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Gulf should look to solar to power desalination expert says

The Abu Dhabi Environment Agency has called on Arab Gulf states to shift their focus to solar and other renewable energy when considering power for desalination.

RFP to follow UAE renewable-energy desalination launch

A pilot program to test and develop advanced energy-efficient seawater desalination technologies that could be powered by renewable energy sources was launched on 17 January 2013 by Masdar, the UAE renewable energy company.

Masdar city, Masdar Institute, Laborelec, and Degrémont to collaborate in renewable-powered desalination project

Abu Dhabi university, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, has unveiled recently its research collaboration with three leading energy and clean technology corporations in a research project supporting the development of a full-scale, completely solar-powered, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Topics and presenters announced for IDA Academy course

The next International Desalination Association (IDA) Academy course, to be held at the International Water Summit in Abu Dhabi on 21‑22 January 2014 will feature Integration of Hybrid Technologies with Renewable Energy to Improve the Sustainability of Water Desalination and Sustainable Operation with Advanced Membrane Filtration.

Sanz and Awerbuch to lead IDA WEX sessions

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has released details of the two desalination sessions it is organizing as a Support Partner for WEX Global - the Water and Energy Exchange in Madrid.

Gulf nations poised for 40% boost to desalination output by 2020

The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region is poised to up its seawater desalination capacity by nearly 40% by 2020 to meet the growing demand for drinking water, according to a recent report.

Experts urge Gulf investment in desalination energy efficiency

Two prominent water experts have urged Gulf Cooperation Council utility providers and businesses to invest in energy efficient desalination to reduce the technology's carbon footprint and high power costs.

The project site is U-shaped, and is surrounded by lots filled by industrial operators and their associated infrastructure

Jebel Ali project is a new direction for DEWA and Besix

The $237 million contract awarded by Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) for a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant represents a big step for the client, and for Besix Concessions & Assets, which won the work in partnership with Acciona Agua.

Produced water will be pumped 45 miles and across a height of 700 metres to a new reservoir in Copiapó, near the Tierra Amarillo mountains, where mining companies operate. The system comprises five pumping stations, one at the intake, one at the treatment plant, two on the piping route, and one at the reservoir.

Chile project envisions multiple mining clients for solar-powered SWRO

Energias y Aguas del Pacifico (ENAPAC), a proposed solar-powered seawater desalination plant and water transport project aims to support expansion of mining operations in Chile's Atacama region.

Solar and wind power can help to reduce the cost of energy over the long-term, says Padmanathan

Solar and wind give competitive edge, says Acwa Power

Greater reliance on solar and wind power will support Acwa Power's future growth, president and chief executive Paddy Padmanathan has said.

Solar/MED design aims to desalinate CSG water

A three-way partnership in Australia has entered a solar-powered desalination system for the coal‑seam gas (CSG) industry into the Australian Innovation Challenge being run by Shell and The Australian newspaper.

Almogordo trial for commercial-size solar desalination still

Indiana-based Suns River is nearing completion of a commercial-sized solar still at the Brackish Groundwater National Desalination Research Facility in Almogordo, New Mexico, USA, following the issue of a patent on its process (US #8,088,257) on 3 January 2012.

Degremont chooses Dow for green reverse osmosis pilot

Suez Envionnement water treatment subsidiary, Degremont Technologies, has selected Dow Water and Process Solutions to supply ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membranes for a pilot desalination project in Abu Dhabi, in partnership with renewable energy company Masdar.

Fifth project enters the Masdar trial

An ongoing energy efficiency trial, in Abu Dhabi, of four new desalination plant designs is to get a fifth participant.

Masdar green desalination competition kicks off

All four participants in the competition to develop sustainable means to meet the United Arab Emirates' potable water demand have begun operating small-scale experimental desalination plants at a pilot facility set up by the competition organizer, Masdar, in Abu Dhabi.

EDS publishes June solar desalination course program

The European Desalination Society (EDS) has published the program for its three-day intensive course on Desalination With Solar Energy to be held in Almeria, Spain, on 11‑13 June 2014.

EDS promotes learning on desalination and renewable energy

The European Desalination Society is promoting two sets of courses looking at desalination using renewable energies.

