Jordan, Seawater, Turkmenistan, Russia


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Nuclear energy to supply Jordan desalination plants

Four nuclear power plants in the southern region of Jordan will provide almost 750 MW of energy for desalination and water pumping, according to a report in the Jordan Times.

Russians to cooperate on Jordan desalination

Desalination plants were included in a nuclear cooperation agreement signed on 22 May 2009 by Russia and Jordan, which also included power stations, research facilities and personnel training centres to be built in Jordan.

Aquatech wins ZLD job in Turkmenistan

Aquatech has been awarded a contract to design and supply a zero‑liquid discharge ZLD wastewater-reuse system in a gas‑field development project in Turkmenistan.

Vladivostok SWRO project for Aqua-Chem

A custom-built 2.64 MGD (10,000 m³/d) seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant is being installed in eastern Russia, off the coast of Vladivostok, by Aqua-Chem Inc of the USA.

IDE desalination seminar trains Jordanians and Palestinians

Thirty participants from Palestine and Jordan completed a week-long desalination seminar in Israel in early November 2010.

Historic Israel-Jordan water deal scuppered by planners

Less than a week after ministers from Jordan and Israel launched pre qualification for an US$ 900 million desalination and water transfer project, local planning in Israel reject the proposed scheme.

Food for thought for delegates at EDS conference

The continuously queuing water tankers in the road servicing the King Hussein Bin Talal Convention Centre and its four adjacent hotels leave visitors in no doubt that Jordan is one of the most water-scarce countries in the world.

Russian nuclear giant musters experts to lead desalination drive

Russia's nuclear energy corporation, Rosatom, has formed a group of expert desalination advisors as part of its push to win customers for its thermal desalination technologies. The company is targeting world regions where clean water is scarce as a path to becoming "leaders in the global nuclear market," according to Rosatom.

Vapour compression desalination plants for Indian oilfield

Texas-based MECO, which supplies desalination equipment to the offshore, pharmaceutical and military sectors, announced in December 2011 that it would be designing and constructing two vapour compression (VC) desalination plants for an oilfield off the Indian coast.

Jordan Red Sea project developer 'will be announced in May'

Following evaluation of 30 letters of interest in the massive Red-Dead water transfer and desalination project, Jordan's Ministry of Water & Irrigation will announce the qualified bidder to serve as the master developer this month, according to the Jordan Times on 11 May 2010.

Tri-national desalination course held in Tel Aviv

A five-day desalination course jointly organized by the Jordan, Israel and Palestinian water authorities, in partnership with the Middle East Desalination Research Center, was held in Tel Aviv, Israel, on 30 October - 4 November 2011.

Studies start for Jordan's first desalination plant

Jordan's first desalination plant is expected to be operational by 2010, supplying the port city of Aqaba with 10 million m³/year, Aqaba Water Company (AWC) announced in August. The AWC has signed an agreement with Bank Muscat to study siting a plant on Aqaba's southern coast to desalinate Red Sea water.

Israel and Jordan seal water-swap deal

Israel and Jordan have signed a bilateral agreement to exchange water and pipe Red Sea desalination brines to the shrinking Dead Sea.



Red-Dead project progress for discussion in November

Stakeholders in the Red Sea-Dead Sea Water Conveyance Study Programme will discuss the progress of five feasibility studies at a meeting in November 2010.

AECOM wins USAID water reuse work in Jordan

AECOM Technology Corporation announced on 30 November 2010 that it won a US$ 28 million task order from the US Agency for International Development (USAID) under its Global Architecture Engineering Infrastructure Indefinite Quantity Contract.

Desalination "unavoidable" for Jordan

Desalination is "an unavoidable option" for Jordan, said Prof Mousa Mohsen from The Hashemite University, when he addressed the opening ceremony of the EuroMed Conference on the shores of the Dead Sea on 10 November 2008.

Russia looks to export nuclear power and desalination packages

Russia's nuclear power company, Rosatom, is aiming to sell integrated, large nuclear power and desalination plants overseas through its export arm Rosatom Overseas.

Multi-technology GE upgrade for Russian refinery treatment

Membrane bioreactor (MBR), electrodialysis reversal (EDR) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology will all feature in a major upgrade for the wastewater treatment at one of Russia's biggest oil refineries.

