Gulf, Environment, Industrial, Cyprus, Mining, Recycling, Seawater, Desalination, Wastewater Treatment, Recovery, Cyprus, Oil & Gas, Hawaii


Related content

Olympic Dam desalination threatens cuttlefish, say researchers

Brine discharge from the proposed Olympic Dam seawater desalination plant in South Australia poses a potential threat to the unique spawning aggregation of the giant Australian cuttlefish, in the upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia, according to two researchers.

Chilean mine SWRO gets environmental approval

An environmental impact study (EIS) for a 26,000 m³/d desalination plant for a mining operation in northern Chile is reported to have been approved by the regional office of the Ministerio del Medio Ambiente (environment ministry).

Adionics launches liquid-to-liquid desalination system

France-based Adionics has launched a smart desalination solution that is able to remove specific salts to address the growing demand coming from oil and gas, food and beverages as well as mining.

Olympic Dam desalination plan approved with conditions

BHP Billiton's proposed 200,000-280,000 m³/d desalination plant in southern Australia's Upper Spencer Gulf will be covered by the 100-plus conditions imposed by national and state government approval of the Olympic Dam uranium mining project announced on 10 October 2011.

Olympic Dam supplementary EIS satisfies opposition leader

South Australia's opposition leader, Isobel Redmond, was quoted on 20 June 2011 in the Australian media as being "satisfied" that the Olympic Dam desalination plant will not cause any damage to the local environment, including the area's giant cuttlefish population.

S Australia government questions Billiton desalination EIS

Desalination discharge led the list of concerns raised by the South Australia government in its submission on 24 April 2009 to BHP Billiton's environmental impact statement (EIS) related to its proposed expansion of its Olympic Dam mining operations.

BHP Billiton asked to rethink desalination plant site

The Parliament of South Australia's Environment, Resources & Development Committee has recommended mining company BHP Billiton reconsider its proposed site for a 250,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant at Port Bonython in the upper Spencer Gulf.

EDS calls for 2014 Cyprus conference papers

The European Desalination Society has issued a call for papers and opened exhibition booking for its conference on Desalination for the Environment, Clean Water & Energy to be held in Limassol, Cyprus, on 11-15 May 2014.

IDA to form Gulf desalination environmental task force

The International Desalination Association (IDA) plans to form a task force to explore the environmental effects of desalination on the Arabian Gulf and recommend strategies to mitigate potential impacts.

Severn-Trent wins Chilean mining desalination contract

US water and wastewater treatment company Severn Trent Services has been awarded a contract to provide a seawater desalination plant that will serve the potable and process water needs of the Minera Esperanza copper and gold mine in Antofagasta, Chile.

Flowserve wins pumps and ERDs for Larnaca desalination

DWEER™ energy-recovery units and Flowserve DMX high-pressure pumps are to be supplied for the 60,000 m³/d Larnaca seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant currently being rebuilt in Cyprus.

Nirosoft selects ERI PXs for Limassol desalination

The 50,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant currently under construction in Limassol, Cyprus, will use PX-260 pressure-exchangers from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).

Aquarion in tie with mining cleantech player

Ottawa-based cleantech company, BluMetric Environmental, has teamed up with Swiss water technology firm, Aquarion, in a technology, business, and project development agreement with an industrial wastewater focus.

Gulf should look to solar to power desalination expert says

The Abu Dhabi Environment Agency has called on Arab Gulf states to shift their focus to solar and other renewable energy when considering power for desalination.

IDA announces nine new Gulf task force members

The importance now being accorded to the environment by the desalination industry was emphasized on 22 April 2010 when the International Desalination Association (IDA) announced the addition of nine distinguished scientists to its Gulf regional task force and an environmental symposium in Bahrain in December 2010.

IDA issues Gulf environmental Blue Paper

Better availability and sharing of environmental data between the Gulf states is among the recommendations contained in a "Blue Paper" released on 18 July 2011 by the International Desalination Association (IDA).

Second floating plant for Cyprus comes closer

Three companies are said to be shortlisted for a project to build a floating desalination plant to supply the southern coastal town of Limassol, according to Sofoklis Aletraris, head of Cyprus' Water Development Department, quoted in the Financial Mirror on 11 January 2009.

