Technologies are being piloted, and plants permitted.
AMTA receives US$ 150,000 from ADC dissolution
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) revealed on 28 February 2012 how it was going to use the US$ 151,000 donated to it by the Affordable Desalination Consortium (ADC) on its dissolution.
Nine water purification projects bag US$ 1.49 million in funding
The US Bureau of Reclamation has selected nine projects to receive US$ 1.49 million under its Desalination and Water Purification Research programme.
Desalitech building demo plant with Layne Christensen
The originator of the Closed Circuit Desalination (CCD) technology, Desalitech Ltd, announced on 30 June 2011 that it will work with mineral and water drilling and treatment company Layne Christensen to design and build an innovative desalination system.
Yuma desalination plant pilot run concluded successfully
The year-long pilot run of the revamped Yuma desalination plant on the Colorado river in the USA has ended in success, the Bureau of Reclamation announced on 1 April 2011.
Brackish desalination studied for Oklahoma aquifer
The Central Oklahoma Water Resources Authority (COWRA) in the USA is currently working with local company Guernsey Engineering and California's Separation Processes Inc to do a feasibility study and pilot project to use brackish water from the Garber Wellington aquifer which underlies 3,000 sq miles (7,700 km²) of central Oklahoma.
Renewables advocate takes chair in desalination at Murdoch University
Murdoch University's School of Engineering and IT has appointed Professor Wendell Ela as the inaugural chair of desalination and water treatment. He is an advocate of the use of renewable energy for desalination and has developed small solar desalination systems for remote Navajo communities in USA.
AWWA launches Desalination Community web page
The American Water Works Association (AWWA) announced on 27 February 2012 that it had launched a Desalination Community, a page on its website for networking and exchanging ideas.
Osmoflo to provide desalination for Australian steelmaker
Australian steel producer OneSteel has contracted Osmoflo to finance, design, build and operate for 10 years a 4,000 m³/d desalination facility at its Whyalla plant on the river Murray in South Australia.
Membrane market will be US$ 2.8 billion by 2020, says report
The total market for membrane-based water treatment will grow from US$ 1.5 billion in 2009 to US$ 2.8 billion in 2020, according to a new report from Lux Research.
Papers invited for 2013 AWWA/AMTA event
With the 2012 AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference under way this week in Phoenix, Arizona, a call for papers has been issued for next year's event in Texas.
Biwater finishes first half of Changi performance tests
The first half of the Sembcorp Changi NEWater Plant (SCNP) in Singapore completed performance tests on 14 July, contractor Biwater AEWT told D&WR. No date has been set for plant commissioning, says Biwater.
Pall wins 100,000m³/d BWRO system in Manila
A 100,000 m³/d brackish-water desalination system is to be built in Manila, Philippines, by Pall Corporation.
Direct potable reuse to be debated at WRA symposium
The WateReuse Association has announced the program for its annual symposium, including a closing panel discussion entitled Direct Potable Reuse: Not a Pipe Dream Anymore?
Workshop on membrane water technologies set for March
A workshop on alternative water resources, such as brackish-water desalination and wastewater reuse is being organised in Thessaloniki, Greece on 5 March 2009 by the Center for Research and Technology Hellas and the Berlin Centre of Competence for Water.
AMTA unveils annual gongs for membrane experts
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has conferred its annual roster of awards for membrane specialists, include its Lifetime Service Award, Hall of Fame Awards, and Operator of the Year Award.
EDS announces membrane course in Rome in 2014
The European Desalination Society has announced a three-day intensive course on Membrane Technology, Process & System Design to take place in Italy next March.
LA utility tops US water bond risk says report
A report published on 21 October 2010 by Ceres and Water Asset Management alleges that few participants in the US water and electricity bond market -- including investors, bond rating agencies and the utilities themselves -- are accounting for growing water scarcity, legal conflicts and other threats in their analyses.
Abstracts invited for WateReuse Symposium in Arizona
Abstracts have been invited for the 26th Annual WateReuse Symposium, which will be held in Phoenix, Arizona, on 11-14 September 2011.
