Massachusetts, Produced Water


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Desalitech wins US golf-course desalination contract

Reverse-osmosis (RO) developer Desalitech Inc has won a competitive bid to supply a water purification system using its Closed Circuit Desalination (CCD) system to the Kittansett Club golf course in Marion, Massachusetts, USA.

Agnihotri elected to board of ThermoEnergy Corp

Dr Dileep Agnihotri, the CEO and president of Advanced Hydro Inc, a company set up to commercialise a novel antifouling membrane coating technology at the University of Texas - Austin, has joined the board of ThermoEnergy Corp, a Massachusetts-based company engaged in development and sales of municipal and industrial wastewater-recovery and clean power-generation technologies.

MIT membrane start-up completes funding round

The conclusion of an initial round of funding for Clean Membranes Inc, a start-up company based in Lexington, USA, will permit progress on development of a new generation of non-fouling membranes usable for sea and brackish water desalination.

Researchers claim electrodialysis good for fracking reuse

Researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Saudi Arabia's King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals have claimed to have found an economical way to use electrodialysis for removing salt from water produced in hydraulic fracturing (fracking) for shale gas.

MIT spinout cracks fracking water waste

A Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) spinout, Gradiant Corporation, is working toward making hydraulic fracturing (fracking) a water-neutral process, by making water reuse more economical. Fracking produces millions of litres of wastewater and much of it is discarded into deep injection wells, and clean water has to be purchased.

Water Planet wins produced water contracts

Water treatment technology firm, Water Planet, has won a contact to provide industrial wastewater treatment and reuse systems for two recycling centres in California, USA that could recycle oil and gas industry produced water at nearly 20 Ml/d.

Oil and gas player commissions produced water treatment plant

Encana Oil and Gas has designed and commissioned a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant to treat produced water from its oil sand wells in the Moneta Divide, Wyoming. It has since sold the plant along with all its Moneta Divide assets to Aethon Energy.

Veolia gains Colombian produced-water clean-up contract

Ecopetrol America Inc, the US subsidiary of the Colombian national oil company, has awarded a contract to Veolia to provide equipment and services that will be used to treat the produced water from the Castilla oilfields in the Llanos Basin, southeast of Bogota.

Aquatech sells produced-water evaporators in Alberta

Aquatech is to design, engineer, supply and supervise installation and commissioning of a produced-water evaporator system for Pengrowth Energy Corporation's Lindbergh 12,500 bpd Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) enhanced oil-recovery facility.

Danny Jimenez will lead Gradiant Energy Services as chief executive, with a brief to expand the offer for oil and gas operators

Gradiant Energy Services appoints Jimenez as CEO

Gradiant Energy Services (GES) has appointed Danny Jimenez as chief executive with a brief to oversee strategic direction and growth, including expanding its offer to oil and gas operators.

Solar electrodialysis brings water to off-grid villages

A simple set of solar panels and a battery system connected to an electrodialysis desalination unit could provide fresh water for a typical Indian village according to researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the US.

Oasys forward osmosis concentrates in China

Massachusetts-based Oasys Water has claimed its recent contract to supply a forward osmosis brine concentrator to a fossil-fuelled power plant in China to be a world first.

US city seeks to buy itself out of 'albatross' desalination deal

The mayor of US city, Brockton in Massachusetts has proposed an US$ 88 million bid by the city to buy its near-unused Dighton desalination plant to free it from a 20-year contract with the plant owner.

US research challenges value of forward osmosis in seawater desalination

Researchers in the US have claimed that forward osmosis desalination of seawater is significantly less energy efficient than reverse osmosis

AquaVenture chief executive Doug Brown is an engineer-turned-private equity investor-turned-water industry leader

"We're now at more than $100 million revenue." Doug Brown, AquaVenture chairman and CEO

AquaVenture chief executive Doug Brown has a track record of delivering shareholder value. When he joined water technology and engineering firm Ionics as chief executive in 2003, the struggling business was trading at $16 a share.

IDA energy task force meeting in Abu Dhabi

The International Desalination Association (IDA) will convene the first meeting of its global Energy Task Force in conjunction with the International Water Summit, which takes place on 15-17 January 2013 in Abu Dhabi.