Juan Miguel Pinto is confident that Latin America’s market for desalination and reuse projects is poised for growth. The question is not if, but when?

Interview: Juan Miguel Pinto, ALADYR president

The new president of ALADYR, the Latin America desalination and water reuse association, sees his organisation as a window onto the region for international companies. His big aim is to step up events during 2018, taking knowledge of desalination and reuse out to the market.

Minister launches IDA environmental symposium in Bahrain

The desalination industry must better understand its role in changes currently occurring in the Arabian Gulf, Bahrain's minister of electricity and water affairs, Eng Fahmi bin Ali Al Jowder, told an environmental symposium in Manama on 6 December 2010 organised by the International Desalination Association.

Ministry reported to have rejected Chile desalination EIS

The Ministerio del Medio Ambiente (Environment Ministry) in Chile has apparently rejected the environmental impact study (EIS) produced by Suez subsidiary Agbar Chile for an 86,000 m³/d desalination plant in Northern Region III.

UF/RO desalination pilot project for Dow/SWCC

The Dow Chemical Company and the Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) of Saudi Arabia announced on 17 September 2012 a commercial agreement for research collaboration in desalination technologies.


License sought for seawater desalination plant in Chile

White Mountain Titanium Corporation announced on 26 April 2012 that it has applied for an access license to draw seawater for a planned desalination plant in Chile.

Avshalom Felber, formerly Israel Ports and Railway Authority CFO, and deputy director of budgets at Israel's Ministry of Finance, has steered IDE for 14 years

Interview: IDE Technologies CEO Avshalom Felber

Above all, IDE is a solutions provider. So says chief executive Avshalom Felber, the former financial whizz turned water industry leader, as he outlines the company's unique mix of thermal and reverse osmosis (RO) technologies, operational expertise, and contractual nous.

Chilean politicians launch mining desalination bill

A cross-party group of eight deputies in the lower house of the Chilean national congress has submitted a bill to require mining companies using more than 150 L/s of water for extraction purposes to install seawater desalination equipment.

Gulf red-tide early-warning system funding 'soon'

A new early-warning system in the Gulf for harmful algal blooms (HABs), also known as red tides, using satellite imagery, remote sensing, and modeling could be one result of a conference on HABs held on 16‑17 April 2014 by the Middle East Desalination Research Center (MEDRC).

Water rights row could delay Western Australia desalination plant

A row over water rights in the north-west of Australia could lead to delay in the construction of the West Pilbara Seawater Desalination Plant, despite assurances in February 2011 from Western Australia's (WA) state government that the project was on track.

RO-based advanced treatment plant for West Virginia mines

A 5 MGD (19,000 m³/d) membrane-based wastewater treatment plant is to be built to serve a number of coal mines in West Virginia, USA, as a result of government action following pollution violations.

The project site is U-shaped, and is surrounded by lots filled by industrial operators and their associated infrastructure

Jebel Ali project is a new direction for DEWA and Besix

The $237 million contract awarded by Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) for a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant represents a big step for the client, and for Besix Concessions & Assets, which won the work in partnership with Acciona Agua.

Australia funds water study for coal-seam gas industry

The Australian government is spending up to Aus$ 3.88 million (US$ 3.61 million) on a water feasibility study for the Queensland coal-seam gas industry.

West Basin demonstrating desalination intake and outfall technologies

One of the first seawater desalination demonstration facilities to employ ocean-protection technology at the source of intake and discharge has begun construction in Southern California, USA.

Wastewater drive to boost membrane use in GCC region says analyst

Government identification of wastewater treatment in the municipal sector as a priority area in water production will be a key revenue generation source for membrane elements in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries according to market analyst Frost & Sullivan. And the demand for water in the region was set to double within twenty years the analyst forecast.

FEDCO wins Ras Az Zawr energy-recovery contract

The energy-recovery device (ERD) contract for the reverse-osmosis (RO) section of the giant Ras Az Zawr (Ras Azzour) desalination project in Saudi Arabia has been awarded to Fluid Equipment Development Co (FEDCO).

