Industrial, Finance, British Virgin Islands, Recovery, Colombia, Recovery, Desalination, Wastewater Treatment, Recovery, Cyprus, Oil & Gas, Hawaii
Nirosoft wins large Colombian desalination plant
Nirosoft Industries Ltd has been awarded a contract by Pacific Rubiales Energy Corp (PREC) for design and construction of a produced-water desalination plant in Colombia.
Study starts on salinity reclamation of W Australian river
Mitigation measures such as desalination and diversion could be proposed for the Collie river basin in Western Australia as a result of an independent review of possible strategies for salinity recovery, which has just been started by consultants KPMG and Worley Parsons.
Biwater gets Barclays backing for Caribbean SWRO plant
A Caribbean water and wastewater project, including a 10,400 m³/d seawater desalination plant, has received financial backing worth US$ 43 million from Barclays, backed by a UK Export Finance Guarantee.
US$ 6.25 million equity investment for Desalitech
Reverse-osmosis (RO) innovator Desalitech Inc has secured an equity investment of U$$ 6.25 million led by Liberation Capital LLC, which will be used for business expansion and working capital.
Interview: Juan Miguel Pinto, ALADYR president
The new president of ALADYR, the Latin America desalination and water reuse association, sees his organisation as a window onto the region for international companies. His big aim is to step up events during 2018, taking knowledge of desalination and reuse out to the market.
Biwater completes Virgin Islands desalination plant
Water technology company, Biwater, has started full commercial operation of a new 10,400 m³/day reverse osmosis seawater desalination plant constructed by the firm on the island of Tortola in the British Virgin Islands.
"We're now at more than $100 million revenue." Doug Brown, AquaVenture chairman and CEO
AquaVenture chief executive Doug Brown has a track record of delivering shareholder value. When he joined water technology and engineering firm Ionics as chief executive in 2003, the struggling business was trading at $16 a share.
Consolidated Water lines up Mexican mega-project
The Playas de Rosarito seawater RO desalination mega-plant project has been six years in the making. It began as a twinkle in Consolidated Water's eye even before Mexico had introduced its new public-private partnerships law, but the act's introduction in 2012 gave the project a clear structure for moving ahead.
China's Tri-Tech acquires Wisconsin desalination provider
Desalination and wastewater treatment provider J&Y International Inc, based in Wisconsin, USA, was acquired by subsidiaries of Tri-Tech Holding Inc of China on 9 June 2011.
Desalination / reuse part of large EIB loan to Spain
Desalination plants, water-reuse schemes and connections from them to water networks will be among schemes funded by a € 350 million loan from the European Investment Bank (EIB) to the Spanish government agency Acuamed.
Desalitech and Veolia tie up Mexican MoU
Desalitech Inc has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies to bring advanced cost‑effective high‑recovery water solutions to Mexico and additional countries worldwide.
Desalitech ties up with Toyo for international market
Innovative reverse-osmosis (RO) developer Desalitech and Japan's Toyo Engineering Corporation announced on 11 December 2013 the formation of a strategic partnership to introduce water and wastewater treatment solutions to Japanese, East Asian and international markets.
LACSD signs up Desalitech for chloride‑removal test
Desalination system developer Desalitech is to support a pilot project with the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (LACSD) to upgrade two Santa Clarita Valley wastewater treatment plants in order to meet state‑mandated chloride limits, the company announced on 2 October 2013.
Flowserve wins pumps and ERDs for Larnaca desalination
DWEER energy-recovery units and Flowserve DMX high-pressure pumps are to be supplied for the 60,000 m³/d Larnaca seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant currently being rebuilt in Cyprus.
Speakers announced for IDA conference in Banff
Speakers and sessions for the May conference on Water Recycling and Desalination for the Oil & Gas Industry have been announced by the organizers, the International Desalination Association (IDA).
ACWA wins two membrane-based projects in Saudi
Two separate contracts for membrane-based water and wastewater projects in Saudi Arabia have been awarded to ACWA Emirates LLC of Dubai.
Ozwater '12 abstracts required before 1 September
The Australian Water Association (AWA) has issued a call for papers for Ozwater '12 to be held on 8-10 May 2012 in Sydney.