Norit X-Flow Aquaflex membranes

Giant Moscow UF plant gets Norit X-Flow membranes

One of the largest ultrafiltration (UF) plants in the world, the South-West Moscow drinking water plant in Russia, is currently being expanded to a total of 275,000 m³/d using Norit X-Flow membranes.

US$ 8 million contracts boost for H2O Innovation

Quebec-based H2O Innovation Inc announced new contracts for desalination and water treatment systems totaling Can$ 7.8 million (US$ 8 million) on 24 March 2011.

Russia sets up water treatment membrane development project

The Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies (Rusnano) is to finance a project for producing nanostructured membranes and separation modules for water treatment in various industries.

Cautious thumbs-up for Red-Dead project feasibility

The large-scale conveyance of seawater from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea is technically possible and could deliver large amounts of desalinated water using conventional processes.

Desalination capacity increasing by 50% in 2013 says IDA

Desalination plants with a total capacity of 6 million m³/d are expected to come on line during 2013, a 50% increase on 2012, according to new data from the International Desalination Association and GWI DesalData.

Russians award Aqua-Chem SWRO contract

The Russian government has ordered the second phase of a 10,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis desalination system from Matrix, a division of Aqua-Chem Inc of Florida, USA.

UF nuclear plant contract for inge in China

Germany's inge watertechnologies AG will equip the Hongyanhe nuclear power plant near Dalian in the east of China with its dizzer 5000plus ultrafiltration (UF) modules, each rated for an output of up to 5.0 m³/h each.

Chris MacNee, chief executive of Hydrology, believes that Brazil offers opportunities for smaller operators

'Adjustable' desal plant in Brazil financed by project bond

UK water company Hydrology is to build and operate an "adjustable" desalination plant in Cubato in Sao Paulo state, Brazil, to supply industrial conglomerate Unigel.

The hyper-saline Dead Sea would receive brine from the proposed Red Sea-Dead Sea desalination scheme

Jordan and Saudi join forces for atomic-fuelled desalination

Saudi Arabia and Jordan have signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) for a feasibility study on two nuclear reactors in Jordan, to generate electricity and for desalination, reports Zawya.

Ex-USSR water minister promotes desalination for Crimea

Desalination of water from the Azov Sea could be one of the best sources for a water supply to Crimea, recently annexed by the Russian Federation, according to Polad Polad-zade, former USSR minister of water resources and deputy president of the Union of Watermen & Irrigators.

A generation of knowledge and experience in water is being lost as baby boomers retire

Is water in the grip of a skills crisis?

In an engineering-heavy sector such as water, it's a truism that well qualified people are thin on the ground. But is it more accurate to say that the global water industry in the grip of a skills crisis?

The new SWRO was opened by Jordan’s prime minister, Hani Al-Mulki (centre, left), with (from left), Tarek Dehays, AquaTreat chief executive; Hazim el Nasser, minister of water and irrigation; and (centre, right) Rateb Adwan, assistant director general for quality and desalination

Jordan's first SWRO opens for business

The opening of the first seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant in Jordan marks a jumping off point for the country from which it can continue to develop a desalination programme, including the much-anticipated Red Sea-Dead Sea project.

Population growth, drought, pollution, and high levels of leakage threaten water supply in the world's big cities

The world's top 11 most water-challenged cities

The BBC world news desk has compiled a list of the top 11 cities most likely to run out of water -- and they're not where you might think.

The development is situated to the north of Aqaba, Jordan's only coastal city

Jordan's $2.82 billion development to include desalination

Jordan has unveiled a project to develop a zone north of Aqaba of 109 kilometres squared, to include desalination capacity of 329,000 m3/d.

Red Sea Dead Sea project's overarching objectives are to desalinate water and generate energy at affordable prices for Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian Authority; to save the Dead Sea from environmental degradation; and to create a symbol of peace and cooperation in the Middle East

Suez and Mitsubishi on shortlist for Red Sea Dead Sea project

Jordan's Water and Irrigation Ministry has shortlisted five consortia to submit definitive bids for phase one of the Red Sea Dead Sea project.