Pall grabs another naval water-generator contract
Membrane-based freshwater generators are to be supplied to the UK's Royal Navy by Pall Corporation after successful sea trials.
Large Diameter RO Desalination Elements
In recent years, increasing the diameter of spiral elements has been studied as a method of lowering the cost of membrane treatment. It has been shown that the installed cost of a reverse osmosis (RO) plant can be reduced by up to 27% using larger diameter elements.Large diameter elements provide savings in footprint and building costs, as well as savings in the number of connections, to reduce the installed cost of a brackish water RO or nanofiltration (NF) system. This article presents case studies where large diameter reverse osmosis (RO) elements were used, including the reasons why large diameter elements were selected for specific projects. Systems desalinating brackish groundwater for potable water supply in the United States include the City of Goodyear, Arizona; the City of Waupun, Wisconsin; and the Tate-Monroe Water Association of Ohio. In Australia, the Bundamba AWT Plant in Queensland treats municipal effluent for reuse. At Joe White Maltings, an integrated membrane system, combining a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and an RO system, allows wastewater from the plant to be recycled. This article appeared in D&WR magazine's February/March 2009 issue.
AMTA visiting Des Moines for tech transfer workshop
The American Membrane Technology Association is to hold a Technology Transfer Workshop in Des Moines, Iowa.
Nine desalination studies bag US$ 1.4 million funding
Nine research projects and pilot studies will share US$1.4 million in funding under a desalination and water purification research programme set up by the US Bureau of Reclamation.
AMTA schedules workshops up to 2016 conference
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has published a list of workshops and conferences up to and including its 2016 Membrane Technology Conference, which will be held with the American Water Works Association (AWWA) in San Antonio, Texas, on 1‑5 February 2016.
Finance agreed for Camarillo regional desalter studies
Two water districts and two - possibly three - cities in southern California have agree to finance studies for a regional brackish-water desalination plant to be located near Camarillo.
Hybrid solar energy for Navajo Nation membrane distillation project
The University of Arizona and the US government's Bureau of Reclamation are developing a project combining advanced water treatment in the form of membrane distillation with hybrid solar energy to provide water supplies for the Native-American area, Navajo Nation, in the south-west USA. Installation is currently under way and the system will be tested for a year from March 2013. This article first appeared in the November/December 2012 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
EDS publishes details of membrane design course
The European Desalination Society (EDS) has published details of its first event in 2013, a three-day intensive course on Membrane Technology Process & System Design.
Wabag JV lands Oman port desalination contract
Chennai-based Wabag Ltd, in joint venture with fellow Indian contractor Nagarjuna Construction Company (NCC), has been awarded a contract for the completion of a seawater treatment plant, which will supply desalinated water to various industrial production plants in the Sohar International Port Complex.
Papermaker ups water performance with Desalitech reverse osmosis
Arizona-based papermaker, Doubletree Paper Mills, said it has increased its purified water recovery by 20% at its Gila Bend plant since replacing its reverse osmosis water treatment system in 2014 with Desalitech's ReFlex RO system. The modification has also cut wastewater output by almost two thirds and lopped 25 % off energy consumption said Doubletree.
Two workshops ahead for SEDA in January
The Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA) is holding two technology transfer workshops in Florida at the end of January 2013.
Singapore utility awards desalt deal to Chinese-led group
Singapore's national water agency, PUB, has selected the BESIN-UEN consortium - led by China's Beijing Enterprises Water Group (BEWG) - as the preferred bidder to construct the second reverse osmosis (RO) plant sited at Changi under a public/private partnership.
Evoqua bags municipal deals worth US$ 20 million
Water treatment firm, Evoqua, has won contracts worth more than US$ 20 million supplying its Memcor microfiltration and ultrafiltration product line to six US and Canadian municipalities. The deals were for filtration, water reuse, drinking water treatment, and reverse-osmosis pre-treatment applications.