Nirosoft selects ERI PXs for Limassol desalination
The 50,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant currently under construction in Limassol, Cyprus, will use PX-260 pressure-exchangers from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).
Agnihotri elected to board of ThermoEnergy Corp
Dr Dileep Agnihotri, the CEO and president of Advanced Hydro Inc, a company set up to commercialise a novel antifouling membrane coating technology at the University of Texas - Austin, has joined the board of ThermoEnergy Corp, a Massachusetts-based company engaged in development and sales of municipal and industrial wastewater-recovery and clean power-generation technologies.
Papers invited for 2013 AWWA/AMTA event
With the 2012 AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference under way this week in Phoenix, Arizona, a call for papers has been issued for next year's event in Texas.
Another oil-sands evaporation contract for GE in Alberta
GE has won its fifth contract in the Alberta oil sands of Canada for use of its evaporation technologies for recycling the blowdown from once-through steam generators (OSTGs).
Aquatech increases Pennsylvania oil & gas resources
Aquatech has increased its oil & gas water management services in the Marcellus and Utica Shale regions of Pennsylvania with the acquisition of Fluid Recovery Services (FRS), based in Creekside.
Papermaker ups water performance with Desalitech reverse osmosis
Arizona-based papermaker, Doubletree Paper Mills, said it has increased its purified water recovery by 20% at its Gila Bend plant since replacing its reverse osmosis water treatment system in 2014 with Desalitech's ReFlex RO system. The modification has also cut wastewater output by almost two thirds and lopped 25 % off energy consumption said Doubletree.
Queensland legislates for centralised CSG brine disposal
The Queensland state government in Australia is introducing legislation to bring about centralised treatment and disposal of water and brine produced from the coal-seam gas (CSG) industry.
BEL pressure vessels set for Colombian desalination
Pressure vessels for the 79,500 m³/d produced-water desalination plant being designed and built for Pacific Rubiales Energy Corp (PREC) in Columbia are to be supplied by BEL Composite Industries.
ConocoPhillips becomes 3rd Saltworks Technologies investor
Canadian desalination and brine treatment company Saltworks Technologies announced on 23 May 2014 that it had received investment funding from ConocoPhillips Company, Saltworks' third industrial shareholder.
Desalitech secures another US$ 5 million funding
Desalitech, provider of Closed Circuit Desalination (CCD) reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination technology, announced on 11 June 2013 that it secured an additional US$ 5 million equity funding from Liberation Capital and its institutional investors.
IDA issues call for Tianjin World Congress papers
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has issued a call for papers for its World Congress 2013 - Desalination: A Promise for the Future which will take place in China.
Adionics launches liquid-to-liquid desalination system
France-based Adionics has launched a smart desalination solution that is able to remove specific salts to address the growing demand coming from oil and gas, food and beverages as well as mining.
Energy Recovery announces deal duo
Industrial fluid pressure technology company, Energy Recovery, has announced its second US$ 1.8 million deal in recent weeks at sites in the Middle East and North Africa region. The latest win to supply its PX Pressure Exchanger system was for a 68 Ml/d desalination plant at an undisclosed site in the Middle East. It closed an earlier, similar deal in Morocco.
Voltea gets funding for two desalination applications
Dutch desalination innovator Voltea BV announced on 21 February 2012 that it had completed a € 4.5 million funding round to support the commercial rollout of its Capacitive Deionization (CapDI) technology.
Giant solar desalination project plans US$ 10 million public offering
Shares in what would be California's first commercial-scale solar desalination plant issued by WaterFX will this year form a US$ 10 million state-registered direct public offering (DPO) in the state.
ALADYR affiliates to International Desalination Association
The Asociación Latinoamericana de Desalación y Reuse del Agua (ALADYR) has become the newest affiliate organization to join the International Desalination Association (IDA), bringing to 15 the number of regional and association IDA affiliates around the world.
Desalitech closed-circuit technology set for BWRO project
Israel-based Desalitech Ltd announced on 7 April 2011 that it had been awarded a contract to design and build a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system for Environmental Protection Technologies (EPT), a global company that leads the industrial wastewater treatment market in Israel.