Abstracts for EDS EuroMed 2010 needed by 15 February

A call for papers was issued on 3 January 2010 by the European Desalination Society (EDS) for its EuroMed 2010 conference and exhibition in Tel Aviv, Israel, on 3-7 October 2010.

IDA-GWI conference to be held in Paris in 2010

The annual conference held jointly by the International Desalination Association and Global Water Intelligence is to be held next year in Paris on 26-27 April 2010.

Salt formations in the Dead Sea

Israel mulls Red Sea Dead Sea alternative amid water price concerns

A string of consortia have entered pre-qualification bids for Jordan's Red Sea Dead Sea (RSDS) project, as Israel mulls an alternative idea amid concerns over the economics of the scheme.

Red Sea to Dead Sea investors pledge $450 million

The ambitious Red Sea to Dead Sea (RSDS) desalination project that aims to provide water to Israel, Jordan, and Palestine, has agreed investments of $450 million.

EDS urges knowledge sharing at Rome conference

The European Desalination Society (EDS) conference opened on Monday (23 May) with calls for greater collaboration among desalination professionals to address the rising gap between water supply and demand worldwide.

Red Sea-Dead Sea secures EIB backing

The landmark Red Sea-Dead Sea Water Conveyance Project has come a step closer to reality with Jordan signing a technical cooperation agreement with the European Investment Bank (EIB) and the Agence Française de Développement.

Qatar backs Palestinian water projects

The Qatar Development Fund has signed up to back Middle East Desalination Research Center (MERDC) projects in Palestine and Jordan.

Desalination Concentrate Disposal: Salt Production For Zero-Discharge System

Since large-scale desalination started, the question of how to dispose of the reject material produced by the process has occupied the minds of engineers and economists. The quantity of brine discharged from desalination plants is increasing, and this trend will be maintained for the near future. The minerals extracted must have a value, but how can this best be realised? This summation of the current state-of-the-art in brine disposal is an update of a paper originally presented at the European Desalination Society's EuroMed conference in Jordan in November 2008. The methods outlined provide both the production of a byproduct and environmental protection by processing the outfall brine from desalination plants. The process is the first step towards the "zero discharge system", and therefore the method should be considered as a novel approach rather than a competitive one to the traditional thermal, chemical and membrane processes. This article appeared in D&WR magazine's February/March 2009 issue. *Corrado Sommeriva has recently moved to ILF Consulting Engineers.

US gives cash support to Jordan water sector

The US has committed some US$ 125 million over the next five years to support projects in water conservation and efficiency in Jordan according to newspaper reports.

The Resource Watch platform from the World Resources Institute used global horizontal irradiance (GHI), a proxy for the strength and concentration of star energy hitting a PV panel, to create the ranking

Top 20 water-stressed countries with solar potential

The World Resources Institute (WRI) has named the world's top 20 most water-stressed countries which have the most solar energy potential.

Israel to join top ten water stressed by 2040

The US-based World Resources Institute has forecast that Israel will be among the world's ten most water stressed regions by 2040. Almost half of those regions will be in the Middle East according to recent report by the institute.

Israel needs no more desalination this decade

Despite a record level of drought in 2014, Israel will not need to build more major desalination capacity this decade according to a new report by the country's Water Authority.

Egypt is building desalination capacity in Sinai to support economic development

Egypt finalises finance for south Sinai desal plants

The Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development (KFAED) is to loan $100 million to the government of Egypt, completing the finance for five desalination plans in south Sinai.

The Red Sea-Dead Sea project is intended to increase supplies of potable water to Israel, Jordan, and Palestine, and to replenish the Dead Sea

Red Sea-Dead Sea tender held up by diplomatic row

The Red Sea-Dead Sea project has hit a block after Israel's embassy in Jordan was closed in response to a shooting in July 2017.

AMTA/NWMOA Utah workshop program published

The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has published the program for its joint technology transfer workshop with the Northwest Membrane Operator Association (NWMOA) in December.

MEDRC to stage World Water Forum event

The Middle East Desalination Research Center (MEDRC) is to stage a side event at the 6th World Water Forum, which takes place in Marseille, France, on 12-17 March 2012.