Inventor of water technologies Marc Vergnet adjusts the controls on Osmosun, his new solar-powered reverse osmosis desalination system that does not use batteries or energy storage, chemicals, or grid supplies of electricity

Masdar desal pilot: the results so far

Masdar Clean Energy set a target for its pilot projects of one cubic metre of water for every 3.6 kilowatt hours of energy used. This is a particularly challenging target in the Persian Gulf, where salinity is very high, the water temperature is high, it's very shallow, and there's high organic matter.

Experts urge Gulf investment in desalination energy efficiency

Two prominent water experts have urged Gulf Cooperation Council utility providers and businesses to invest in energy efficient desalination to reduce the technology's carbon footprint and high power costs.

Cyprus desalination failure 'setback for European aid'

Failure to implement the seawater desalination plant at Sirianokhori/Kumköy in the Turkish part of Cyprus represents a significant setback for the overall European Community assistance programme to this region, according to the European Court of Auditors (ECA).

Major water-sector contractor formed in Dubai

The Leighton Group, which has been involved in the construction of three of Australia's large seawater desalination plants, has brought two group companies together in Dubai, UAE, to create a strong water and environment contracting company.

BEL pressure vessels in the Ashkelon desalination plant.

BEL wins pressure-vessel order in Cyprus

BEL Group Ltd announced in mid-May 2010 that its subsidiary, BEL Composite industries Ltd, had been contracted to supply its composite pressure vessels (desalination membrane housings) for the 60,000 m³/d Vasilikos Power Plant seawater desalination plant in Cyprus.

H2O Innovation takes Californian reuse contract

A contract to expand the Leo J Vander Lans Advanced Water Treatment Facility in Long Beach, California, has been awarded to Canadian company H2O Innovation Inc.

Agency approves W Australian desalination plant

Western Australia's Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on 13 February 2012 announced conditional approval for Grange Resources Ltd's proposal to construct and operate the Cape Riche Desalination Plant.

Final go-ahead for Adelaide desalination plant

Adelaide's 150,000 m³/d desalination plant was given the final go-ahead on 26 February 2009 by the South Australia state government.

IDA releases program details for Morocco conference

The International Desalination Association released details on 19 January 2012 of the Program Highlights of the Desalination and Sustainability conference which will take place on 1-2 March 2012 in Casablanca, Morocco.

Mining firm strikes funding deal for desalination plant at planned mine

Mining firm, White Mountain Titanium, has agreed a deal with US private equity company, Nexo Capital Partners, to fund, construct and manage a desalination plant to form part of White Mountain's planned Cerro Blanco mining project in Chile.

Protesa wins two Cyprus desalination pipe contracts

Contracts for glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) pipes and fittings for two desalination plants in Cyprus were announced on 21 March 2011 by Spanish manufacturer Protesa.

Xylem provides DAF pretreatment for Fujairah 1

Xylem Inc has won a contract to provide a dissolved air flotation (DAF) pretreatment system for the Fujairah 1 Independent Water & Power Plant (IWPP) in the UAE to help ensure an uninterrupted potable water supply from the desalination plant to Abu Dhabi emirate and the east coast.

NRDC report urges control and reuse of fracking wastewater

The US Environmental Protection Agency and individual states should ban or more strictly regulate the discharge of shale gas wastewater (SGW) from hydraulic fracturing (fracking) to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs). They should also update pollution control standards for centralised waste treatment facilities (CWTs) that accept SGW.

Mobile desalter starts up in Cyprus

The 20,000 m³/d mobile desalination plant providing a partial solution to the serious water shortage problems of the city of Limassol, Cyprus, and its surrounding areas became operational during w/e 20 December 2008.

Peruvian mine desalination 'viable' says Southern Copper

The construction of a desalination plant for Southern Copper's US$ 1 billion Tia Maria copper mine, in the Islay province of Arequipa in Peru, is "a viable option", according to the company's executive president Oscar Gonzales, quoted by Reuters on 24 May 2010.

Oil/gas sector MBR leads new H2O Innovation jobs

Supply of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) wastewater treatment and reuse system to an industrial user in the oil and gas industry in Alberta, Canada, was announced by H2 O Innovation Inc on 8 March 2012.