CapDI desalination gets commercial roll-out financing
Desalination startup company Voltea Limited announced on 31 August 2010 that it has completed a € 3.6 million financing round to support the commercial roll-out of its breakthrough Capacitive Deionization (CapDI) technology.
US water and wastewater may get US$ 11.8 billion boost
Water reuse measures totalling US$ 126 million to be undertaken by the Bureau of Reclamation are one of a number of measures included in the US$ 825 billion economic recovery legislation proposed by the House of Representatives Appropriations Committee on 15 January 2009, which is also likely to benefit upcoming desalination projects.
Brownsville pilot study published
Pilot study results from consultant NRS Consulting Engineers have confirmed that seawater desalination on the shore of the Ship Channel in Brownsville, Texas, USA, is technically feasible.
ERI denies 'takeover target' story
Energy Recover Inc (ERI), US manufacturer of desalination energy-recovery devices, denied on 20 November 2012 that it was a takeover target, following a report on Bloomberg Business Week based on a telephone interview with ERI's CEO, Tom Rooney.
Veolia in mineral recovery partnership at inland desalination plant
Texas-based company, Enviro Water Minerals (EWM), is to deploy its novel mineral recovery technology in a partnership with water and waste giant, Veolia, to produce potable water from brackish water desalination effluent.
Jersey contracts ACWA to upgrade desalination plant
Utility, Jersey Water, has contracted international water and wastewater treatment firm, ACWA Services, to carry a out a £6 million (US$ 9 million) upgrade of the Channel Island's La Rosière desalination plant in a bid to cut operating costs and meet rising demand.
Energy Recovery bags US$ 1 million in desalination orders in India and Ghana
Fluid flow energy efficiency firm Energy Recovery has won desalination orders totalling US$ 1 million for original manufacturer projects using its technology in India and Ghana. The company said the deals were among a continuing revenue stream from small-to-medium sized projects.
Energy Recovery chief to quit
Chief executive officer (CEO) of pressure technology specialist Energy Recovery, Thomas Rooney, has resigned as the company increases its focus on the oil and gas sector.
Electrochemical desalination MoU signed in Singapore
A memorandum of understanding (MoU) between Singapore's national water agency, PUB, and Evoqua Water Technologies to further develop electrochemical desalination technology was one of five MoUs signed during Singapore International Water Week, which ended on 5 June 2014.
Mining firm strikes funding deal for desalination plant at planned mine
Mining firm, White Mountain Titanium, has agreed a deal with US private equity company, Nexo Capital Partners, to fund, construct and manage a desalination plant to form part of White Mountain's planned Cerro Blanco mining project in Chile.
GE expands HERO licensing agreement
GE Power & Water announced on 1 February 2011 that it has completed a new expanded licensing agreement to allow it to continue offering High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HERO) systems to help more of its industrial customers increase their water usage efficiency and reuse capacity.
STW joins HFEIS developer to target power/desalination
STW Resources Holding Corp of Texas, USA, announced on 18 September 2013 a mutual strategic relationship with Colorado‑based Tat‑Tech Inc to remediate oil-sands waste, brackish groundwater and seawater via the construction and operation of proprietary systems developed by Tat‑Tech.
North Sea gas RO package supplied by UK company
A containerised reverse‑osmosis (RO) desalination package is to be supplied for an unmanned gas platform in the North Sea by Salt Separation Services of Rochdale, UK.
Consolidated awarded two Cayman desalination contracts
Consolidated Water Co Ltd announced on 9 April 2014 a new contract to refurbish the Lower Valley desalination plant, which it built in 1997, and the extension of an existing contract to operate the North Sound desalination plant.
Registration open for AMTA/AWWA membrane conference
Registration has been opened and new sessions added to the programme for the 2013 Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition in San Antonio, Texas, on 25-28 February 2013.
Osmoflo to supply two ship-mounted ROs to gas field
Potable and process water is to be supplied to a gas field north of Australia by ship-mounted seawater reverse-osmosis (RO) plants supplied by Adelaide-based desalination specialist Osmosflo.