Desalitech launches US base and hires new staff

Desalitech Ltd, developer of the Closed Circuit Desalination (CCD) sytem, announced on 18 December 2013 that it will be establishing its US headquarters in Massachusetts. It has also hired four new staff in the US.

CDI low-energy desalination can supply remote communities

There has been a lot of media fuss recently about the work at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology on using graphene sheets in membrane desalination. Equally important work is going on in Australia on using graphene sheets as electrodes for capacitive deionisation (CDI). Supported by the National Centre for Excellence in Desalination, Professor Linda Zou has proved that CDI technology offers a viable alternative solution for brackish water treatment, especially in communities in remote areas where building a large and high-maintenance treatment plant is not practical. This article first appeared in the August/September 2012 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Ronan McGovern

MIT's McGovern wins IDA 2012 scholarship award

The International Desalination Association has awarded its 2012 Channabasappa Memorial Scholarship to Ronan McGovern, a PhD candidate at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the United States.

IDA 2015 World Congress draws 1,700 delegates

More than 1,700 delegates from 63 countries attended the International Desalination Association's (IDA's) 2015 World Congress held in San Diego recently according to the association's key metrics published this week. Awards for papers and presentations topped US$ 30,000.

New CEO appointed by Poseidon Resources

Carlos A Riva, who has led a number of leading infrastructure companies, has joined Poseidon Resources as chief executive officer.

KMS achieves North American MBR debut

Koch Membrane Systems Inc (KMS), has sold its first Puron™ Plus packaged membrane bioreactor (MBR) wastewater treatment system in North America.



Peter Waldron

Waldron takes up Toray Membrane post

Membrane veteran Peter Waldron took up his new position as business development manager for San Diego-based Toray Membrane USA on 28 March 2011, but he told D&WR that he's remaining in Massachusetts for the near future.

Mining firm strikes funding deal for desalination plant at planned mine

Mining firm, White Mountain Titanium, has agreed a deal with US private equity company, Nexo Capital Partners, to fund, construct and manage a desalination plant to form part of White Mountain's planned Cerro Blanco mining project in Chile.

US powerplant environment ruling could affect desalination

In a ruling that could effect desalination plants in the USA, the US Supreme Court on 1 April 2009 overruled an appeals court decision and permitted the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to use cost/benefit criteria to determine the technology for powerplant water-cooling structures.

Small-scale desalination approach to a big water problem

A research project recently undertaken at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has revealed a new mechanism for desalination/purification of water, employing a microfluidic channel-network system, which could lead to the development of small and portable units. The authors have started to build a prototype device in the laboratory in order to demonstrate the necessary scale-up of this technology. If developed, this type of portable, self-powered desalination system would find many important applications such as for disaster relief, military use, shipboard units and regional water purification in developing countries. This article first appeared in the August/September 2010 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Taunton River desalination plant takes feedwater from upstream of Braga Bridge, in Massachusetts, US

Debate tabled on the future of Inima's Taunton River desalination plant, MA

Brockton City Council, Massachusetts, US, has cut funds for water purchases from Inima's Taunton River desalination plant, ahead of a big debate on the plant's future, reports local paper The Enterprise.

IDE among top twenty smartest companies

In its 50th year in business Israel-based desalination company, IDE Technologies, has been ranked by the prestigious Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT's) Technology Review as among the top 20 smartest companies.

Kuwait launches its largest desalination management project

Kuwait University's faculty of engineering has launched the Gulf state's largest ever water desalination and management project.

Evoqua to double production capacity at US plant

Evoqua Water Technologies is to double its capacity to produce its range of water treatment products at one of its main production facilities in the US.

The demonstration project will draw on lessons from the Mega-ton Water System, whose aim was to create a paradigm shift in energy consumption for reverse osmosis desalination

Hitachi and Toray target 20 per cent RO energy reduction in Saudi demo

Hitachi and Toray are to demonstrate a low energy seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) system in Saudi Arabia, in a project that will draw lessons from the Mega-ton Water System.