A slew of special awards were awarded at the close of IDA World Congress 2017

IDA World Congress 2017 award winners in full

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has recognised the best technical papers and other contributions at IDA World Congress 2017 with a roster of special awards.

Suez supports a biological treatment system for water reuse at the Bashneft oil refinery, Russia

Suez and Rosneft to build on 'exploratory agreement'

Suez's new agreement with Russian oil and gas giant Rosneft, signed in May 2018, aims to support improved water treatment across the oil company's vast portfolio.

Grundfos headquarters in Bjerringbro, Denmark, is the base for a global pumps business

Grundfos gains outpace global pumps market

Pumps manufacturer Grundfos has reported organic sales growth of 0.5 per cent for 2016, helped by a strong second half.

IDE Technologies will supply RO technology to support industry on the Taman Peninsular, Russia

IDE Technologies sells RO system to Russia's Oteko

IDE Technologies is to provide a reverse osmosis desalination system to Russian oil transporter Oteko for a plant on the shores of the Black Sea.

The coastal region of Bushehr, in the Persian Gulf, is in the south west of Iran

Iran poised to finance nuclear plants with co-located desalination

Iran has begun constructing two nuclear power plants, to be co-located with desalination facilities of 200 million m3/d, reports Iranian government news agency, Islamic Republic News Agency.

'Honoured to serve.' Shannon McCarthy, IDA secretary general

McCarthy in as new IDA secretary general

Shannon McCarthy has been appointed secretary general of the International Desalination Association (IDA) at IDA World Congress 2017 in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Aquarion sets up in Russia

Swizerland-based water systems company, Aquarion Group, has established a Russian operation, Aquarion Russia, to focus on providing water and wastewater treatment to industrial customers in Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States.

Russian heavy oil recovery enhanced by water reuse

OPERATED BY Russia's second largest oil producer, a heavy oil field in northwest Russia has been increasing the volume of crude processing with technology that supports enhanced recovery rates and reduced environmental impact. In 2008, they took the first steps to develop a less water-intensive way of processing produced water by conducting a feasibility study comparing different water reuse strategies. By replacing traditional treatment methods with thermal evaporator technology for produced water, this will be the first entity in Russia to use recycled water from enhanced oil recovery in the treatment of heavy oil produced water. This article first appeared in the issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Seprotech appoints new CEO and president

Ottawa-based Seprotech Systems Inc, developer of CrystalBlue™ membrane-based water recycling systems, announced a new chairman and CEO on 27 January 2011,

Chinese licensee joins Dow residential Filmtec program

Haier Group of China, a leading multinational home appliances and consumer electronics company, has become the latest official licensee to partner with Dow Water & Process Solutions in its newly launched Filmtec™ reverse osmosis (RO) ingredient branding program.

Sanjeev Sharma

Sharma leads IDE's marketing in Indian region

Sanjeev Sharma has been appointed head of marketing for desalination company IDE Technologies Ltd in the Indian region.

Permit sought for RO discharge to Great Salt Lake

A proposal from the Jordan Valley Water Conservancy District (JCWCD) in Utah, USA, to discharge reject brine from a 7-14 MGD (26,000-53,000 m³/d) reverse-osmosis desalination (RO) plant into the Great Salt Lake is out for public comment from 1 December 2010 as part of the permit process.

One of the project's goals is to regenerate the Dead Sea

Israel poised to approve Red Sea-Dead Sea project

Approval for the Red Sea-Dead Sea desalination project could be given by the Israeli government before national elections scheduled for 9 April 2019, reports AL-Monitor.

Desalination plants part of Palestine agreement

Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu issued a statement on 4 February 2011 agreeing to improvements in water, sewerage and electricity in Palestinian areas, following a meeting with Tony Blair, representative of the "Quartet" (USA, the United Nations, Russia and the European Union).

The EU grant will support expansion of capacity at As Samra in the context of the Syrian refugee crisis

EU gives $34 million to expand capacity and grow reuse at As Samra, Jordan

The European Union (EU) has granted €30 million ($34 million) to expand capacity and increase water reuse at As Samra wastewater treatment plant in Jordan.