CH2M Hill reports to USEPA on industrial water use
Water reuse is one of a number of trends for water usage in American industry identified in a report just published by engineering company CH2M Hill for the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA).
Desalitech teams up with Pall
High-efficiency reverse osmosis (RO) system specialist, Desalitech, has entered into a non- exclusive partnership with filtration, separation and purification technology firm Pall Corporation. The agreement will enable the companies to offer integrated microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF) and RO solutions for water treatment applications worldwide.
Membrane market growth to run until 2020
The fruits of growing research and development in forward osmosis for desalination are highlighted in a recent sector report as drivers of growth in the market for membrane separation technologies running to at least 2020.
WaterReuse awards recognise people and projects
The WateReuse Association has unveiled its annual award winners of people and projects that have made significant contributions to water reuse.
Winners of awards for water reuse projects unveiled
America's WateReuse Association has unveiled the winners of this year's awards for leadership in water reuse.
1,100 US counties face water supply crisis by 2050, says report
A new analysis for the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), examining the effects of global warming on water supply and demand in the contiguous United States, has found that more than 1,100 counties will face higher risks of water shortages by mid-century as the result of global warming.
UF units from Innovative bound for Arizona and Haiti
Eight ultrafiltration (UF) drinking water treatment plants are to be provided by Innovative Water Technologies Inc (IWT) for the Central Arizona Project in remote locations throughout Arizona, USA. Units are also being sent urgently to Haiti.
SWMOA Stockton workshop program published
More details have been released by the Southwest Membrane Operator Association (SWMOA) about its October 2013 technology transfer workshop hosted by City of Stockton, California.
Ion exchange + ceramic MF for UK water treatment plant
A water treatment plant using suspended ion-exchange (SIX) and ceramic microfiltration is to be built by the UK's South West Water using CeraMac technology from PWN Technologies of the Netherlands.
Bundamba wastewater reuse plant passes second quality test
The second Water Quality Report for the Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant in Queensland, Australia, has confirmed the excellent quality of the purified water it produces and proved that the water is safe to add to the drinking supply, says government agency WaterSecure
West Basin declares record year in recycled water output
West Basin Municipal Water District in California has declared fiscal year 2013-14 a record 12 months in recycled water production at its Edward C Little Water Recycling Facility. The plant produced 60,000 Ml of recycled water in the period.
San Diego's IPR demonstration project now has web page
The City of San Diego, which could be the first city in the USA to use indirect potable water reuse for drinking water, has updated the reuse information on its website and added a page for the renamed Water Purification Demonstration Project.
Nitto Denko and Mitsubishi win Singapore MBR order
Microfiltration (MF) membranes for Singapore's largest membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant at the Jurong Water Reclamation Plant are to be supplied by Nitto Denko/Hydranautics and Mitsubishi Rayon Co.
Aquatech signs for Egypt's first ZLD plant
Egypt's first integrated zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plant is to be built by Aquatech, under a contract from the Egyptian Ethylene & Derivatives Company (ETHYDCO) to provide a water treatment facility.
Sustainable Réunion wastewater plant to use MF
Microfiltration will be used as part of a modern wastewater treatment plant on the island of Réunion to be built under a concession awarded by the Réunion North Interdistrict Community to a consortium led by Veolia Water.
NEWater plant No 5 opened in Singapore
Singapore's fifth and largest NEWater wastewater reuse plant was officially opened by Singapore's senior minister, Goh Chok Tong, on 3 May 2010.
Santa Clara votes for advanced wastewater reuse plant
The directors of the Santa Clara Valley Water District in California, USA, approved two agreements with the City of San Jose on 23 February 2010 to build a new advanced water treatment facility involving microfiltration, reverse osmosis and ultraviolet disinfection.
Australia's CSIRO demonstrations indirect stormwater reuse
Scientists at Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) have bottled recycled stormwater as pure drinking water titled "Recharge", CSIRO announced on 17 September 2009.
