Groundwater, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Tender, Water Scarcity, Tanks, Tanks


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The Orange County Groundwater Replacement System

Go-ahead for 113,500 m³/d Orange County GWRS expansion

Orange County's world-renowned membrane-based Groundwater Replenishment System (GWRS) in California is to be expanded by another 30 MGD (113,500 m³/d) following approval by the board of the Orange County Water District (OCWD) on 30 March 2011.

ABS turbocompressors selected for Jurong MBR plant

Aeration for the membrane bioreactor (MBR) and the biological treatment tanks at Jurong Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore's largest MBR plant, is to be provided by ABS Turbocompressors HST.

The schedule of tenders on Tuas Nexus was unveiled at Singapore International Water Week 2018 at Marina Bay Sands, Singapore

Singapore to tender S$5 billion of water and waste works

Singapore's PUB and National Environment Agency (NEA) are to tender more than S$5 billion ($3.7 billion) of works covering civil, mechanical and electrical engineering for Tuas Nexus, an integrated wastewater and waste treatment facility.

Dr Abdullah Al-Alshaikh, new IDA president

SWCC deputy governor elected as IDA president 2013-15

Dr Abdullah Al-Alshaikh, deputy governor for planning and development of Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) will become president of the International Desalination Association (IDA) on 24 October 2013 serving for the 2013‑15 term.

Parkson breaks new ground with Saudi MBR plant

A 2,000 m³/d wastewater-reuse plant based on membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has just been commissioned in Rabigh, Saudi Arabia, by Florida-based Parkson.

Eight bidders for Singapore's second desalination plant

Eight companies/consortia had expressed interest in Singapore's second and largest desalination plant when the tender for the project closed on 23 October 2010.

Singapore's Changi wastewater reclamation plant.

Tender later this year for Changi expansion

A tender will be called in the second half of 2011 for construction and installation of an expansion to Singapore's Changi Water Reclamation Plant using membrane technology.

Singapore tenders 318,500 m³/d SWRO desalination plant

A tender for a 70 MIGD (318,500 m³/d) desalination plant to be built at Tuas, Singapore, was launched on 30 June 2010 by the country's national water agency, PUB.

The project site is U-shaped, and is surrounded by lots filled by industrial operators and their associated infrastructure

Jebel Ali project is a new direction for DEWA and Besix

The $237 million contract awarded by Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) for a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant represents a big step for the client, and for Besix Concessions & Assets, which won the work in partnership with Acciona Agua.

Japan funds Cape Verde desalination scheme

Japan's International Cooperation Agency (JICA) is to provide US$ 150 million towards the funding of a US$ 200 million desalination plant for the Cape Verde republic off the coast of West Africa.

ACWA Emirates' membrane bio-reactor plant at Shaybah Oilfield, Saudi Arabia, recycles water for use at the site's residential complex

ACWA Emirates delivers MBR reuse plant for Saudi Aramco

ACWA Emirates has completed a water reuse plant at Shaybah Oilfield, Saudi Arabia, for crude and natural gas exporter Saudi Aramco.

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversation Corp has procured the desal units with a view to moving them around the country's coastline

SWCC procures three floating desalination units

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation has procured three desalination units to provide floating capacity of 150,000 m3/d of drinking water over 20 years.

Oman trial plant eases water scarcity

Trial operation of a new desalination plant near the Oman capital, Muscat, is already alleviating water scarcity there according to the Oman's Public Authority for Electricity and Water.

Tunisia has a programme of water projects designed to reduce reliance on groundwater sources

KfW finances Euro 82 million Tunisian desalination project

KfW Development Bank is to loan €82 million ($95 million) to Tunisia for a desalination plant in Zarat, Gabes Governorate, reports Tunis Afrique Presse.

New Mexico city seeking 4 MGD desalination plant

The city of Alamogordo, New Mexico, USA, is looking to use a 4 MGD (15,000 m³/d) desalination plant to provide a safe dependable supply from brackish water wells.

Arlington Desalter

Desalination plant's nitrate removal has hidden benefits

A water district in California has found a novel way to remove multiple contaminants from groundwater currently feeding a desalination plant without creating waste that requires costly treatment and disposal.