Hyflux-led venture wins deal for giant Oman desalination plant

A consortium led by Singapore-based desalination company, Hyflux, has won a contract to build a OMR 100 million (US$ 260 million) seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant in Oman. The 200 Ml/d independent water project located in Qurayyat, in the Muscat governorate, will be the largest in the sultanate and supply some 17% of its peak demand.

Ras Al Khaimah seawater desalination has algae shield

Northernmost of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Ras Al Khaimah, has opened a 68 Ml/d seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) project in Ghallilah on the emirate's west coast that is equipped to "overcome the red tide phenomena" - the seasonal proliferation of algae that blights the emirates' coastline.

IDE claims production record at Ashkelon

Water treatment firm, IDE Technologies, has claimed that its seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant at Ashkelon, Israel, has reached a world record with 1 billion m³ of potable water produced since the start of its operation in 2005.

Japanese-led consortium bags US$ 120 million Saudi desalination deal

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) has awarded a US$ 120 million contract for the expansion of the Shuaiba 2 seawater desalination plant to a joint venture including ACWA Holding and Japanese engineering firms Itochu Corporation and Sasakura.

Mexico invests heavily in six new desalination projects

Mexico is investing more than one billion pesos in six initiatives to construct seawater reverse osmosis desalination plants on the country's coast where, according to national water authority Conagua, water availability is low while there is high potential for development.

Jersey plans desalination boost

Channel Island water utility, Jersey Water, is proposing a £6million extension to its 6 Ml/d, seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant at La Rosière, Corbiere, at the south-west corner of the island to cope with a "once in fifty years" severe drought.

UK utility ponders south coast desalination plant

UK utility, Southern Water, is considering the construction of a seawater desalination plant near the south coast city of Southampton.

Biwater completes Virgin Islands desalination plant

Water technology company, Biwater, has started full commercial operation of a new 10,400 m³/day reverse osmosis seawater desalination plant constructed by the firm on the island of Tortola in the British Virgin Islands.

Contractor strength drives investment grade rating for Carlsbad bonds

Credit rating agency, Fitch, has assigned an investment grade 'BBB-' rating to bonds issued for the under-construction Carlsbad desalination plant and associated networks in California.

Caribbean desalination expansion completes tests

The Desalination company of Trinidad and Tobago (Desalcott) has recently completed a performance test of its expanded Point Lisas seawater reverse osmosis plant.

Cal Am strikes deal on test well

Utility, California American Water (Cal Am), has struck a deal with cement maker, Cemex, to allow the water firm to drill slant test wells, and possibly production wells, on Cemex' north Marina sand mining plant site.

Oman calls for tenders on desalination plant pair

Oman's Public Authority for Electricity and Water (PAEW) has unveiled plans to open the construction of two water desalination plants to tender.

POSCO claims desalination first in Korea

Korean construction company POSCO E&C has completed the construction of what it claims to be the nation's first commercial seawater desalination plant.

Desalia starts works on Egypt reverse osmosis plant

Spain's Desalia has started site works for a new, 24,000 m³/d seawater reverse osmosis plant west of Alexandria, Egypt near the city of Matrouh.

California slant test gets US$ 1 million grant

Water utility, California American Water, has received a US$1 million grant from the state's Department of Water Resources to help fund the company's $4 million planned slant well test.

RWL-led Mexico seawater desalination project starts construction

A consortium of RWL Water Group and Mexico's, Libra Ingenieros Civiles and RJ Ingenieria has begun construction of 22,000 m3/d reverse osmosis (RO) seawater desalination plant in Mexico's Baja California.

Indian PM pledges to settle Gujarat desalination project issues

India's prime minister Narendra Modi has pledged, during a current visit to Japan, to resolve outstanding issues with a 336Ml/d seawater desalination project underway in South Gujarat and led by a Singaporean and Japanese consortium.

Venezuela's largest desalination plant to start this year

Venezuela state-owned oil firm PDVSA expects by the end of the year to start operating a US$ 200 million seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant to provide water for oil refineries on the Paraguaná peninsula and drinking water for local communities.

SWCC governor Dr AbdulRahman Al-Ibrahim and Ryuzo Sakamoto, chairman of Toyobo, opening the Rabigh plant.

