Irrigation, Energy, Drainage


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Desalination demonstration to tackle California's agricultural drainage

Desalination technology is to be used in California's Central Valley to convert high salinity agricultural drainage water into fresh water for irrigation and CO2-negative products derived from the waste salts.

The Yuma desalination plant

Yuma desalination plant pilot run concluded successfully

The year-long pilot run of the revamped Yuma desalination plant on the Colorado river in the USA has ended in success, the Bureau of Reclamation announced on 1 April 2011.

Yuma desalination plant restarted for pilot run

Representatives from the US Department of the Interior and three municipal water agencies gathered on 28 April 2010 to launch a one-year pilot run of the Bureau of Reclamation's Yuma Desalting Plant.

Papers invited for 3rd salinity forum in June 2014

Papers have been invited for the 3rd International Salinity Forum in Riverside, California, in June 2014.

From top left: Juan Miguel Pinto, Energy Recovery Inc, Guillaume Clairet, H20 Innovation, Renato Ramos, Dow Water & Process Solutions, and Miguel Angel Sanz, Suez

The experts' pick of the panels at IDA World Congress 2017

The crack team behind the technical program at IDA World Congress 2017 in Sau Paulo, Brazil, have selected their personal not-be-missed favourite sessions from a packed line-up.

South Africa to focus on desalination and water reuse

Desalination and the reuse of wastewater from municipalities and mining are strongly emphasised in the 2nd National Water Resources Strategy (NWRS2) for South Africa released at the start of July 2013.

Jaffna Peninsula is at the northern tip of Sri Lanka

ADB loans $120 million to desalination project in Jaffna, Sri Lanka

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is to loan $120 million for a desalination project to supply Jaffna Peninsula, Sri Lanka.

Oman water-reuse contract awarded by Haya Water

Oman's Haya Water awarded a RO 26.7 million (US$ 69.6 million) contract on 21 May 2012 to Contractors Union Co to construct the second phase of a water-reuse project in Al Qurum and Madinat Al Ilam areas in Muscat Governorate.

The project site is U-shaped, and is surrounded by lots filled by industrial operators and their associated infrastructure

Jebel Ali project is a new direction for DEWA and Besix

The $237 million contract awarded by Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) for a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant represents a big step for the client, and for Besix Concessions & Assets, which won the work in partnership with Acciona Agua.

Giant solar desalination project plans US$ 10 million public offering

Shares in what would be California's first commercial-scale solar desalination plant issued by WaterFX will this year form a US$ 10 million state-registered direct public offering (DPO) in the state.

Solar desalination plant to serve California's Central Valley

Solar desalinatetion specialist, HydroRevolution, is raising funding to construct a solar-powered multi-effect distillation desalination plant in the Panoche Water and Drainage District in the Central Valley.

GE evaporators chosen for Alberta bitumen project

MEG Energy Corp has selected GE evaporation technology for reusing steam generator water for boiler feed in a bitumen extraction project in Alberta, Canada.

IDE/Clean Harbours tie-up aims at oil sands clean-up

Desalination designer and constructor IDE Technologies Ltd and US waste and wastewater specialist Clean Harbors today announced a joint research and development (R&D) program to increase the availability and reliability of mechanical vapor compression (MVC) evaporators for treating oil sands produced water in Alberta, Canada.

The development is situated to the north of Aqaba, Jordan's only coastal city

Jordan's $2.82 billion development to include desalination

Jordan has unveiled a project to develop a zone north of Aqaba of 109 kilometres squared, to include desalination capacity of 329,000 m3/d.

Aquatech sells produced-water evaporators in Alberta

Aquatech is to design, engineer, supply and supervise installation and commissioning of a produced-water evaporator system for Pengrowth Energy Corporation's Lindbergh 12,500 bpd Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) enhanced oil-recovery facility.

Another oil-sands evaporation contract for GE in Alberta

GE has won its fifth contract in the Alberta oil sands of Canada for use of its evaporation technologies for recycling the blowdown from once-through steam generators (OSTGs).

Bitumen producer using GE evaporation technology

GE's produced-water evaporation technology has been chosen for Phase 1 of the Algar Lake Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) project near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, which will produce 5,000-6,000 barrels/d of bitumen.