EDS unveils course on desalination and renewable energy

The European Desalination Society (EDA) has announced a four‑day intensive course on Wind and Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Powered Desalination Systems (Reverse Osmosis and Electrodialysis Reversal) to be held in the Canary Islands.

Timeline established for IDA desalination energy guide

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has established a timeline for producing its guidelines for reducing energy consumption in desalination ending at its 2015 World Congress.

CDA/EDS seeking Qingdao desalination abstracts by 15 March

Abstracts for the 2011 Qingdao International Desalination Conference in China (20-23 June 2011) must received by 15 March 2011 with final papers by 10 May 2011.

Xylem provides DAF pretreatment for Fujairah 1

Xylem Inc has won a contract to provide a dissolved air flotation (DAF) pretreatment system for the Fujairah 1 Independent Water & Power Plant (IWPP) in the UAE to help ensure an uninterrupted potable water supply from the desalination plant to Abu Dhabi emirate and the east coast.

China's 2020 desalination plans could cause emissions surge

China's 2020 ambition to produce drinking water at 3 million m³day from desalination threatens to increase carbon emissions through increased use of largely coal-fired power generation according to the World Resources Institute (WRI). The institute said the energy penalty could be offset by some 75% by greater use of water reuse.

GDF Suez kicks off giant Mirfa desalination project

Paris-based GDF Suez has begun work on the desalination component of its Mirfa gas-fired power and water project, the French firm said.

ADWEA issues RfP for Mirfa power and desalination

The Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Authority (ADWEA) last week issued a request for proposals from prequalified bidders for its build‑own‑operate extension of power generation and reverse osmosis (RO) water desalination at Al Mirfa.

Sembcorp to develop SWRO desalination plant in Abu Dhabi

Singapore's Sembcorp Utilities has signed a memorandum of understanding with the Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Authority (ADWEA) in the UAE to develop and build a new seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination facility with potable water production capacity of around 30 MIGD (136,000 m³/d).

Suez Environnement lands US$ 200 million Middle Eastern deals duo

Suez Environnement has won a desalination contract in Abu Dhabi worth more than US$ 180 million and a separate water reuse deal in Oman taking the total value of the Middle East wins to more than US$ 200 million.

Marubeni lowest of six consortia for Al Mirfa

A Marubeni-led consortium led the way when bids were opened by the Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Authority (ADWEA) on 6 March 2013 for the Al Mirfa Independent Power & Water Project.

IDA publishes program for Gulf desalination and environment seminar

The International Desalination Association has published details of program sessions and topics for its seminar on Desalination and the Gulf: The Relationship between the Environment and Meeting the Region's Water Needs, which will take place in Bahrain on 6-7 December 2010.

Avantium has acquired Liquid Light's portfolio of patents for producing chemicals and materials from CO2

Avantium acquires 'extensive patent portfolio' of Liquid Light

Chemical technology company Avantium has acquired the assets of Liquid Light, a developer of proprietary process technologies that make chemicals from carbon dioxide (CO2).

Chinese desalination import ratio to fall, says report

Localisation of desalination products and systems in China is targeted to rise from 60% to 90% by 2020, according to market researchers Frost & Sullivan.

Inventor of water technologies Marc Vergnet adjusts the controls on Osmosun, his new solar-powered reverse osmosis desalination system that does not use batteries or energy storage, chemicals, or grid supplies of electricity

Masdar desal pilot: the results so far

Masdar Clean Energy set a target for its pilot projects of one cubic metre of water for every 3.6 kilowatt hours of energy used. This is a particularly challenging target in the Persian Gulf, where salinity is very high, the water temperature is high, it's very shallow, and there's high organic matter.

Desalination quartet booked for Masdar pilot plants in UAE

Three major contractors in the global desalination business - Abengoa, Degrémont and Sidem/Veolia - together with forward-osmosis developer Trevi Systems, were awarded contracts on 5 May 2014 by Abu Dhabi's Masdar, to each start the construction of a 1,500 m³/d desalination plant as part of Masdar's pilot project announced in 2013.