The DeepWater Desal scheme proposes drawing water from Monterey Submarine Canyon at a depth of 130 feet

DeepWater Desal drives to overturn Monterey County ownership rule

Desalination project developer DeepWater Desal, in California, US, is seeking to overturn the rules of Monterey County that all desalination plants must be publicly owned, reports Monterey Herald.

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can be used to capture salt and ions in seawater

MOF membranes will slash energy use, harvest lithium, say researchers

The authors of a new study on metal-organic framework (MOF) membranes have claimed that the material can desalinate water with far higher energy efficiency compared to traditional desalination membranes.

Sri Lanka is stepping up its desalination capacity with an RfP for a public-private partnership project

Sri Lanka issues RfP for desalination PPP at Hambantota

Sri Lanka Ministry of Development Strategies and International Trade has issued a request for proposals (RfP) on a seawater desalination plant at Hambantota, in its Southern Province.

Burgos wastewater treatment plant serves a population of one million in Spain's Castile and Leon region

FCC Aqualia bags E3million contract against 'reckless' competitors

FCC Aqualia has won the contract to operate Burgos wastewater treatment plant in northwestern Spain against other "recklessly low" financial tenders.

Produced water will be pumped 45 miles and across a height of 700 metres to a new reservoir in Copiapó, near the Tierra Amarillo mountains, where mining companies operate. The system comprises five pumping stations, one at the intake, one at the treatment plant, two on the piping route, and one at the reservoir.

Chile project envisions multiple mining clients for solar-powered SWRO

Energias y Aguas del Pacifico (ENAPAC), a proposed solar-powered seawater desalination plant and water transport project aims to support expansion of mining operations in Chile's Atacama region.

Located 90 kilometres south of the historic city of Jeddah, the expanded Shoaiba III complex will serve people in Al-Baha, Jeddah, Makkah, and Taif

Abengoa to develop Shoaiba III, its largest desal project yet

ACWA Power has signed Abengoa in consortium with Fisia Italimpianti to develop a large scale reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant at Shoaiba III power and desalination complex on Saudi Arabia's Red Sea coast.

The Sidem distillers were delivered in two major shipments direct to the project site, each one weighing 2,600 tonnes. Six of the distillers were shipped from UAE, and the other four came from China

How we delivered Az Zour North phase one

"With hindsight we were very lucky to get everything through on time and that our construction partner Hyundai Heavy Industries was on time. Fortunately we escaped a lot of those little wrinkles that need sorting out during construction, and can drag on and on, and so we kept to time," says Andy Biffen, chief executive of project delivery vehicle Az Zour Shamal.

Software checks produced water treatment for farm use

Artificial intelligence-based software developed by Water Planet is being used to evaluate the performance and economics of treating produced water for agricultural reuse in a pilot project in Wasco, California.

Q&A: De Nora group CEO Paolo Dellacha on the acquisition of MIOX

Electrochemical tech company De Nora has acquired water purification firm MIOX. De Nora group chief executive Paolo Dellacha explains the thinking behind the deal and what the future holds

Wind damage prompts Sydney desalination critics to renew calls for closure

Winds topping 200km/h have ripped roofs off Sydney's dormant Kurnell desalination plant. Critics of the plant have called for it to be closed completely but New South Wales' water minister, Niall Blair, said abandonment would break the state's contract obligations.

Venezuelan oil firm ups desalination to offset drought

Amid a persistent severe drought, Venezuelan state oil company PDVSA's Paraguaná refinery has upgraded its desalination facility to increase output by a third following investment in plant of some US$ 250 million.

Analyst forecasts near doubling of water reuse in fracking industry by 2020

Only 2% the US fracking industry's US$ 6 billion plus outlay on water management in 2014 was spent on treatment of the 70,000 Ml of contaminated water the industry produced according to a report by market analyst Bluefield Research. But the volume of reuse will almost double by 2020.

IDE supplies evaporators to groundbreaking Chinese project

Bomo Environmental Engineering has purchased two evaporators from IDE Technologies as part of China's first produced water treatment plant. The facility in Karamay, Xinjian will be the first in China to operate under a Build Operate Own (BOO) model. The win marks IDE's bid to raise its profile in the oil and gas sector, the company said.