IDA Fellowship winners from Iran and Japan

This year's winners of the International Desalination Association's Fellowship awards come from Iran and Japan, IDA announced on 27 April 2009.

Ethanol production water warning from US researchers

Desalination practitioners struggling to reduce the energy consumption of their plants and water engineers fighting shortages might be interested in the following table showing how much water is consumed producing various forms of energy in the USA.

Water in Mining: Efficiency, Reuse, Water Management Strategies & Technologies will be hosted on 9 to 10 April 2019, in Toronto, Canada

Water in Mining 2019 unveils full speaker line-up

Water in Mining 2019 has unveiled its full conference programme packed with debate, knowledge sharing, networking, case studies, round tables and panel discussions on the latest in water management for mining companies.

The new desalination plants will serve communities including those of the tourist resorts at Sharm el-Sheikh

Kuwait Fund finances four desalination plants in Egypt

Kuwait Fund is to loan Egypt KWD 15 million ($49 million) to construct four desalination plants in South Sinai governorate.

Mangaluru is the main port city in Karnataka state, and is situated on the Arabian Sea

Karnataka state, India, approves port city desalination project

The technical and economic feasibility of a new desalination plant for Mangaluru city in Karnataka, southwest India, has been approved by state authorities, reports Bangalore Mirror.

Veolia to build drinking water network in Sri Lanka

Veolia has won a E156 million ($164 million) contract to design and build a water treatment and conveyance network supplying potable water to 350,000 people in the Greater Matale region of Sri Lanka.

Sri Lanka is developing desalination capacity to support communities in places like capital city Colombo

Sri Lanka powers ahead with desalination plans

The Sri Lankan government is moving ahead with its plans to produce desalinated water, issuing a request for qualifications on one project, and an invitation for bids on another.

Indian state gives green light to desalination duo

India's Tamil Nadu state government has given the go-ahead for two 60 Ml/d output seawater reverse osmosis desalination plants at Kuthiraimozhi in Ramanathapuram and Alanthalai in the port city of Tuticorin. They will supply more than 1,100 rural areas where provision of safe drinking water has been a long-standing challenge.

Mining water treatment market to grow 85% by 2019

The global water treatment market for hard-rock mining - iron, copper, gold, nickel - is set to grow 85% to US$ 17 billion by 2019 according to market analyst, Bluefield Research.

IDE sells two MVC evaporators to Alberta oil-sands site

IDE Technologies Ltd announced on 10 March 2014 that it had sold two IDE horizontal mechanical vapor compression (MVC) evaporators to increase the produced water treatment capacity of a steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) production site in Northern Alberta.

GE wins oilsands evaporator contract in Alberta

GE's water evaporation technology will treat de-oiled produced water, boiler and heat-recovery steam-generator blowdown and brackish makeup water for Sunshine Oilsands at its West Ells project in Ft McMurray, Alberta, Canada.

Speakers announced for IDA conference in Banff

Speakers and sessions for the May conference on Water Recycling and Desalination for the Oil & Gas Industry have been announced by the organizers, the International Desalination Association (IDA).

Veolia installing evaporator in Alberta oil sands

Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies is currently installing an evaporator/crystallizer system at Southern Pacific Resource Corp's STP-McKay project currently under way in northern Alberta, Canada.

Water reuse in Sao Paulo agreement with Israel

Water reuse was near the top of a long list of issues for discussion when Israel's minister of industry, trade and labor, Shalom Simhon, signed a technical cooperation agreement on 16 May 2011 with Sabesp, the water utility for the state of Sao Paolo, Brazil.

Australian authority moves to secure desalination future

Gosford City & Wyong Shire Councils' Water Authority in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, is working with the two councils for approval of initial site works for the proposed Toukley Desalination Plant.

World's largest membrane leachate-treatment plant handed over

Norit X-Flow and ISTAÇ (Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality Environmental Protection & Waste Materials Valuation Industry) celebrated the handover on 17 August 2010 of a notable wastewater treatment project: the treatment of leachate from the Istanbul landfill in Odayeri and Kömürcüoda.