Siemens signs wind desalination MoU in Australia

Siemens Australia has announced a partnership with Windesal, a South Australia company using technology designed in Denmark, to develop clean technologies and wind-powered desalination plants.

Veolia tops targets in Masdar desalination pilot programme

Interim findings by engineering giant, Veolia, from trials designed to up efficiency and develop renewable energy-driven desalination have already outstripped energy reduction targets the company has reported.

IDA to be knowledge partner at the International Water Summit for third year in a row

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has been appointed as a 'knowledge partner' for the International Water Summit for the third consecutive year.

Dr Ritschel wants people who write tenders to consider supporting solar powered technology

Masdar's Dr Ritschel: "We identified a problem - tenders"

We launched The Global Clean Water Desalination Alliance at COP21, the United Nations' climate change conference in Paris, December 2015. In the first week of existence we already had 100 members. So many industry partners, governments, and stakeholders immediately wanted to join, it was unbelievable.

US Ex-Im Bank claims first ECA carbon policy

The US Export-Import Bank is claiming to be the first export credit agency (ECA) to adopt a comprehensive carbon policy after announcing on 3 November 2009 a new policy to guide its support of US exports in light of climate change concerns.

JPL and CalTech to aid LA's water/energy efficiency

The City of Los Angeles, the Los Angeles Department of Water & Power (DWP) and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with its managing institution, the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) are combining forces to establish Los Angeles as a powerhouse for demonstrated energy and water innovation.

Water industry leader Carlos Cosin has launched new venture Almar Water Solutions

New water company Almar Water Solutions launched by former Abengoa CEO

Almar Water Solutions, a new water infrastructure development company led by former Abengoa chief executive Carlos Cosin, was launched at World Future Energy Summit in Abu Dhabi, January 2017.

Pacific Institute reports on desalination energy use

The Pacific Institute has published the next instalment of its series on Key Issues For Seawater Desalination in California, this time looking at energy requirements and associated greenhouse gas emissions for desalinated water.

The adsorption pilot at a solar manufacturing facility near Riyadh focused on recovering reverse osmosis brine. Recovery rates are critical at the site, which is 100 miles inland

Adsorption pilot phase two will focus on ZLD

MEDAD Technologies, a specialist in adsorption, has worked to commercialise a multi-effect distillation adsorption desalination (MED-AD) system since spinning off from the National University of Singapore (NUS) in 2012.

Wave energy for Perth southern desalination plant?

Australian wave-energy developer Carnegie Wave Energy Ltd (CWE) announced on 5 July 2012 that it had been advised by West Australia's Water Corporation that it wished to move forward on discussions for up to 2MW of renewable energy supply for the Southern Seawater Desalination Plant on an exclusive basis.

Santa Cruz desalination EIR delayed until fall

The environmental impact report (EIR) for the proposed 2.5 MGD (9,500 m³/d) desalination plant (scwd²) for Santa Cruz, California, will not now be published until fall 2012.

Oman funds renewable desalination research

Oman has approved funding for research into harnessing renewable energy sources for water desalination in the sultanate.

Australia and NZ ferry RO units to Tuvalu

Australia and New Zealand are leading an urgent response to the drought currently afflicting the South Pacific islands of Tuvalu and Tokelau by transporting reverse-osmosis (RO) units to provide a water supply.

Egyptian solar desalination

The Egyptian Gazette reported on 22 September 2011 that Egypt's scientists have developed a solar-power based technology to reduce the cost of water desalination from LE 10 (US$ 1.67) to LE 4 ($0 67) per cubic metre.

The solar panels at Beckton desalination plant, UK.

Solar panels commissioned at UK desalination plant

Thames Water in the UK at the end of July commissioned a 450 kW array of solar panels at its 150,000 m³/d Beckton brackish-water desalination plant as part of a bid to become Britain's biggest on-site solar power producer and industrial user.

Samoa first to draw from Japanese solar/desalination fund

Samoa on 17 June 2011 became the first country to access a Japanese fund set up for solar power generation and seawater desalination or a combination of both.