June start for Clearwater RO plant in Florida

Construction is due to start in June 2013 on the second reverse-osmosis water treatment plant for City of Clearwater, Florida, following a groundbreaking ceremony on 6 May 2013.

South Australian town to get new desalination plant

South Australia's water minister, Ian Hunter, announced on 1 May 2013 that a brackish-water desalination plant to deliver improved water quality to the town of Hawker, in the Flinders Ranges 100km north of Port Augusta, had been approved for construction.

CH2M Hill teams with PUB in India

Consultant, CH2M HILL, in partnership with the Singapore Public Utilities Board (PUB) and Singapore Cooperation Enterprise, is providing water management services to the Rajasthan state government in India.

Singapore utility awards desalt deal to Chinese-led group

Singapore's national water agency, PUB, has selected the BESIN-UEN consortium - led by China's Beijing Enterprises Water Group (BEWG) - as the preferred bidder to construct the second reverse osmosis (RO) plant sited at Changi under a public/private partnership.

PUB picks HSL Constructor for Singapore's third plant

HSL Constructor will build Singapore's third desalination plant in Tuas, the country's water supply agency, PUB, has announced. And PUB has awarded a consultancy services tender for a fourth desalination plant.

PUB and Mitsubishi join to test water recycling technology

Singapore's national water agency, PUB. has contracted Japan's Mitsubishi Corporation to build a demonstration-scale plant to test energy saving technologies that may be deployed at the proposed Tuas Water Reclamation Plant (WRP).

Singapore to build fourth desalination plant

Singapore's national water agency, PUB, has tendered for the provision of consultancy services for a desalination plant in Marina East - the country's fourth.

X-raying goods vehicles at Kerem Shalom commercial crossing between Israel and Palestine

Gaza desalination plant delayed by goods blockade

Construction of a desalination plant in Gaza City, Palestine, has stalled after Israel halted the passage of goods into the State, reports Relief Web.

Oceana is installing its own independent desalinated water supply to support its fish canning operations, in readiness for the day when Cape Town municipal supplies run dry

Western Cape food producer adopts desalination

Oceana, a canned fish producer based in Western Cape, South Africa, is installing two desalination plants in readiness for 'day zero,' in April 2018, when the region is expected to run out of water.

Mobile desalination units are replacing trucked-in water at the oil refinery

Bahrain oil refinery installs GE Water mobile technologies

Bahrain Petroleum Company has installed mobile technology from GE Water at Awali refinery to produce high-purity boiler feedwater.

Agadir city, on Morocco's southern Atlantic coast, is well known for its tourism and golf courses

Abengoa's project in Agadir, Morocco, expands in size and scope

Abengoa is to expand capacity of a desalination plant project in development, and to construct additional capacity for irrigation purposes, in Agadir, Morocco.

New digital business practices will change desal and reuse project development and operations

The Long Read: How digital is transforming desal and reuse

The digital economy is transforming water utilities and industrial players, and bringing potentially profound changes for desalination and reuse specialists. The common thread is data.

Doosan Babcock wins maintenance and support deal at giant Taweelah plant

Energy engineering company, Doosan Babcock, has won a contract with Taweelah Asia Power Company (Tapco) to provide essential maintenance and technical support services for Tapco's desalination plant in Abu Dhabi.

Fort forges ahead with reuse project

The first water reuse project in Oklahoma state is reported to be making headway at the US army's post at Fort Sill.

STW finishes brine concentrator project at Horizon, Texas

Water management firm, STW Resources, has completed a US$ 2.2 million contract for the design, engineering and construction of a reverse osmosis (RO) concentrator for the Texas city, Horizon.

Mitsubishi unit bags sludge system order

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Mechatronics Systems (MHI-MS), has picked up an order for wastewater treatment facilities using its two-phase, activated sludge system, for installation at sister company Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation's Yokkaichi Plant in Mie prefecture.

Offshore desalination prototype wins funding

Renewable sector engineering company 4NRg has won funding for its development of a prototype mechanical offshore desalination unit.