Changi wastewater reuse plant goes commercial
Stage 1 of the Sembcorp Changi NEWater Plant (SCNP) in Singapore has started commercial operations, according to a 26 August 2009 announcement from Black & Veatch, who provided full design engineering for the wastewater reuse plant along with construction support and commissioning services.
Vial appointed business development manager by inge
Denis Vial has been appointed business development manager by German ultrafiltration (UF) membrane manufacturer inge GmbH, effective 1 March 2014.
Wichita Falls set to start up DPR plant in May
Direct potable reuse of wastewater could be making its debut in Texas, USA, in early May 2014, as testing of water produced by the Temporary Water Reuse Project at the City of Wichita Falls continues to show the water is safe to drink.
US districts fight saline intrusion with reused water
Two California water districts announced an agreement on 18 April 2009 to transfer and use recycled wastewater as a barrier against saline intrusion into groundwater, replacing 5.5 billion gallons (20.8 million m³) of drinking water per year previously used for this purpose.
Brochure available for AMTA workshop in Michigan
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has released a brochure updating information for its two-day technology transfer workshop in Michigan in May 2014.
Evoqua wins Los Angeles expansion contract
Evoqua Water Technologies has won a contract with the Department of Public Works for Los Angeles Sanitation to supply its microfiltration packaged system as part of the expansion of the Terminal Island Water Reclamation Plant Advanced Water Treatment Facility in San Pedro, Los Angeles County.
SWMOA seeks papers for 2013 San Diego symposium
The Southwest Membrane Operator Association (SWMOA) has made a call for papers for its 2013 Annual Symposium in San Diego, California, on 22-24 April 2013.
Abigroup to build Kooragang wastewater reuse plant
Construction of the Kooragang Industrial Water Scheme (KIWS) in New South Wales, Australia, is to be carried out by Abigroup under an Aus$ 40 million (US$ 40 million) contract.
AMTA/WEF workshop set for Seattle in May
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has announced that it will be holding a Technology Transfer Workshop in Seattle, Oregon, in May in cooperation with the Water Environment Federation (WEF).
City seeks to join South Bay reuse system
The City of Sunnyvale in California voted on 6 March 2012 to explore connecting its recycled water system to the South Bay Water Recycling (SBWR) system operated by the City of San Jose in partnership with the Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD).
APTwater buys remaining Sepro shares from Sojitz
California-based APTwater Rochem® has acquired the remaining shares of Sepro Membranes from its previous joint-venture partner Sojitz Corporation of Tokyo, Japan.
MF/RO plant may be Santa Clarita salt solution
A microfiltration/reverse-osmosis (MF/RO) advanced wastewater treatment plant is one of several options being considered by the Santa Clarita Valley Sanitation District (SCVSD) in California, USA, to deal with excessive chloride levels in the wastewater it discharges to the Santa Clara River from its two treatment plants.
Go-ahead for 113,500 m³/d Orange County GWRS expansion
Orange County's world-renowned membrane-based Groundwater Replenishment System (GWRS) in California is to be expanded by another 30 MGD (113,500 m³/d) following approval by the board of the Orange County Water District (OCWD) on 30 March 2011.
Orange County loses widely respected lab director
Orange County Water District (OCWD) in California announced on 21 March 2011 that Steve Fitzsimmons, director of its Advance Water Quality Assurance Laboratory, who had been a key figure in water quality testing for Water Factory 21 and gaining credibility for the Groundwater Replenishment System, died on 3 March 2011.
AMTA/NWMOA Utah workshop program published
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has published the program for its joint technology transfer workshop with the Northwest Membrane Operator Association (NWMOA) in December.
Topics and presenters announced for IDA Academy course
The next International Desalination Association (IDA) Academy course, to be held at the International Water Summit in Abu Dhabi on 21‑22 January 2014 will feature Integration of Hybrid Technologies with Renewable Energy to Improve the Sustainability of Water Desalination and Sustainable Operation with Advanced Membrane Filtration.
EDS adds SDI Workshop to Barcelona events
The European Desalination Society has added a workshop on the Silt Density Index to the satellite events around its upcoming Barcelona conference, the society confirmed in an announcement on 12 March 2012.