IDA releases more detail of Portofino conference

Abstracts of four "notable" papers for the the International Desalination Association's (IDA) Desalination Industry Action For Good conference in Portofino, Italy, in May were sent out by the association on 18 February 2011.

Solar mobile desalination plant inaugurated in Egypt

The Egyptian State Information Service reported that a mobile water desalination plant powered by solar energy was inaugurated in Marsa Matrouh governorate on 18 April 2014.

The Kay Bailey Hutchison desalination plant

URS to assist El Paso desalination solar project

The Public Services Board in El Paso, Texas, on 10 November 2010 voted to hire URS Corporation as a consultant to assist with the choice of a solar energy system to power part of the Kay Bailey Hutchison desalination plant.

Solar power installed soon for Nauru desalination plant

Singapore's Hitachi-Aquatech has awarded a contract to two New Zealand companies for a 131 kWp solar system to power a desalination plant for the Pacific island of Nauru.

Community-level solar RO plant (250 L/h capacity)

India's BARC develops small solar RO and UF units

Domestic and community-level reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination units have been developed for producing safe drinking water by Saly T Panicker at the Desalination Division of India's Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.

Low-temperature distillation technology licensed to Sterling Water

The low-temperature distillation method of desalination developed by the New Mexico State University (NMSU) in the USA has been licensed to Sterling Water LLC of Qatar.

El Paso to explore solar power for desalination plant

The City of El Paso Public Service Board voted on 10 February 2010 to explore the possibility of using solar power at the Kay Bailey Hutchison desalination plant in Texas, USA.

Bidding for largest solar desalination plant opens soon

Tenders for the world's largest solar-powered seawater desalination plant in Ras Al Khaimah, UAE, will be invited next month by utility company Utico Middle East.

Australian island rigs up solar powered desalination

Rottnest Island, off the Western Australian coast, is constructing a solar power source for the island's population including its desalination plant.

Saudi solar desalination push nears end of Phase 1

The first of three phases of the King Abdullah Initiative for Solar Water Desalination is expected to be operational by the end of this year, according to reports from Saudi Arabia.

Renewables advocate takes chair in desalination at Murdoch University

Murdoch University's School of Engineering and IT has appointed Professor Wendell Ela as the inaugural chair of desalination and water treatment. He is an advocate of the use of renewable energy for desalination and has developed small solar desalination systems for remote Navajo communities in USA.

MEDRC announces solar desalination course

The Middle East Desalination Research Center is to hold a course on Solar Desalination in October 2013 at its Muscat, Oman, training facility.

Fundación Chile's demonstration plant at the opening ceremony

Chilean solar desalination demo precurses pilot project

A demonstration solar-powered desalination plant was installed in mid‑March 2013 in Arica, Chile, by Fundación Chile, in advance of a pilot project for irrigation purposes.

World Bank to help energy/water development link

The World Bank is to help developing countries to better plan and scale-up their energy demand in tandem with water resource management.

Arizona RO plant opens solar-energy system

A 459 kW photovoltaic (PV) solar power system has been completed at the Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Facility for the Town of Gila Bend, Arizona, by Solon Corporation, the company announced on 13 February 2013.

Solar still v RO comparison for S Australia desalination

A full solar distillation plant was compared with reverse osmosis (RO) for a small groundwater desalination project in South Australia and RO was chosen as the preferred option.

EDS publishes dates for 2013 courses

The European Desalination Society has published dates for two courses in the first half of 2013.

Arizona RO plant gets solar energy boost

The Arizona town of Gila Bend is to build a 460 kW photovoltaic solar‑energy system to power its 1 MGD (3,785 m³/d) reverse‑osmosis (RO) water treatment system.

IDA announces four new desalination events

The International Desalination Association (IDA) announced four new events on 22 February 2010, including its next World Congress in Perth, Australia, which will be held during 4-9 September 2011.

Global green group seeks to carve carbon emissions out of desalination

The Global Clean Water Desalination Alliance - H₂0 minus CO₂ initiative, launched at the current climate talks in Paris, has called on its 17-nation membership to use clean energy to power new desalination plants. The call was part of the alliance's aim to tackle the water-energy nexus and climate change.