Innovative Flow Analysis Method for High Loading Rate DAF

Dissolved air flotation (DAF) is a well established method for removing suspended solids from wastewater that is gaining ground in the pretreatment of seawater for desalination. The authors describe a method for analyzing the flow of water in DAF to inform better design of DAF tanks. This article first appeared in the August 2014 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

H2O Innovation lands three water/wastewater contracts

H2O Innovation Inc announced on 14 January 2014 recent contracts totalling Can$ 6.5 million (UA$ 5.93 million) in Western Canada's energy sector.

Ovivo to supply largest US MBR to Canton, Ohio

The City of Canton, Ohio, is to use Ovivo membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology to upgrade its water reclamation facility from 39 MGD (147,600 m³/d) to 88 MGD (333,000 m³/d).

Multi-technology GE upgrade for Russian refinery treatment

Membrane bioreactor (MBR), electrodialysis reversal (EDR) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology will all feature in a major upgrade for the wastewater treatment at one of Russia's biggest oil refineries.

New Zealand city commissions MBR wastewater upgrade

The city of Rotorua on New Zealand's North Island has become the first city in the country to use a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for wastewater treatment on a major scale.

Pentair X-Flow wins UF order for Ghallilah desalination

Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes and skids are to be supplied to the 15 MIGD (68,000 m³/d) seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant at Ghallilah, Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates, by Pentair X-Flow.

Australia and NZ ferry RO units to Tuvalu

Australia and New Zealand are leading an urgent response to the drought currently afflicting the South Pacific islands of Tuvalu and Tokelau by transporting reverse-osmosis (RO) units to provide a water supply.

BEL hooks up with Strand for RO pressure-vessels in US

Desalination pressure-vessel manufacturer BEL Group Ltd, through BEL Composite America Inc, announced a strategic partnership on 30 July 2011 with Strand Composite Engineering & Construction LLC of Harrison, Arkansas, USA.

The solar panels at Beckton desalination plant, UK.

Solar panels commissioned at UK desalination plant

Thames Water in the UK at the end of July commissioned a 450 kW array of solar panels at its 150,000 m³/d Beckton brackish-water desalination plant as part of a bid to become Britain's biggest on-site solar power producer and industrial user.

Canada's largest MBR plant will have GE membranes

A 36,000 m³/d expanded membrane bioreactor will be at the heart of an upgraded wastewater treatment plant for the city of Brandon in Manitoba, Canada.

Protesa wins two Cyprus desalination pipe contracts

Contracts for glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) pipes and fittings for two desalination plants in Cyprus were announced on 21 March 2011 by Spanish manufacturer Protesa.

McLaughlin takes over at CST Industries

Liquid-storage tankmaker CST Industries of Lenexa, USA, has a new president and CEO following the departure of Brian Bauerbach, who is leaving the company to lead another venture.

The facility site at SEA Lab

West Basin district dedicates desalination demo facility

California's West Basin Municipal Water District is nearing completion of its new desalination demonstration facility, following formal dedication of the plant on 12 November 2010.

New Zealand district to install Zeeweed MBR system

Rotorua District Council, New Zealand, is to install advanced bacteria-removing membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for the upgrade to its wastewater treatment plant using GE's Zeeweed 500d ultrafiltration technology.

San Francisco's Golden Gate Park

San Francisco plans wastewater reuse plant in city park

San Francisco's Public Utilities (SFPUC) unveiled plans on 7 September 2010 for its proposed Westside Recycled Water Project, part of its Water System Improvement Program.

West Basin demonstrating desalination intake and outfall technologies

One of the first seawater desalination demonstration facilities to employ ocean-protection technology at the source of intake and discharge has begun construction in Southern California, USA.

MemPulse MBR equipment with air scouring technology significantly reduces energy consumption.

Modesto water quality project gets Siemens MBR equipment

Equipment for a 12.6 MGD (47,700 m³/d) membrane bioreactor (MBR) system is to be supplied to City of Modesto, California, USA, by Siemens Water Technologies for the Jennings Road Water Quality Control Facility.