New Monterey desalination plan launched by Cal Am
A 5.4-9.0 MGD (20,440-34,000 m³/d) desalination plant located in North Marina employing slant well intake technology remains at the heart of California American Water (Cal Am)'s latest proposal for supplying the Monterey Peninsula.
IDA announces May 2013 oil and gas conference
The International Desalination Association (IDA) is to organize its first technical conference focused on water treatment strategies for the oil & gas industry.
ERI pumps and ERDs selected for Bahamas desalination expansion
High-pressure pumps and energy-recovery technology are to be provided for the 18,500 m³/d expansion to the Blue Hills seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in the Bahamas by Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).
UF membranes tackle silica at Indian powerplants
Pentair X-Flow HFS 60 Silica ultrafiltration (UF) membranes are to be used in two projects in India for the removal of colloidal silica from surface water.
Metito lands Bechtel SWRO desalination in Australia
Dubai-based Metito has landed two new seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants in Australia and is currently nearing completion of one in Qatar.
Finance agreed for Camarillo regional desalter studies
Two water districts and two - possibly three - cities in southern California have agree to finance studies for a regional brackish-water desalination plant to be located near Camarillo.
District votes funds for Cambria desalination studies
The directors of Cambria Community Services District directors unanimously agreed at a special meeting on 18 September 2009 to appropriate US$166,000 for its long-planned desalination project north-west of San Luis Obispo in California.
EDS and SPE host joint oil/gas desalination workshop
The European Desalination Society is joining the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) to present a joint workshop on Desalination in the Oil and Gas Industry.
Three desalination workshops follow IDA World Congress
Three different aspects of desalination will be covered in workshops announced on 10 September 2009 by the International Desalination Association (IDA), which will follow its upcoming World Congress in Dubai.
Water Standard finds its shipbuilder in Samsung
Texas-based Water Standard and Korea's Samsung Heavy Industries announced an agreement on 28 June 2011 to collaborate on the design and development of vessels to deliver water treatment solutions to the offshore oil and gas sector.
Obama government allocates US$ 126 million for water recycling
The new US government led by President Obama is to provide US$ 126 million for water recycling projects, alongside US$ 6 billion for state potable water programmes and many other water funding resources.
Severn-Trent wins Chilean mining desalination contract
US water and wastewater treatment company Severn Trent Services has been awarded a contract to provide a seawater desalination plant that will serve the potable and process water needs of the Minera Esperanza copper and gold mine in Antofagasta, Chile.
PEI gets venture capital boost
Pump Engineering Inc (PEI), US manufacturer of pumps and turbocharger energy-recovery devices for reverse-osmosis desalination, announced on 26 January 2009 that it had closed a "multi-million dollar" equity investment deal with Plymouth Venture Partners (PVP) earlier in the month.
GE wins oilsands evaporator contract in Alberta
GE's water evaporation technology will treat de-oiled produced water, boiler and heat-recovery steam-generator blowdown and brackish makeup water for Sunshine Oilsands at its West Ells project in Ft McMurray, Alberta, Canada.
Oasys furthers advance in China
US-based forward osmosis specialist, Oasys Water, has unveiled its latest advance in its bid to expand in China with its partner in the region, Beijing Woteer.
Adsorption pilot phase two will focus on ZLD
MEDAD Technologies, a specialist in adsorption, has worked to commercialise a multi-effect distillation adsorption desalination (MED-AD) system since spinning off from the National University of Singapore (NUS) in 2012.
Biwater to supply UF and RO systems to California replenishment project
Biwater, UK, has won a contract to design, supply and supervise ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis systems for Southern California's Groundwater Reliability Improvement Program.
Desalitech's Rick Stover: "The world's experts on desal and reuse are coming to Miami"
Desalitech executive vice president Rick Stover says that delegates can expect stimulating open forum discussions, papers and research at the IDA Energy and Environment Conference in Miami, USA, December 2016
X-Flow commissions Chinese produced-water projects
Three water-reuse projects for oilfields in China that use Pentair X-Flow ultrafiltration (UF) membrane technology have been commissioned recently.
Markhoff to head Suez WTS amid 'very good spirit' between teams
Suez has named GE Water CEO Heiner Markhoff as chief executive of Suez Water Technologies & Solutions (Suez WTS), the new business unit that will be formed when its acquisition of GE Water closes in September 2017.