Avshalom Felber, formerly Israel Ports and Railway Authority CFO, and deputy director of budgets at Israel's Ministry of Finance, has steered IDE for 14 years

Interview: IDE Technologies CEO Avshalom Felber

Above all, IDE is a solutions provider. So says chief executive Avshalom Felber, the former financial whizz turned water industry leader, as he outlines the company's unique mix of thermal and reverse osmosis (RO) technologies, operational expertise, and contractual nous.

Masdar steps up ties with China

Abu Dhabi's Masdar Institute of Science and Technology is stepping up its research collaborations, knowledge exchange and industrial partnerships, with China.

UF/RO desalination pilot project for Dow/SWCC

The Dow Chemical Company and the Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) of Saudi Arabia announced on 17 September 2012 a commercial agreement for research collaboration in desalination technologies.


FEDCO wins Ras Az Zawr energy-recovery contract

The energy-recovery device (ERD) contract for the reverse-osmosis (RO) section of the giant Ras Az Zawr (Ras Azzour) desalination project in Saudi Arabia has been awarded to Fluid Equipment Development Co (FEDCO).

IDA issues Gulf environmental Blue Paper

Better availability and sharing of environmental data between the Gulf states is among the recommendations contained in a "Blue Paper" released on 18 July 2011 by the International Desalination Association (IDA).

Minister launches IDA environmental symposium in Bahrain

The desalination industry must better understand its role in changes currently occurring in the Arabian Gulf, Bahrain's minister of electricity and water affairs, Eng Fahmi bin Ali Al Jowder, told an environmental symposium in Manama on 6 December 2010 organised by the International Desalination Association.

Wastewater drive to boost membrane use in GCC region says analyst

Government identification of wastewater treatment in the municipal sector as a priority area in water production will be a key revenue generation source for membrane elements in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries according to market analyst Frost & Sullivan. And the demand for water in the region was set to double within twenty years the analyst forecast.

Burke and Birkett get special awards at IDA congress

The International Desalination Association (IDA) presented seven Presidential Awards at the end of its World Congress in Tianjin, China on 24 October 2013.

Gulf red-tide early-warning system funding 'soon'

A new early-warning system in the Gulf for harmful algal blooms (HABs), also known as red tides, using satellite imagery, remote sensing, and modeling could be one result of a conference on HABs held on 16‑17 April 2014 by the Middle East Desalination Research Center (MEDRC).

Portofino location for next IDA Academy session

The next session of the IDA Desalination Academy will be held in Santa Margherita, close to the resort of Portofino, Italy from 30 March to 2 April 2014.

IDA announces nine new Gulf task force members

The importance now being accorded to the environment by the desalination industry was emphasized on 22 April 2010 when the International Desalination Association (IDA) announced the addition of nine distinguished scientists to its Gulf regional task force and an environmental symposium in Bahrain in December 2010.

Mazen A Alami

Black & Veatch creates Gulf states regional manager

Mazen A Alami has been appointed Black & Veatch's regional manager in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states.

IDA to form Gulf desalination environmental task force

The International Desalination Association (IDA) plans to form a task force to explore the environmental effects of desalination on the Arabian Gulf and recommend strategies to mitigate potential impacts.

Major water-sector contractor formed in Dubai

The Leighton Group, which has been involved in the construction of three of Australia's large seawater desalination plants, has brought two group companies together in Dubai, UAE, to create a strong water and environment contracting company.

IDA releases more Congress details

More details have been released about the program for the 2009 World Congress of the International Desalination Association (IDA), which will take place during 7-12 November 2009 in Dubai.

Tabreed provides cooling solutions to clients including Dubai Metro

Engie acquires stake in cooling provider Tabreed

Engie has bought 40 per cent of National Central Cooling Company PJSC (Tabreed) from Mubadala Investment Company, becoming its key shareholder alongside Mubadala, which retains 42 per cent.

The adsorption desalination facility is on the outskirts of Riyadh, Saudi Arabai's capital city

Adsorption desalination plant opens in Saudi Arabia

A new adsorption water desalination and cooling plant has opened in Solar Village near Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Emirates Singapore venture poised for bond issue

Emirates SembCorp Water and Power - the joint venture, behind the Fujairah 1 independent water and power plant - is considering issuing a project bond to refinance its debt.