Construction starts on Durrat Al Bahrain desalination plant

Bahrain-based utility Energy Central Co (ECC)announced on 4 March 2009 that a groundbreaking ceremony has taken place at the Durrat Al Bahrain development, where the company is building a seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant with an ultimate capacity of 32,000 m³/d.

Aerial view of the Sydney construction site.

Sydney desalter construction reaches halfway point

Construction of Sydney's 250,000 m³/d Kurnell seawater desalination plant is just over 50% complete, D&WR has been told by Sydney Water. The intake and outlet tunnels were completed in December 2008.

Metito to supply RO plant for UAE oil base

Supply of a 2,700 m³/d reverse osmosis desalination plant and a 360 m³/d demineralization plant for an oil and gas installation on Das Island, UAE, has been awarded to UAE-based Metito by Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Company.

One of the 10,000 m³ tanks under construction at Tordera.

Tordera SWRO storage tanks built within 16 weeks

The challenge of upgrading and nearly doubling the potable water storage capacity as part of an upgrade of the Tordera seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Blanes (Girona) near Barcelona, Spain, within a rigorous timeframe, was awarded to CST Vulcan, a division of CST Industries Inc. Using a specialised jacking system, allowing the tanks to be built from the ground up, construction was completed in August 2009, in less than 16 weeks total, allowing the overall project to continue on time and as planned.

Construction completed on Australia's largest recycled water project

Wastewater reuse is a hot topic in Australia, with the "toilet-to-tap" label being trotted out on many occasions. In the state of Queensland, it has a lot more relevance because, as well as a brand new desalination plant at Gold Coast, the state now has a giant new municipal water reuse scheme. This article discusses completion of the Western Corridor Recycled Water Project, the southern hemisphere's largest recycled water project, and provides a technical overview of the international award-winning Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant. Producing up to 232,000 m /d of water, the WCRWP is the largest in the southern hemisphere and the third largest in the world. It provides purified recycled water, a climate- and rainfall-resilient source of pure water, to three power stations located in South East Queensland. In the future, the project will supply water to industry and potentially agricultural users, and, should the region's drinking water supplies fall below 40%, the Wivenhoe Dam. The project includes a network of more than 200 km of large-diameter underground pipes, three advanced water treatment plants, nine storage tanks and 12 pumping stations. It also provides significant environmental benefits by removing up to 50% of nutrients that would previously have been released to waterways feeding environmentally sensitive Moreton Bay. This article appeared in the May/June issue of D&WR magazine.

Spanish prominent in Al Ghubrah desalination bidders

Spanish companies are involved with five of seven bidders that have been invited by the Oman Tender Board to submit proposals for the Al Ghubrah Independent Water Project (IWP).

Desalination and reuse in Water Leaders' Blue Paper

Key ideas from the Water Leaders Summit at this year's Singapore International Water Week have been captured in the latest Water Week 2011 publications, Blue Paper and Solutions.

Keppel in US$ 46 million water-reuse JV in Tianjin

Keppel Integrated Engineering (KIE) signed a joint-venture agreement with Tianjin Eco-City Investment & Development Co (TECID) on 17 April 2011 to pursue the building, owning and operation of a water reclamation plant in the Eco-City.

Hyflux first half revenue 90% municipal

Singapore, desalination group, Hyflux, generated more than 90% of its revenue for the six months to 30 June 2015 in municipal markets with almost a half of its sales in its home market and more than a third in China according to its first half 2015 report. Group profit after tax and minority interests was S$31.6 million (US$ 22.6 million) for the period.

Abu Dhabi rejects more desalination despite growing water stress

Environment Policy and Planning at Environment Agency - Abu Dhabi (EAD) has rejected upping desalination as a means to counter growing water scarcity in the emirate, opting instead for conservation and reuse.

IDA chooses Singapore week to launch desalination academy

The International Desalination Association's (IDA) newly established Desalination Academy is to be formally launched in conjunction with Singapore International Water Week, 1- 5 July 2012.

WRI publishes country chart of water-stress exposure

A ranked list of countries showing their exposure to water-stress was released on 12 December 2012 by the World Resources Institute (WRI).