Gulf nations poised for 40% boost to desalination output by 2020

The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region is poised to up its seawater desalination capacity by nearly 40% by 2020 to meet the growing demand for drinking water, according to a recent report.

Olympic Dam desalination EIS released by BHP Billiton

The desalination plant in South Australia to feed BHP Billiton's Olympic Dam mining development moved a step closer when the company released the final supplementary environmental impact statement (SEIS) for the project on 13 May 2011.

IDE in talks with Hawaii desalination plant proposer

Desalination designer and builder IDE Technologies has confirmed to D&WR that it has been talking with billionaire Larry Ellison, who is proposing to build a 2.5 MGD (9,500 m³/d) seawater desalination plant on the island of Lanai.

Aquarion acquires Germany's MFT

Swiss oil and gas industry water systems company, Aquarion Group, has acquired Membran- Filtrations-Technik (MFT) of Germany for an undisclosed sum.

Mining water treatment market to grow 85% by 2019

The global water treatment market for hard-rock mining - iron, copper, gold, nickel - is set to grow 85% to US$ 17 billion by 2019 according to market analyst, Bluefield Research.

The new SWRO was opened by Jordan’s prime minister, Hani Al-Mulki (centre, left), with (from left), Tarek Dehays, AquaTreat chief executive; Hazim el Nasser, minister of water and irrigation; and (centre, right) Rateb Adwan, assistant director general for quality and desalination

Jordan's first SWRO opens for business

The opening of the first seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant in Jordan marks a jumping off point for the country from which it can continue to develop a desalination programme, including the much-anticipated Red Sea-Dead Sea project.

IDA publishes program for Gulf desalination and environment seminar

The International Desalination Association has published details of program sessions and topics for its seminar on Desalination and the Gulf: The Relationship between the Environment and Meeting the Region's Water Needs, which will take place in Bahrain on 6-7 December 2010.

Aqualia wins SWRO contract in Chile

Spanish company Aqualia has been awarded a contract worth about € 17 million to design and supply seawater reverse-osmosis equipment for a desalination plant in Chile, its first work in that country.

Santa Cruz desalination EIR comment deadline in July

The draft environmental impact report (EIR) for the 2.5 MGD (9,500 m³/d) seawater desalination plant for the greater Santa Cruz area in California, USA, which was released on 13 May 2013, will be available for public comment until 15 July 2013.

Escondida desalination is first Doosan job in Latin America

Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction announced its first seawater desalination plant project in the Latin American market on 25 August 2013.

Cyprus desalination to end drought pledges president

Cyprus's sixth desalination plant plant, was inaugurated last week with a pledge from president Nicos Anastasiades that along with existing plants it would "guarantee that Cyprus will not face the problem of drought again."

RFP to follow UAE renewable-energy desalination launch

A pilot program to test and develop advanced energy-efficient seawater desalination technologies that could be powered by renewable energy sources was launched on 17 January 2013 by Masdar, the UAE renewable energy company.

BASF water business combined with other sectors

German chemical giant BASF has combined its water business with its oilfield and mining businesses as from 1 April 2013 to increase efficiency and support growth.

Bechtel contract for Escondida desalination project

BHP Billiton has contracted Bechtel to provide engineering, project management and construction services for the water supply to the Escondida copper mine in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.

Billiton clears finance for 216,000 m³/d Chile desalination

An investment of US$ 1,972 million was approved by mining giant BHP Billiton on 25 July 2013 for its 216,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant in Escondida, Chile.

Doosan denies Cyprus joint venture

Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction has denied the story posted on desalination.biz on 24 November 2011 concerning a desalination joint venture in Cyprus with Oakmall Pty Ltd of Australia.

Cadagua orders ERI PX-Q300s for Morocco project

Spanish desalination contractor Cadagua has ordered PX‑Q300 pressure‑exchangers from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) for the first phase of the Jorf Lasfar seawater desalination plant in Morocco.

EIS filed for SWRO desalination plant for Chile fishery

An environmental impact study (EIS) has been filed by Seven Seas Water Chile SpA for the Bahía Caldera Desalination Plant in Chile's Region III.