Experts slam economics of seabed intake for giant US desalination project

A 250 Ml/d seawater desalination (SWRO) plant planned for Huntington Beach, California using sub seafloor intake pipes was "not economically viable at the Huntington Beach location within a reasonable time frame" according to a recent expert report. The findings could jeopardise the Huntingdon project because sub seafloor technology was pivotal to regulatory approval.

New Mexico: pumping a gallon of oil can produce up to five gallons of wastewater

US EPA white paper 're-visioning' oil and gas produced water

The US Environmental Protection Agency and the state of New Mexico has issued a draft white paper on oil and gas wastewater, recycling, and reuse.

STW puts zero liquid system on show

STW Water Process and Technologies, this week will hold demonstrations in the Texas state capital, Austin, of a zero liquid discharge (ZLD) thermal water processing technology it licences from Salttech under an exclusive agreement.

Adionics launches liquid-to-liquid desalination system

France-based Adionics has launched a smart desalination solution that is able to remove specific salts to address the growing demand coming from oil and gas, food and beverages as well as mining.

Aquarion acquires Germany's MFT

Swiss oil and gas industry water systems company, Aquarion Group, has acquired Membran- Filtrations-Technik (MFT) of Germany for an undisclosed sum.

AMTA NEWS Novel sub-nanofiltration ceramic membrane production uses DNA

A novel method for creating ceramic reverse osmosis membranes with sub-nanometre pores by using the genetic material, DNA, as a template former, overcomes the poor reproducibility encountered in conventional methods according to the developer of the technology, Cerahelix.

Desalination with distinction

IDE Technologies (IDE) designed and operates three of the largest seawater reverse osmosis desalination plants in the world each with a cost per cubic metre of produced water among the lowest globally. This it accomplished despite a fourfold variability in the electricity price and demanding regulatory limits on boron, chloride and sodium concentrations. The key to their performance is demonstrated in the extraordinary aspects of the design, operation and personnel at the Hadera plant. This article first appeared in the February 2015 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Metito backs low-temperature distillation to challenge lead desalination technologies

Dubai-based water technology firm, Metito, is set to make a "significant investment" in clean-tech company Thermal Purification Technologies (TPTec), to develop TPTec's patented low-temperature distillation (LTD) technology. Metito claims LTD could displace existing membrane and thermal desalination technologies.

New Mexico mulls new rules to allow water reuse for oilfield drilling

State environmental regulators in New Mexico are considering a proposed rule that would allow the reuse of produced water in oilfield drilling operations.

Russian heavy oil recovery enhanced by water reuse

OPERATED BY Russia's second largest oil producer, a heavy oil field in northwest Russia has been increasing the volume of crude processing with technology that supports enhanced recovery rates and reduced environmental impact. In 2008, they took the first steps to develop a less water-intensive way of processing produced water by conducting a feasibility study comparing different water reuse strategies. By replacing traditional treatment methods with thermal evaporator technology for produced water, this will be the first entity in Russia to use recycled water from enhanced oil recovery in the treatment of heavy oil produced water. This article first appeared in the issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

New Texas desalination plant could reuse fracking water

A new desalination test facility in Loving County, Texas could be deployed in treating water used in hydraulic fracturing - tracking- for shale gas for reuse in the oil industry.

ConocoPhillips becomes 3rd Saltworks Technologies investor

Canadian desalination and brine treatment company Saltworks Technologies announced on 23 May 2014 that it had received investment funding from ConocoPhillips Company, Saltworks' third industrial shareholder.

Reclamation grant for Sweetwater desalination expansion

The US Bureau of Reclamation is to provide the Sweetwater Authority in California with a US$ 1.5 million grant towards the expansion of the Richard A Reynolds desalination plant.

The US DOE will pit organisations against one another in a bid to drive innovation

US DOE to harness 'power of competition' in Water Security Grand Challenge

The US Department of Energy has set out ambitions to harness the "power of competition" to drive innovation in water technology through a new programme of activity.

GE to supply evaporator/ZLD technology for Italian oilfield

GE's advanced evaporator and zero liquid discharge (ZLD) technology is to be used to recycle up to 98% of produced water at six Total E&P Italia SpA oilwells in the Tempa Rossa field in the Basilicata region of southern Italy.