The most-read stories on desalination and water reuse in 2018 around the globe

Most-read: our top 20 stories of 2018

The year 2018 was dominated by big project tenders in the Middle East, especially Saudi Arabia. Water. desalination + reuse rounds up the top stories from our industry.

Bidding for largest solar desalination plant opens soon

Tenders for the world's largest solar-powered seawater desalination plant in Ras Al Khaimah, UAE, will be invited next month by utility company Utico Middle East.

CONGRESS NEWS Desalination industry embraces conservation as vital ally

Desalination industry leaders this week declared emphatic support for the role of sustainable measures alongside advances in desalination to address growing water scarcity. Opening speakers at the IDA World Congress in San Diego emphasized the importance of conservation and water recycling in meeting an escalating global challenge from water scarcity.

Chinese lead water-reuse positivity in GE survey

GE announced on 5 June 2013 the final part of the results from its three-country 3,000-sample consumer water-reuse survey.

Hyflux wins Saudi deal for Yanbu

Desalination specialist, Hyflux, has won a US$ 48 million contract to build a containerised desalination system for Saudi Arabia.

Saudi Arabia unveils plans for giant desalination plant

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation has announced plans for what would be the world's largest desalination plant.

Black & Veatch wins consultant contract for giant Jeddah desalination project

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) has awarded consultancy, Black & Veatch, the engineering and design contract for a major desalination project that will supply the kingdom's second largest city, Jeddah.

SWCC privatization 'on track', says governor

The governor of Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC), Fehied F Alshareef, issued a statement on 13 October 2009 saying that the SWCC privatization and restructuring implementation program remained on track, and that there was no intention to cancel or postpone it.

Saudi plans two more giant desalination plants

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) has unveiled plans to build two huge sea water desalination plants including a vast 1.5 million m³/day capacity hybrid plant with 30% of its production coming from reverse osmosis and the rest from thermal desalination.

Saudi poised for sevefold hike in water reuse

Unveiling a white paper highlighting government policy options for addressing water scarcity in Saudi Arabia, GE Power & Water said the kingdom was in a position to up its reuse of wastewater sevenfold to more than 240 million m³/year.

Dow signs Fluor to build new Saudi desalination component factory

The Dow Chemical Company has appointed Fluor Corporation to build a new factory to manufacture reverse osmosis components for desalination plants in Saudi Arabia.

Hitachi and Hyflux in Indian desalination agreement

A co-developer agreement for a seawater desalination project in Gujarat state, India, was announced on 22 March 2012 by a consortium of Hitachi Ltd and Itochu Corporation of Japan with Hyflux Ltd of Singapore.

IDA announces final academy details for Singapore

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has announced details of its inaugural set of courses and faculty for the new IDA Desalination Academy, which will officially be launched in conjunction with the 2012 Singapore International Water Week.

IDA releases details for desalination academy launch

The International Desalination Association on 14 February 2012 released the schedule for the launch of the IDA Academy at the Singapore Water Week in July 2012.

Toray to supply membranes for Tuaspring desalination plant

Toray of Japan has won the order to supply reverse osmosis (RO) membrane elements to the Tuaspring Desalination Plant in Singapore.

Ravichandran Subramanian

KMS hires Subramanian to develop Southeast Asia markets

US membrane manufacturer Koch Membrane Systems (KMS) has hired Ravichandran Subramanian as regional commercial manager for Southeast Asia.

US ceramic membrane company expands to Singapore

Ceramic filter-maker LiqTech International Inc of Nevada, USA, announced on 17 January 2012 the opening of an expansion office in Singapore.

Sembcorp reuse closes Chinese port-zone's water loop

Singapore company Sembcorp today opens its first industrial water reclamation plant in China on 13 December 2011.

PWT signs three new overseas distributors

Three new distributors in Malaysia, Singapore and South Africa have been signed up by Professional Water Technologies (PWT), the business unit of Canada's H2O Innovation Inc.

Hydranautics to collaborate with Singapore's Memstar

Membrane manufacturer Nitto Denko/Hydranautics has agreed business collaboration with Memstar Technology Ltd, the Singapore-based manufacturer of high-performance hollow-fiber membranes.