Norit in Chinese wastewater reuse success

A Norit & GreenTech Engineering consortium has been officially awarded the contract for the design, procurement, installation and start-up of the 180,000 m³/d Qinghe Municipal Wastewater Reuse Project in Beijing, China, Norit announced on 18 December 2009

Mexico seeks investment for Ensenada desalination plant

Mexico is looking for funding to build a desalination plant in Ensenada, Baja California, to supply drinking water to 96,000 people.

Aqua Engineering wins seawater desalination orders

Two major seawater desalination orders for the United Arab Emirates and Egypt have been won by Austria's Aqua Engineering GmbH, part of the Christ Water Technology Group.

Construction starts on Melbourne desalination plant

Construction started on 6 October 2009 on the Melbourne Desalination Project in Australia, which will provide up to 150 million m³ of water each year to the city from the end of 2011.

VSEP NF system used at Brazilian ethanol plant

A full-scale vibratory shear enhanced process (VSEP) membrane separation system has been commissioned successfully by New Logic Research at a Brazilian ethanol plant.

Desalitech wins US golf-course desalination contract

Reverse-osmosis (RO) developer Desalitech Inc has won a competitive bid to supply a water purification system using its Closed Circuit Desalination (CCD) system to the Kittansett Club golf course in Marion, Massachusetts, USA.

Israel/Canada pact to promote wastewater reuse

Israel and Canada are to work together on wastewater reuse following a ministerial meeting on 9 December 2012 in Jerusalem.

Fundación Chile's demonstration plant at the opening ceremony

Chilean solar desalination demo precurses pilot project

A demonstration solar-powered desalination plant was installed in mid‑March 2013 in Arica, Chile, by Fundación Chile, in advance of a pilot project for irrigation purposes.

Russians to cooperate on Jordan desalination

Desalination plants were included in a nuclear cooperation agreement signed on 22 May 2009 by Russia and Jordan, which also included power stations, research facilities and personnel training centres to be built in Jordan.

Oil company invests US$ 2.5 million in Saltworks desalination

Canadian oil company Cenovus Energy Inc is investing Can$ 2.5 million (US$ 2.56 million) in Vancouver-based desalination startup company Saltworks Technologies Inc.

Nuclear energy to supply Jordan desalination plants

Four nuclear power plants in the southern region of Jordan will provide almost 750 MW of energy for desalination and water pumping, according to a report in the Jordan Times.

Australia failing to meet wastewater reuse targets

Australia is falling well behind in the targets it has set itself for wastewater reuse, according to a study carried out for the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population & Communities by Marsden Jacob Associates (MJA).

The Al Ansab SMBR plant is one of the largest of its type in the world.

Reused effluent to reach 20% of Muscat by end 2011

The Ghala Golf Club in Muscat, Oman, is the latest facility to receive millions of litres of treated effluent for irrigation from Haya Water, as the company continues to expand its customer base for reused wastewater across the Muscat area.

Desalination and reuse in Mexico-Israel water agreement

Desalination and wastewater treatment and reuse were part of an agreement signed on 14 November 2011 between the Mexican national water agency, Conagua, and Israel's Ministry of Industry, Trade & Labor.

Public meeting set for San Joaquin water reuse EIS

The US Bureau of Reclamation has set a public scoping meeting for 13 May 2014 as part of the environmental impact statement (EIS) process for the proposed North Valley Regional Recycled Water Program (NVRRWP) in California's San Joaquin Valley.

Degremont-Marubeni JV wins Doha wastewater reuse extension

Qatar's Public Works Authority has awarded a € 65 million contract for expanding the Doha West membrane-based wastewater treatment and recycling plant to a joint venture of France's Degrémont and Japan's Marubeni Corporation.

Desalitech and Veolia tie up Mexican MoU

Desalitech Inc has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies to bring advanced cost‑effective high‑recovery water solutions to Mexico and additional countries worldwide.

Reuse plant eases Melbourne's water demand

The Aus$ 48 million (US$ 52.6 million) recycled water plant in Altona, Australia, was commissioned on 19 April 2011 by Victoria state's minister for water, Peter Walsh.

ACWA wins two membrane-based projects in Saudi

Two separate contracts for membrane-based water and wastewater projects in Saudi Arabia have been awarded to ACWA Emirates LLC of Dubai.