GE evaporators chosen for Alberta bitumen project

MEG Energy Corp has selected GE evaporation technology for reusing steam generator water for boiler feed in a bitumen extraction project in Alberta, Canada.

IDE sells two MVC evaporators to Alberta oil-sands site

IDE Technologies Ltd announced on 10 March 2014 that it had sold two IDE horizontal mechanical vapor compression (MVC) evaporators to increase the produced water treatment capacity of a steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) production site in Northern Alberta.

August Rocky Mountain reuse workshop set for Golden

This year's Rocky Mountain Water Reuse Workshop is to be held at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, Colorado, on 14 August 2014.

Oasys announces sales hook-up with oil & gas servicer

Forward-osmosis specialist Oasys Water announced on 12 December 2013 that it had recently signed an exclusive sales agreement with National Oilwell Varco LP (NOV), a leading global provider of equipment and services used in the oil and gas market.

Flowback water quality variability

Recycling Flowback and Produced Water in Tight-Oil Development

One of the most lively presentations at the recent International Desalination Association conference in Banff, Canada, came from local consultant Roberta Wasylishen, who described what is was like for a water engineer to get access to oil & gas projects in order to do a water treatment assessment. This article is based on her investigation and includes information on frac, flowback and produced water. This article first appeared in the August/September 2013 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Texas treatment company spins off frac water firm

A company called Green Hydro LLC has been spun off by Texas-based Advanced Hydro Inc to use desalination to address increasing demand for water use in hydraulic fracturing.

Commercialization moves nearer for memsys MD system

In what memsys CEO, Götz Lange, calls "a clear step towards commercialization of the company's membrane distillation (MD) technology", the Germany/Singapore based company has announced the formation of a Business Development Unit.

Solar/MED design aims to desalinate CSG water

A three-way partnership in Australia has entered a solar-powered desalination system for the coal‑seam gas (CSG) industry into the Australian Innovation Challenge being run by Shell and The Australian newspaper.

MD+VC succeeds at produced-water disposal site

A new desalination technique of membrane distillation (MD) combined with vapour compression (VC) has been pronounced a success in an effort to reduce produced water disposal costs at a Texas disposal well.

IDE/Clean Harbours tie-up aims at oil sands clean-up

Desalination designer and constructor IDE Technologies Ltd and US waste and wastewater specialist Clean Harbors today announced a joint research and development (R&D) program to increase the availability and reliability of mechanical vapor compression (MVC) evaporators for treating oil sands produced water in Alberta, Canada.

Nuverra/Haliburton accord on produced-water treatment

Nuverra Environmental Solutions Inc, which until mid-May 2013 was known as Heckmann Corporation, announced on 15 July 2013 that it has entered into an agreement with Halliburton to advance the treatment and recycling of produced water to be reused in the hydraulic fracturing process.

GE wins oilsands evaporator contract in Alberta

GE's water evaporation technology will treat de-oiled produced water, boiler and heat-recovery steam-generator blowdown and brackish makeup water for Sunshine Oilsands at its West Ells project in Ft McMurray, Alberta, Canada.

IDA Conference Report

Banff gathering charts oil & gas territory

The XTB Nanobubble Generator is a patented technology that can reduce energy consumption in water treatment

Nanobubble specialist Moleaer raises capital, seeks people

Moleaer, the California, US-based water technology firm that developed the XTB Nanobubble Generator has raised $6 million to support overseas expansion.

LiqTech ties up oil & gas agreement with FMC

Denmark's LiqTech International Inc announced on 25 March 2013 that it had entered into an agreement with US oilfield equipment and services company FMC Technologies Inc for the use of LiqTech's silicon-carbide membrane technology for oil & gas applications.

Four workshops to precede AMTA / AWWA conference

There are now four preconference workshops prior to the Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition being held by the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the American Water Works Association (AWWA) in San Antonio, Texas, at the end of February 2013.

Speakers announced for IDA conference in Banff

Speakers and sessions for the May conference on Water Recycling and Desalination for the Oil & Gas Industry have been announced by the organizers, the International Desalination Association (IDA).