Exova bags power plant testing deal in Abu Dhabi

Testing firm, Exova, has won a five-year contract to provide testing services for the Taweelah B power and desalination plant in Abu Dhabi.

Low-energy desalination trials delayed

Trials of four new energy efficient desalination systems from leading water technology players that could "revolutionise the industry" have been delayed from their summer 2015 start with October forecast as the date when all will be in pilot operation.

Abengoa forms desalination research partnership in Abu Dhabi

Spanish energy sustainability company Abengoa has formed a research partnership with the Masdar Institute and the Abu Dhabi Future Energy Company to optimize membrane distillation technology for the treatment of reverse osmosis brines.

The new SWRO was opened by Jordan’s prime minister, Hani Al-Mulki (centre, left), with (from left), Tarek Dehays, AquaTreat chief executive; Hazim el Nasser, minister of water and irrigation; and (centre, right) Rateb Adwan, assistant director general for quality and desalination

Jordan's first SWRO opens for business

The opening of the first seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant in Jordan marks a jumping off point for the country from which it can continue to develop a desalination programme, including the much-anticipated Red Sea-Dead Sea project.

Artist's impression of the Seadog installation

Wave-powered desalination about to be installed

A company in Texas, USA, is preparing to demonstrate the use of desalination with the wave-power facility it is about to install in the Gulf of Mexico.

GdF Suez wins Abu Dhabi power and water deal

GdF Suez has signed a 25-year power and water purchase agreement with Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Company for the Mirfa independent water and power project which includes a new 136,380 m3/d seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant.

Typical plant configuration based on Synwater 500 system

Bahrain MoU signed for wind-powered desalination technology

Wind-powered desalination technology is to be promoted in Bahrain under a memorandum of understanding (MoU) signed on 31 January 2011 between Jade Consultancy of Bahrain and Synlift Systems GmbH of Germany.

Abu Dhabi signing for Al Zawra desalination plant

A 30 MIGD (136,400 m³/d) seawater desalination plant is to be built in Ajman, UAE, following the signing of a memorandum of understanding on 4 February 2014 between Abu Dhabi National Energy Company PJSC (TAQA) and the Federal Electricity & Water Authority (FEWA).

The Shuweihat S1 plant

ACWA Power buys into Shuweihat S1 company

Saudi Arabia's ACWA Power International announced on that it has agreed to acquire the 20% stake held by Summit Global Management VIII BV, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Sumitomo Corporation, in Shuweihat CMS International Power Company PJSC, which owns the Shuweihat S1 Power & Desalination Plant (S1 Plant) in Abu Dhabi, and its 50% equity interest in the Shuweihat O&M Limited Partnership.

IDA president calls for new thinking on sustainability

The president of the International Desalination Association (IDA), Dr Abdullah Al-Alshaikh, described the transition to sustainability as "one of the most important paradigm shifts of the modern era," when he addressed the International Water Summit (IWS) in Abu Dhabi on 21 January 2013.

The new power and water facility is expected to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at EGA's smelter by 10 per cent

EGA plans $272 million power and water plant at Jebel Ali

Mubadala and Dubal Holding are developing a new power and desalination facility at Emirates Global Aluminium (EGA)'s smelter in Jebel Ali, Dubai.

IDA to support UAE water summit as knowledge partner

The International Desalination Association has announced that it will again be supporting the International Water Summit (IWS) 2014 in Abu Dhabi, UAE, as a knowledge partner.

Masdar graphene study bags Abu Dhabi research prize

A graphene desalination membrane research project was among six proposals from Abu Dhabi's sustainable technology-focused university, the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, that each won a AED 2 million (US$ 500,000) Abu Dhabi Education Council Award for Research Excellence.

IDA continues support of the International Water Summit

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has announced its continued support for the International Water Summit (IWS). The latest summit is being held at the Abu Dhabi National Exhibit Centre 18-21 January. "Now in its fourth year, the IWS is a global platform for promoting water sustainability and addressing water challenges across the region," said the IDA in a statement.


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