Mojave desert utility to build twin MBR plants

Two identical membrane bioreactor plants are being planned by the Victor Valley Water Reclamation Authority (VVWRA) on the edge of the Mojave desert east of Los Angeles, USA.

Desalination promotion part of Colorado river agreement

Mexico and the USA agreed to promote cooperation on desalination technology through the construction of more competitive desalination plants as part of an agreement on the use of the Colorado river signed on 20 December 2010.

Methane to power Queensland CSG desalination plant

A desalination plant in southwest Queensland for the burgeoning coal-seam gas (CSG) industry is to be built by a consortium of GE and Laing O'Rourke for leading Australian gas explorer and producer QGC.

Parkson breaks new ground with Saudi MBR plant

A 2,000 m³/d wastewater-reuse plant based on membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has just been commissioned in Rabigh, Saudi Arabia, by Florida-based Parkson.

Giant SMBR wastewater reuse plant passes proving test

One of the largest submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) wastewater treatment plants in the world, ACWA MBR's flagship Al Ansab plant in Muscat, Oman, has successfully gone through its proving process.

The Lighthouse Point plant is designed to blend with the Blaine waterfront.

MBR at heart of new Blaine water reclamation facility

One of the USA's most advanced water reclamation facilities opened on 6 August 2010 in Blaine, Washington.

IFC to support large Moroccan desalination project

The International Finance Corporation (IFC), part of the World Bank, signed an agreement on 4 May 2010 with the government of Morocco to support private investment in a new desalination and irrigation plant that will help improve the water supply to a vital agricultural region.

Florida state official urges more seawater desalination

Florida, which is about to become the third most populous state in the USA, has been urged by its agriculture commissioner, Adam Putnam, to invest more in seawater desalination to combat water scarcity.

MBR upgrade for Budapest suburb's wastewater reuse

Membrane bioreactor (MBR) ultrafiltration technology is to be supplied to a suburb of Hungary's capital, Budapest, by GE to expand a wastewater reuse system and improve water quality.

Reverse-osmosis racks at the Scottsdale AWT expansion

Large RO membranes at heart of Scottsdale expansion

The 7.1 MGD (26,900 m³/d) expansion of the City of Scottsdale's Water Campus Advanced Water Treatment (AWT) plant in Arizona, USA, is now fully operational creating a total of 20 MGD (75,700 m³/d) of reused wastewater.

Desalination / reuse part of large EIB loan to Spain

Desalination plants, water-reuse schemes and connections from them to water networks will be among schemes funded by a € 350 million loan from the European Investment Bank (EIB) to the Spanish government agency Acuamed.

X-Flow UF modules to treat Saudi hospital wastewater

Pentair X-Flow's Airlift™ MBR Megablock ultrafiltration (UF) system is treat 8,000 m³/d of hospital wastewater at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Spanish province seeks to coax farmers to use desalinated water

The new provincial government for Valencia, Spain is seeking to encourage farmers to use desalinated water to irrigate their fields in the face of strong farming community reluctance due to high cost and low quality.

Bay agencies band together for water reuse funding

Water reuse, particularly for irrigation, is getting major attention in the San Francisco Bay area of California, USA. Municipalities and water districts are banding together to obtain federal funding.

US$ 10.6 million grant for water-reuse schemes

The US Bureau of Reclamation announced on 4 May 2012 the selection of seven projects in the Mid-Pacific Region to receive more than US$ 10.6 million in WaterSMART Title XVI water recycling and reuse funding.

Construction work on the South Bay Advanced Water Treatment Facility

City seeks to join South Bay reuse system

The City of Sunnyvale in California voted on 6 March 2012 to explore connecting its recycled water system to the South Bay Water Recycling (SBWR) system operated by the City of San Jose in partnership with the Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD).

New San Francisco wastewater reuse project relocated

San Francisco's Westside Recycled Water Project, which will reuse up to 4 MGD (15,140 m³/d) of secondary effluent, will no longer be built in the city's historic Golden Gate Park.

Gold miner opts for desalination to supply planned Mexican mine

The gold mining arm of energy firm, Chesapeake, has opted to use desalinated seawater to supply water for its proposed Metates gold and silver mining project in Durango state, Mexico. It has tendered for proposals to build and operate a 55Ml/d desalination facility to supply the mine with fresh water.