Energy Recovery trials its pump-guarding fracking system
Liberty Oilfield Services is to conduct trials of Energy Recovery's Vor Teq hydraulic pumping system for hydraulic fracturing (fracking) at US well sites. The system is based on Energy Recovery's PX Pressure Exchanger technology which is deployed in more than 15,000 desalination installations worldwide according to Energy Recovery.
Oil and gas player commissions produced water treatment plant
Encana Oil and Gas has designed and commissioned a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant to treat produced water from its oil sand wells in the Moneta Divide, Wyoming. It has since sold the plant along with all its Moneta Divide assets to Aethon Energy.
Consolidated signs BVI desalination water sales agreement
Consolidated Water Co Ltd announced on 8 March 2010 that its affiliate, Ocean Conversion (BVI) Ltd (OC-BVI) and the British Virgin Islands government had signed a contract for the purchase of water by the government from OC-BVI's desalination plant located at Bar Bay, Tortola.
New contracts end H2O Innovation's year strongly
Canada's H2O Innovation Inc is to supply membrane nanofiltration (NF) water supply systems to two municipalities in Canada and expand an existing system in a third, among contracts totaling Can$ 8 million (US$ 8.25 million) announced on 6 July 2011.
Treatment of process effluent water for reuse in food production
Effluent water reuse in the food industry raises inevitable questions about the risk and reliability of wastewater treatment and recovery processes in meeting the required standards. The author looks at how two food processing facilities adopted process water recovery and reuse shows how the benefits can be a maximized and how the challenges live among the detail. This article first appeared in the November/ December 2014 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Aquarion buys Hager + Elsaesser
Water treatment firm Aquarion Group has acquired German water technology company Hager + Elsaesser (H+E) for an undisclosed sum.
ERI hires oil expert from Schlumberger
Energy Recovery Inc has hired seasoned oil and gas expert Ismail Nawaz as its vice president, oil and gas product development.
World Bank publishes report on Arab water reuse
Total water reuse in the Arab world is estimated at 2,170 million m³ per year, according to a report just published by the World Bank summarising the findings of the Expert Consultation Meeting on Wastewater Management in the Arab World, convened in Dubai in May 2011.
Biwater Tortola SWRO on 16-year BOOT basis
UK contractor Biwater has informed D&WR that its contract for supply of a desalination plant for the Caribbean island of Tortola will be on a build‑own‑operate‑transfer (BOOT) basis.
Gradiant China to target industrial ZLD and wastewater market
Gradiant Corporation has established Gradiant China to provide industrial wastewater solutions and zero liquid discharge (ZLD) technology to the Chinese market.
Possibilities for energy optimisation in design and operation of SWRO plants
Seawater desalination with reverse osmosis (SWRO) has taken a noteworthy upturn during recent years. One of the reasons for the success of the membrane process is its lower energy consumption in comparison with thermal desalination processes. The high-pressure RO desalination stage is undoubtedly the dominating energy consumer of an SWRO plant. Energy consumption of SWRO, despite its energy-recovery aspects, is also influenced by a huge number of additional factors. These are both of an external nature (eg, environmental conditions and stipulations), but are also determined by design and configuration of the plant. On the basis of an SWRO plant model, which covers the different pre-treatment and RO configurations and also the design with energy consumption of potabilisation and additional wastewater treatment and sludge dewatering facilities, the specific energy consumption of an SWRO and its subsystems has been determined in this article. Considering the various aspects to be taken into account for optimization of energy consumption in seawater reverse osmosis plants and the fact that in most cases these measures are offset by increases in capital costs for equipment or possibly also in chemical consumption, optimisation of the energy consumption of SWRO plants during planning and operation is a quite extensive and complicated matter and a demanding engineering task. This article is an expanded and updated version of the article published in the August/September issue of D&WR magazine.
Amiad to supply RO prefiltration system in Colombia
Amiad Water Systems has been awarded a US$ 7.7 million contract for the supply and maintenance of a prefiltration solution for reverse osmosis membrane protection at a desalination plant at an oil & gas operation in Colombia.