Singapore desalination pressure-vessel contract for ROPV

Pressure-vessel producer ROPV announced on 12 September 2011 that Hyflux had awarded the company a contract to supply pressure vessels to the Tuaspring Desalination Plant, Singapore's second and largest seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant.

November deadline for Singapore convention abstracts

A deadline of 15 November 2011 has been set for the receipt of abstracts for the Water Convention at the Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) in July 2012.

Singapore's PUB set to adopt power saving desalination by Evoqua

Technology developed in Singapore by US firm, Evoqua, uses half the amount of electricity required by conventional seawater reverse osmosis the firm has claimed.

DWEER ERDs chosen for Singapore desalination plant

Singapore's new 318,200 m³/d Tuaspring seawater desalination plant will use DWEER™ devices to recover energy from the high-pressure brine stream of the reverse-osmosis process.

Singapore Week 2012 to be launched at IDA Perth Congress

The Singapore International Water Week in 2012 is to be launched at the World Congress of the International Desalination Association (IDA) in Perth on 5 September 2011.

MBR plant at heart of United Environtech contract in China

A 50,000 m³/d membrane-based wastewater treatment plant is to be built in Jiangsu Province, China, by United Envirotech of Singapore under a contract worth RMB 220 million (US$ 34.5 million).

IDA scholarships for PhD students in US and Singapore

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has awarded its Channabasappa Memorial Scholarship for 2011 to Errol M Glenn of the USA and Sim Siang Tze Victor of Singapore.

Warehouse fire delays Magtaa desalination by nine months

Completion of the 500,000 m³/d Magtaa desalination plant in western Algeria will be delayed by nine months after a fire destroyed the contractor's onsite warehouse on 28 July 2011.

Groundbreaking follows Singapore II desalination finance deal

A day after Hyflux Ltd announced that it had secured financing for the second Singapore seawater desalination plant, a groundbreaking ceremony took place on 5 July 2011 at the International Water Week linked by video to the site.

IDA leads Energy-Water Nexus Roundtable at Singapore week

The International Desalination Association (IDA) will support the Water Leaders Summit when it opens on 5 July 2011 at Singapore International Water Week.

Dutch to build ceramic membrane demo plant in Singapore

PWN Technologies (PWNT) of the Netherlands is to build Singapore's first ceramic membrane demonstration plant at Choa Chu Kang Waterworks.

Conceptual image of the Tuaspring desalination plant

Bridging loans sought for Singapore desalination plant

Singapore-based EPC contractor Hyflux Ltd is negotiating with its financiers to find up to Sing$ 800 million (US$ 650 million) in bridging loans to fund construction of Singapore's Tuaspring desalination plant and a 400 MW gas-fired power plant, according to IFRAsia on 31 May 2011.

Xylem bags Singapore UV deal

Water technology specialist, Xylem, has won a US$ 500,000 contract to supply a major municipal water reclamation facility with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection solutions.

Vizualization of Singapore's Tuaspring desalination plant

US$0.36/m³ price for Singapore's second desalination plant

Tuaspring Pte Ltd, a subsidiary of Singapore's Hyflux, signed a 25-year Water Purchase Agreement (WPA) with Singapore's national water agency on 6 April 2011 for the country's second and largest desalination plant.

Hyflux collaborates with Japanese bank

Singapore's Hyflux Ltd has signed a memorandum of understanding with Japan's Mizuho Corporate Bank to collaborate in the global water business.

Vizualization of Singapore's new desalination plant

Hyflux preferred for 318,500 m³/d Singapore desalination plant

PUB, Singapore's national water agency, has selected locally based Hyflux Ltd as the preferred bidder for the country's second and largest seawater desalination plant.

Hyflux poised for global diversification says chief

Anticipated growth in the global desalination market is expected to help diversify revenue from Asia to the Middle East and African markets for Singapore water company, Hyflux, according to its chief executive Olivia Lum.

IDA announces scholarship program winners

Students from Brazil and Singapore are this year's winners of the Channabasappa Memorial Scholarship awarded by the International Desalination Association (IDA).


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