Toyobo desalination membrane plant opened in Rabigh

The ACWA-Toyobo joint venture in Saudi Arabia, Arabian Japanese Membrane Company LLC (AJMC), opened its reverse-osmosis membrane production facility in Rabigh on 29 May 2014.

Electrochemical desalination MoU signed in Singapore

A memorandum of understanding (MoU) between Singapore's national water agency, PUB, and Evoqua Water Technologies to further develop electrochemical desalination technology was one of five MoUs signed during Singapore International Water Week, which ended on 5 June 2014.

Texas Desalination Association plans September conference

The Texas Desalination Association is hosting its second annual conference Texas Desal 2014: Best Practices and Emerging Technology on 11-12 September 2014 in Austin, Texas.

Malaysian desalination plant in Tianjin will be ZLD

A groundbreaking ceremony took place on 29 May 2014 for an industrial desalination project in Tianjin, China, which is claimed to be the first zero-liquid discharge seawater desalination project in the world.

Abengoa to build SWRO plant in Agadir, Morocco

Spanish contractor Abengoa has been chosen by Morocco's Office National de l'Electricité et de l'Eau Potable (ONEE) to construct a new desalination plant in Agadir, Morocco.

Land-purchase brings Consolidated's Mexican SWRO nearer

The planned Rosarito seawater desalination project in Mexico close to the US border took a step nearer on 22 May 2014 when Consolidated Water Co Ltd announced that it had completed the land purchase for the project.

Fluor to build Dow's RO membrane factory in Saudi Arabia

Fluor Corporation has been awarded a contract by the Dow Chemical Company to build Dow's reverse osmosis (RO) membrane manufacturing facility in Jubail Industrial City II in Saudi Arabia.

Hyflux sees Dahej desalination funding 'within year'

Hyflux has extended the time it foresees for financial closure on its Dahej seawater desalination plant in India to "within this year".

Desalination quartet booked for Masdar pilot plants in UAE

Three major contractors in the global desalination business - Abengoa, Degrémont and Sidem/Veolia - together with forward-osmosis developer Trevi Systems, were awarded contracts on 5 May 2014 by Abu Dhabi's Masdar, to each start the construction of a 1,500 m³/d desalination plant as part of Masdar's pilot project announced in 2013.

Largest desalination plant produces its first water

Production of water has started at what will be the largest desalination facility in the world, the 1,025 million m³/d Ras al-Khair (Ras Azzour) seawater plant northwest of Jubail in Saudi Arabia.

Desalination pilot-study funding approved for Corpus Christi

A further step towards a future seawater desalination plant in Corpus Christi, Texas, USA, was taken on 22 April 2014, when the city council approved funding for a pilot study to be undertaken by Freese & Nichols Inc.

Doosan chooses BEL for Escondida pressure‑vessels

Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction has chosen BEL reverse‑osmosis (RO) membrane pressure‑vessels for its Escondida seawater RO project in Chile.

Antigua seawater desalination plant poised for start

West Indies island, Antigua is currently testing a reverse osmosis seawater desalination facility which could come on stream in March.

Beijing desalinated water supply could reach 1 billion m³/yr

A 3 million m³/d seawater desalination plant to supply the Chinese capital Beijing is being planned by Hong Kong-based Beijing Enterprise Water Group Ltd (BEWG), in addition to a 1 million m³/d plant on which the company is currently working.

GE and Aramco launch desalination energy challenge

GE ecomagination and Aramco Entrepreneurship launched a worldwide open technology challenge on 15 April 2014 to speed up efforts to improve the energy-efficiency of seawater desalination.

Carollo to evaluate restarting Santa Barbara desalination

The City of Santa Barbara, California, has selected Carollo Engineers to complete a three-phase evaluation for the reactivation of the city's Charles Meyer seawater desalination plant.

Consolidated awarded two Cayman desalination contracts

Consolidated Water Co Ltd announced on 9 April 2014 a new contract to refurbish the Lower Valley desalination plant, which it built in 1997, and the extension of an existing contract to operate the North Sound desalination plant.

AWA/NCEDA workshop on "big six" desalination plants

The Australian Water Association is holding a workshop, sponsored by the National Centre of Excellence in Desalination, on the "big six" Australian desalination plants.


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