China's Tri-Tech acquires Wisconsin desalination provider

Desalination and wastewater treatment provider J&Y International Inc, based in Wisconsin, USA, was acquired by subsidiaries of Tri-Tech Holding Inc of China on 9 June 2011.

Reclamation Bureau's water recycling and reuse funding criteria published

The US government's Bureau of Reclamation published on 15 October 2010 the funding criteria under its Title XVI - Water Recycling & Reuse Program for two new funding opportunity announcements in fiscal year 2011.

Cyprus mobile desalination dismantled

A €30 million (US$ 33 million) mobile desalination unit constructed to supply the city of Paphos on Cyprus's southwest coast is being disassembled after years of near idleness, according to local press.

Papers invited for 2013 AWWA/AMTA event

With the 2012 AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference under way this week in Phoenix, Arizona, a call for papers has been issued for next year's event in Texas.

Produced water will be pumped 45 miles and across a height of 700 metres to a new reservoir in Copiapó, near the Tierra Amarillo mountains, where mining companies operate. The system comprises five pumping stations, one at the intake, one at the treatment plant, two on the piping route, and one at the reservoir.

Chile project envisions multiple mining clients for solar-powered SWRO

Energias y Aguas del Pacifico (ENAPAC), a proposed solar-powered seawater desalination plant and water transport project aims to support expansion of mining operations in Chile's Atacama region.

West Basin desalination demo could begin next year

Construction could begin in 2010 on the Ocean-Water Desalination Demonstration Project at Redondo Beach near Los Angeles, California, the West Basin Municipal Water District announced on 30 July 2009.

Rick Stover is executive vice president of Desalitech and an IDA board member

Desalitech's Rick Stover: "The world's experts on desal and reuse are coming to Miami"


Desalitech executive vice president Rick Stover says that delegates can expect stimulating open forum discussions, papers and research at the IDA Energy and Environment Conference in Miami, USA, December 2016

More desalination and reuse potential in Western Australia

Western Australia's Water Corporation is considering up to three seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plants along the southern coast of its area, known as Lower Great Southern, as part of a potential portfolio of water resources for the next 30 years.

Veolia Peru wins operation deal for mine desalination

Veolia Peru, has won a three-year operation and maintenance contract for a 4.1 Ml/d reverse osmosis desalination plant at the Cerro Lindo multi metal mine owned by Lima-quoted exploration and mining firm, Milpo.

The adsorption pilot at a solar manufacturing facility near Riyadh focused on recovering reverse osmosis brine. Recovery rates are critical at the site, which is 100 miles inland

Adsorption pilot phase two will focus on ZLD

MEDAD Technologies, a specialist in adsorption, has worked to commercialise a multi-effect distillation adsorption desalination (MED-AD) system since spinning off from the National University of Singapore (NUS) in 2012.

Speakers announced for IDA conference in Banff

Speakers and sessions for the May conference on Water Recycling and Desalination for the Oil & Gas Industry have been announced by the organizers, the International Desalination Association (IDA).

Metito backs low-temperature distillation to challenge lead desalination technologies

Dubai-based water technology firm, Metito, is set to make a "significant investment" in clean-tech company Thermal Purification Technologies (TPTec), to develop TPTec's patented low-temperature distillation (LTD) technology. Metito claims LTD could displace existing membrane and thermal desalination technologies.

Locations of the Toray contracts.

Toray wins Gulf quartet

Toray Industries Inc announced in September that its reverse-osmosis (RO) membrane business had won orders from four seawater desalination plants with a total capacity of 332,000 m³/d in the Gulf.

South Africa to focus on desalination and water reuse

Desalination and the reuse of wastewater from municipalities and mining are strongly emphasised in the 2nd National Water Resources Strategy (NWRS2) for South Africa released at the start of July 2013.

Namibian uranium mine ponders desalination project

Namibian uranium mining firm Rössing Uranium is investigating the economic viability of designing, constructing and operating a new desalination plant to supply its operation in the economically important Erongo Region where water is scarce.

US$ 6.25 million equity investment for Desalitech

Reverse-osmosis (RO) innovator Desalitech Inc has secured an equity investment of U$$ 6.25 million led by Liberation Capital LLC, which will be used for business expansion and working capital.