Israel and Jordan seal water-swap deal

Israel and Jordan have signed a bilateral agreement to exchange water and pipe Red Sea desalination brines to the shrinking Dead Sea.



Reuse highlighted in WSAA urban water roadmap

The volume of water being recycled by the largest water utilities in Australia has increased by 117% since 1999/2000. In addition, it is estimated that, by 2013, 460 million m³/year will be supplied to Australia's growing cities by desalination plants.

Grundfos bags US$ 1.1 million grant for wastewater treatment research

Singapore has awarded pump and water technologies company, Grundfos, a S$1.4 million (US$ 1.1 million) grant to develop a wastewater filtration technology which the company says can "significantly reduce" capital investment and operational costs for wastewater treatment.

Green energy firm plans frack water desalination

Australian renewable energy firm AGL plans to install a 2 Ml/d desalination plant to treat water produced during hydraulic fracturing (fracking) at its Gloucester coal-seam gas project.

The project south of Lantau Island is Hong Kong’s first integrated waste management facility

Hong Kong awards mega waste-to-energy project to Keppel and Zhen Hau

Keppel Seghers Hong Kong and Zhen Hau Engineering have won a contract for a large scale integrated waste management project, to include a desalination plant, in Hong Kong.

UK seawater desalination may become necessary, says IMechE report

Seawater desalination may become necessary in the United Kingdom if precipitation does not provide sufficient water, according to a report Climate change: adapting to the inevitable published in February 2009 by the UK Institution of Mechanical Engineers.

Food for thought for delegates at EDS conference

The continuously queuing water tankers in the road servicing the King Hussein Bin Talal Convention Centre and its four adjacent hotels leave visitors in no doubt that Jordan is one of the most water-scarce countries in the world.

South Florida embraces desalination and water reuse for the future

The days of limitless and cheap water in South Florida are gone. Planning, investments in alternative water sources such as desalination and reuse, and conservation are required to secure reliability and sustainability of current and future water supplies. The South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) is the oldest and largest of the five districts in Florida. The district's mission is to oversee the water resources in the southern half of the state by balancing and improving water quality, flood control, natural systems and water supply within a 16-county region. A key initiative is restoration of the Everglades, a vast wetlands and US national park. By augmenting supplies through alternative sources - including desalination of brackish and seawater, reclaimed water and reducing demand through year-round water conservation, the SFWMD hopes to continue quenching the thirst for a renewed environment and an ever-growing population. Realizing that water desalination using reverse osmosis is energy-intensive, the district also supports studies and projects that use renewable energy to reduce the carbon footprint, operate more efficiently to reduce water use, and manage concentrate to protect the environment. To encourage diversification of water resources, public utilities that use reclaimed water for outdoor irrigation are exempt from water-shortage restrictions. This article appeared in the February/March 2009 issue of D&WR magazine.

Evoqua continues water technology purchasing spree

Evoqua has continued on its acquisition trail with a clutch of purchases covering wastewater solutions and irrigation components.

IDA releases program details for Morocco conference

The International Desalination Association released details on 19 January 2012 of the Program Highlights of the Desalination and Sustainability conference which will take place on 1-2 March 2012 in Casablanca, Morocco.

Washington desalination/reuse view in WRA webcast

The WateReuse Association will present a webcast on 5 March 2014 providing an insider update on cutting-edge federal legislative and policy issues of interest to the water reuse and desalination communities.

New hybrid membranes chosen for Victor Valley MBRs

The Victor Valley Wastewater Reclamation Authority (VVWRA), on the edge of the Mojave desert in California, has selected FibrePlate™ hybrid-membrane™ technology manufactured by Fibracast Inc for two sub-regional membrane bioreactor (MBR) facilities.

NSF publishes commercial/residential water-reuse standard

The first US national standard for commercial and residential onsite water-reuse treatment systems was published on 15 November 2011 by NSF International, the US-based public health and environmental organization.