Registration open for AMTA/AWWA membrane conference

Registration has been opened and new sessions added to the programme for the 2013 Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition in San Antonio, Texas, on 25-28 February 2013.

BEL pressure vessels set for Colombian desalination

Pressure vessels for the 79,500 m³/d produced-water desalination plant being designed and built for Pacific Rubiales Energy Corp (PREC) in Columbia are to be supplied by BEL Composite Industries.

X-Flow commissions Chinese produced-water projects

Three water-reuse projects for oilfields in China that use Pentair X-Flow ultrafiltration (UF) membrane technology have been commissioned recently.

Nirosoft wins large Colombian desalination plant

Nirosoft Industries Ltd has been awarded a contract by Pacific Rubiales Energy Corp (PREC) for design and construction of a produced-water desalination plant in Colombia.

Nearly 200 abstracts received for AMTA/AWWA conference

The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) says that 193 abstracts have been received for its joint conference next year with the American Water Works Association (AWWA) in San Antonio, Texas.

Aquatech to supply Oman oilfield water softener

Aquatech announced on 4 April 2012 that it had been awarded a contract to construct a 237 m³/h produced-water softening plant for the Amal Steam Facilities Phase 1B in Oman.

Oasys deal to treat Texas produced water with FO

Oasys Water has struck an agreement with Houston-based Select Energy Services, LLC (SES), a leading provider of engineered water solutions to the oil and gas industry, for exclusive use of its forward osmosis (FO) technology in the Permian Basin in West Texas and New Mexico, USA.

Another oil-sands evaporation contract for GE in Alberta

GE has won its fifth contract in the Alberta oil sands of Canada for use of its evaporation technologies for recycling the blowdown from once-through steam generators (OSTGs).

Pilot vapour-recompression plant tackles oil and gas water

A pilot project to treat produced water from oil and gas operations in southern Saskatchewan, Canada, has been initiated by Purestream Technology of Salt Lake City, USA, using its advanced vapour recompression (AVARA) system.

Veolia installing evaporator in Alberta oil sands

Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies is currently installing an evaporator/crystallizer system at Southern Pacific Resource Corp's STP-McKay project currently under way in northern Alberta, Canada.

US to develop natural-gas wastewater standards

Over the coming months, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to begin the process of developing a proposed standard for wastewater discharges produced by natural-gas extraction from underground coalbed and shale formations.

Joint venture aims to treat Texas frac water

A joint venture to treat brackish/produced water sources has been set up in Texas by STW Resources Holding Corp and CK Investments Energy Company (CKI).

Bitumen producer using GE evaporation technology

GE's produced-water evaporation technology has been chosen for Phase 1 of the Algar Lake Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) project near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, which will produce 5,000-6,000 barrels/d of bitumen.

Water Standard finds its shipbuilder in Samsung

Texas-based Water Standard and Korea's Samsung Heavy Industries announced an agreement on 28 June 2011 to collaborate on the design and development of vessels to deliver water treatment solutions to the offshore oil and gas sector.

RO, IX and ceramic membranes in Veolia oilfield reuse contract

A 45,000 bpd (7,154 m³/d) produced-water reclamation facility is to be installed at the Arroya Grande oilfield in California by Veolia Water through a design-build-operate contract.

Reverse osmosis elements after treating produced water for over two years.

Membranes reclaim aggressive produced water from California oilfield

Increasingly, membrane technologies are finding a place in the oil and gas industry, in the USA and Australia in particular, for dealing with the difficult wastewaters that arise from the extraction process. This article describes how, in a Californian oilfield, a reverse-osmosis process has operated for two years at high pH for the removal of dissolved salts and organics - including sodium, silica, boron and TOC. The treated water is then reused for environmental augmentation purposes. This article first appeared in the February/March 2011 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Commission warns Australia about gas-production wastewater

Handling the wastewater resulting from coal-seam gas (CSG) production in Australia is likely to require a precautionary approach that will demand innovation from water managers and planners, and significantly greater coordination with existing project approval processes, the National Water Commission warned in December 2010.


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