GE signs Saudi Arabian wastewater-reuse MOU
GE has signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) on wastewater reuse with Miahona, a subsidiary of the Arabian Company for Water & Power Development Ltd.
Mitsui acquires minority stake in Water Standard
Houston-based Water Standard Management (US) Inc, which focuses on water treatment for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), announced on 30 May 2012 that Japan's Mitsui & Co Ltd has acquired a minority interest in the company.
MBR/RO at heart of PepsiCo reuse plant in Chile
A membrane bioreactor (MBR), reverse osmosis (RO) and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection are all part of a wastewater treatment and reuse plant upgrade being completed by Siemens Industry Automation Division for PepsiCo in Chile.
Energy Recovery confirms Gannon as president and chief executive
Energy Recovery has confirmed Chris Gannon as president and chief executive, after he stepped into the role in an interim capacity in February 2018 following the departure of Joel Gay.
Aquatech sells produced-water evaporators in Alberta
Aquatech is to design, engineer, supply and supervise installation and commissioning of a produced-water evaporator system for Pengrowth Energy Corporation's Lindbergh 12,500 bpd Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) enhanced oil-recovery facility.
Oasys forward osmosis concentrates in China
Massachusetts-based Oasys Water has claimed its recent contract to supply a forward osmosis brine concentrator to a fossil-fuelled power plant in China to be a world first.
Pilot vapour-recompression plant tackles oil and gas water
A pilot project to treat produced water from oil and gas operations in southern Saskatchewan, Canada, has been initiated by Purestream Technology of Salt Lake City, USA, using its advanced vapour recompression (AVARA) system.
Energy Recovery hires senior management duo
Pressure energy technology firm Energy Recovery has appointed Chris M Gannon as chief financial officer and Eric O Siebert as vice president of corporate strategy. Both appointments are effective from 8 June 2015.
US non-profit NWRI appoints Hardy as executive director
Former Encina Wastewater Authority (EWA) executive Kevin Hardy has joined the US National Water Research Institute (NWRI) as executive director.
Doosan picks up prize for zero liquid system
Doosan Hydro Technology was among the winners of the 2015 David W York Water Reuse Project of Year Award for its part in the city of Palm Coast's zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plant at Citation Boulevard, Florida.
VWS Westgarth bags Angolan offshore UF/SRP contract
A multimillion dollar contract for design, supply and delivery of an ultrafiltration (UF) system and a sulphate-removal package (SRP) for offshore oilfield exploration in Angola has been won by UK-based VWS Westgarth, a subsidiary of Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies.
ACWA Emirates delivers MBR reuse plant for Saudi Aramco
ACWA Emirates has completed a water reuse plant at Shaybah Oilfield, Saudi Arabia, for crude and natural gas exporter Saudi Aramco.
New clarifier solves Virginia UF membrane problems
Funds from the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) have enabled completion of a new pretreatment system for an ultrafiltration membrane system at the Fairmont Water Filtration Plant in West Virginia.
Federal funds for Melbourne reuse project
Federal government funding totaling Aus$ 11.4 million (US$ 11.2 million) will enable City West Water in Melbourne, Australia, to roll out an aquifer and storage recovery scheme as part of its West Werribee Dual Supply project.
Water-reuse funding may be used to counter drought
The US Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar on 26 February 2009 called on the Bureau of Reclamation to explore ways in which funds recently appropriated to Reclamation under the American Recovery & Reinvestment Act for water reuse and other water projects might be used to help stretch California's water supplies in the coming months.
Escondido hires consultants for potable water reuse
The City of Escondido in southern California approved on 27 June 2012 spending of US$ 1.14 million to hire a team led by Black & Veatch and including Brown & Caldwell for services towards its Indirect Potable Reuse Program.
VSEP system treats Colombian landfill leachate
Calfornia-based New Logic Research (NLR) announced on 8 February 2012 that it had successfully commissioned a landfill leachate treatment system in Colombia using its vibratory shear enhanced process (VSEP) membrane separation system.
Papers deadline stretched for IWA reuse conference
The International Water Association (IWA) has extended the deadline for submission of outline papers for the 9th IWA International Conference on Water Reclamation & Reuse.