India's prime minister Narendra Modi (left), and Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu, aboard a Galmobile desalination unit on Olga Beach, Israel

Desal at the centre of India-Israel state visit

Desalination and water policy was at the centre of Indian prime minister Narendra Modi's visit to Israel last week (4 to 6 July, 2017).

USBF/MBR system allows Canadian wastewater reuse

A wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) expansion featuring an upward sludge blanket filter (USBF) combined with a membrane bioreactor (MBR) has been completed at Snug Cove on Bowen Island in British Columbia, Canada.

Desalination and reuse in Water Leaders' Blue Paper

Key ideas from the Water Leaders Summit at this year's Singapore International Water Week have been captured in the latest Water Week 2011 publications, Blue Paper and Solutions.

Osmoflo wins industrial water-reuse project

Australia's Osmoflo has won a tender to design, build, operate and maintain a Aus$ 5 million (US$ 5.3 million) water-recycling plant and reticulation system at the Nyrstar Port Pirie smelter north of Adelaide in South Australia.

Cost, regulation and water scarcity are driving a shift in mindset toward resource recovery in brine treatment

The Long Read: Where's the innovation in brine treatment?

As water scarcity bites and the drive to recycle water grows, the focus on recovering clean water and other resources from brine is sharpening. The challenge is particularly pertinent for industrial operators.

Dr Isabel Escobar

Escobar appointed as editor-in-chief of IDA journal

Dr Isabel Escobar of the University of Toledo, Ohio, USA, has been appointed by the International Desalination Association (IDA) to succeed Dr Jim Birkett as editor-in-chief of the IDA Journal of Desalination & Water Reuse.

Chinese lead water-reuse positivity in GE survey

GE announced on 5 June 2013 the final part of the results from its three-country 3,000-sample consumer water-reuse survey.

GE commissions MBR plant for Spanish poultry firm

GE has commissioned its first LEAPmbr installation in Spain at a wastewater treatment plant owned by the Spanish poultry processing firm, Procavi SL.

Parsons selected for California water-reuse expansion

California's West Basin Water District has awarded its largest ever water-reuse contract to Pasadena-based Parsons Corporation on a design-build basis.

The Victorian Desalination Plant is located at the southerly most tip of Australia on the Bass Coast

AquaSure's Victorian Desalination Plant secures its first water order

The Victorian Desalination Project (VDP) is a mega-size seawater RO facility, able to produce up to 150 billion litres of water a year when running at full capacity. Located at the southerly most tip of Australia on the Bass Coast, it was procured by the Victorian State government from AquaSure, a joint venture of Degrémont (now Suez), Macquarie Capital, and Thiess (now Ventia), in 2009, for a capital cost of $3.5 billion.

Desalination part of new Algeria-Morocco cooperation

A meeting on issues related to water management and purification and seawater desalination is to be held in Algiers on 18 April 2011 between officials from the relevant ministries in Algeria and Morocco.

Escondido moves towards indirect potable reuse

The City of Escondido in southern California, USA, could be about to follow neighbour San Diego in setting up an indirect potable water-reuse (IPR) scheme as part of a wastewater facility upgrade costing about US$ 200 million.

More desalination and reuse potential in Western Australia

Western Australia's Water Corporation is considering up to three seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plants along the southern coast of its area, known as Lower Great Southern, as part of a potential portfolio of water resources for the next 30 years.

GHD leads Sydney water recycling consortium

A consortium led by engineering consultants GHD has been selected by the City of Sydney, Australia, to develop a decentralised water masterplan for the Local Government Area (LGA), which would include Australia's first city-wide recycled water network and significantly reduce demands on drinking water supplies.

T Park sets the bar high with advanced desalination plant

Veolia chief executive Antoine Frerot hailed "the sewage stations of the future" on opening T Park in Hong Kong, the world's largest sewage treatment plant, on 26 May.

Red Sea to Dead Sea investors pledge $450 million

The ambitious Red Sea to Dead Sea (RSDS) desalination project that aims to provide water to Israel, Jordan, and Palestine, has agreed investments of $450 million.

Abu Dhabi rejects more desalination despite growing water stress

Environment Policy and Planning at Environment Agency - Abu Dhabi (EAD) has rejected upping desalination as a means to counter growing water scarcity in the emirate, opting instead for conservation and reuse.


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