West Basin desalination demo could begin next year
Construction could begin in 2010 on the Ocean-Water Desalination Demonstration Project at Redondo Beach near Los Angeles, California, the West Basin Municipal Water District announced on 30 July 2009.
Caribbean desalination expansion completes tests
The Desalination company of Trinidad and Tobago (Desalcott) has recently completed a performance test of its expanded Point Lisas seawater reverse osmosis plant.
Desalination and reuse in California/New Mexico get funding
US Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar announced on 1 July 2009 27 water reclamation and reuse projects in California and New Mexico identified by the Bureau of Reclamation to share in a total of US$ 134.3 million under the American Recovery & Reinvestment Act of 2009.
Four workshops to precede AMTA / AWWA conference
There are now four preconference workshops prior to the Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition being held by the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the American Water Works Association (AWWA) in San Antonio, Texas, at the end of February 2013.
EDS/Wetsus issues membrane conference call for papers
A deadline of 30 June 2012 has been set for abstracts for the eighth in the series of conferences on Membranes in Drinking & Industrial Water Production, which will take place at Leeuwarden in the Netherlands on 10‑12 September 2012.
Pall to design navy inshore desalination system
The US Navy's Office of Naval Research has contracted Pall Corporation for a multi-phase project to develop an advanced shipboard desalination system specifically for operations in coastal waters.
Brownsville pilot study published
Pilot study results from consultant NRS Consulting Engineers have confirmed that seawater desalination on the shore of the Ship Channel in Brownsville, Texas, USA, is technically feasible.
Osmoflo commissions 4,000 m³/d SWRO desalination plant
A 4,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant has been commissioned in Whyalla, South Australia, for steel manufacturer OneSteel.
EDS desalination course dates for 2012 published
The European Desalination Society (EDS) has published dates for its series of courses for 2012, which will take place in February, April and June.
Rain - but desalination still needed in Tuvalu
Though rain fell in the drought-stricken islands of Tuvalu and Tokelau in the last week of October 2011, the Red Cross maintained that the region still faced water shortages.
IDA launches reverse-osmosis certification program
The International Desalination Association (IDA) is to launch a reverse‑osmosis training certificate associated with its recently launched IDA Desalination Academy.
SEDA Spring Symposium brochure available for download
The Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA) has a brochure available for its 2013 Spring Symposium to be held at Delray Beach, Florida.
Osmoflo sending desalination units to Gorgon gas field
Australian supplier Osmoflo has begun despatching desalination equipment to the Gorgon gas field project located 130-200km off the north-west coast of Western Australia.
Why MFI is edging SDI as a fouling index
PARTICULATE FOULING has plagued reverse osmosis (RO) systems since their first use in desalination and remains a persistent issue today for RO and other pressure-driven systems such as microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF). In the early 1960s, the Du Pont company/Permasep Product successfully launched the hollow-fine-fibre (HFF) permeator onto the desalination market, where it dominated for several decades. A well-known weakness of this permeator was its vulnerability to fouling. Initially, this vulnerability was attributed to suspended and colloidal matter in the feed water, ie, particulate fouling. Therefore, Du Pont developed, the Silt Density Index (SDI), initially named the Fouling Index, as a parameter to characterize the fouling potential of the feedwater for permeators. The fouling mechanism turned out to be more complicated than just fouling of the membrane surface as initially assumed. Gradually it became clear that the fouling was initiated by local clogging of the woven or non-woven fabric between the fibres, which is needed to ensure equal flow distribution of the feed water (see Figure 1). This article first appeared in the issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Future advancements and acceptance of membrane technologies
The introduction of membrane technologies including reverse osmosis, electrodialysis reversal, ultrafiltration, microfiltration and membrane bioreactors has transformed the approach water treatment. For the second time, the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) is combining its annual conference and exposition (18-21 July 2011) with its Florida-based affiliate, the Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA). The AMTA president ponders where membranes may go from here. This article first appeared in the May/June 2011 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.