Urban surge drives 57% growth in Indian municipal water treatment market by 2018

Urban population growth in India will create huge demand for municipal water and wastewater treatment systems including desalination adding 57% to revenues over five years according to a recent report by market analyst Frost an Sullivan (F&S).

US to develop natural-gas wastewater standards

Over the coming months, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to begin the process of developing a proposed standard for wastewater discharges produced by natural-gas extraction from underground coalbed and shale formations.

Desalitech and Veolia tie up Mexican MoU

Desalitech Inc has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies to bring advanced cost‑effective high‑recovery water solutions to Mexico and additional countries worldwide.

West Australia mine desalination plant review published

A public environmental review (PER) was issued on 26 September 2011 for a 35,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant at Cape Riche in Western Australia, 90 km northeast of Albany.

Acciona to build RO plant for Chile mines

Spain's Acciona Agua has been selected by Grupo CAP to design, build, bring into service and operate for 20 years a seawater desalination plant to service mining operations in the Copiapó Valley in Chile's Atacama Region III.

“We are looking at organic growth, and mergers, acquisitions, and joint ventures.

Energy Recovery: 'hyper-focused' on water

The former chief financial director of Energy Recovery has now stepped into the top job as chief executive on a permanent basis. He reveals plans to develop new packaged product for the desalination market, and takes a wry line on the industry's lively rumour mill.

Adelaide to get Aus$ 62 million water reuse project

The federal Australian government and South Australia (SA) state will invest Aus$ 62.6 million (US$ 41.3 million) in a project to supply 1.6 million m³/year of treated wastewater to new housing developments in the southern suburbs of Adelaide, where a large desalination contract is also due to be let in March 2009.

IDE lands big Australian mining RO contract

IDE Technologies has been awarded the design and supply contract for a 140,000 m³/d desalination plant for the Sino Iron Project in Western Australia by CITIC Pacific Mining.

North Sea gas RO package supplied by UK company

A containerised reverse‑osmosis (RO) desalination package is to be supplied for an unmanned gas platform in the North Sea by Salt Separation Services of Rochdale, UK.

Chile's copper mines will turn to desalination for half their water

Desalination will provide half the water demand of Chile's copper mining industry by 2026, according to findings in a report by the Chilean state copper commission, Cochilco.

Portofino location for next IDA Academy session

The next session of the IDA Desalination Academy will be held in Santa Margherita, close to the resort of Portofino, Italy from 30 March to 2 April 2014.

Gold miner opts for desalination to supply planned Mexican mine

The gold mining arm of energy firm, Chesapeake, has opted to use desalinated seawater to supply water for its proposed Metates gold and silver mining project in Durango state, Mexico. It has tendered for proposals to build and operate a 55Ml/d desalination facility to supply the mine with fresh water.

Texas treatment company spins off frac water firm

A company called Green Hydro LLC has been spun off by Texas-based Advanced Hydro Inc to use desalination to address increasing demand for water use in hydraulic fracturing.

Groups appeal Huntington Beach desalination permit

Four environmental groups in California have appealed a decision by the Santa Ana Regional Water Quality Control Board (WQCB) to grant a permit for the proposed Huntington Beach desalination plant proposed by Poseidon Resources.

2014 Oman conference to look at HABs and desalination

An international conference on Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) & Desalination is to be held in Muscat, Oman, in April 2014.

Jorge T Aguinaldo

New quartet joins RWL's Aeromix and Nirosoft

RWL Water has recently added four new staff to its group companies Aeromix and Nirosoft.

Agreement at last on desalination supply for Monterey

Tentative agreement has finally been reached by the three agencies involved in developing a regional water supply project for California's Monterey peninsula, which will include a 10 MGD (37,850 m³/d) desalination facility.

Iron miners looking at 137,000 m³/d S Australia desalination plant

A series of iron ore mines to be sited at Broken Hill, South Australia, by the Braemar Iron Alliance is going to require a 137,000 m³/d desalination plant sited 300 km away on the Upper Spencer Gulf close to Port Germein, 220 km north of Adelaide.


Suggested keywords