Groundwater, New Mexico, New Mexico, Research


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Leila Karimi

EDR researcher wins 2013 Channabasappa Scholarship

The International Desalination Association has awarded its 2013 Channabasappa Scholarship to Leila Karimi, a PhD candidate at the Institute for Energy & the Environment, Chemical Engineering Department, New Mexico State University (NMSU).

Alamagordo completes first stage of RO project

The City of Alamagordo in New Mexico, USA, announced on 26 March 2013 that it had completed Phase 1 of its Westside Infrastructure Improvements Project, which will eventually include a 6 MGD (22,700 m³/d) desalination plant.

Almogordo mobile desalination project in train

A mobile desalination facility to treat 4,000 acre-ft per year (af/y) (4.9 million m³/y) near Almogordo, New Mexico, moved closer to realisation when the City Commission approved an approach for a US$ 2.7 million loan/grant from the New Mexico Finance Authority on 1 November 2012.

Almogordo trial for commercial-size solar desalination still

Indiana-based Suns River is nearing completion of a commercial-sized solar still at the Brackish Groundwater National Desalination Research Facility in Almogordo, New Mexico, USA, following the issue of a patent on its process (US #8,088,257) on 3 January 2012.

New Mexico BWRO seeking waste revenue stream

Processing residual wastes from a proposed brackish-groundwater desalination plant in New Mexico, USA, could provide a revenue of around US$ 4.6 million/year, according to a preliminary engineer report just completed.

Desalination and reuse in California/New Mexico get funding

US Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar announced on 1 July 2009 27 water reclamation and reuse projects in California and New Mexico identified by the Bureau of Reclamation to share in a total of US$ 134.3 million under the American Recovery & Reinvestment Act of 2009.

Low-temperature distillation technology licensed to Sterling Water

The low-temperature distillation method of desalination developed by the New Mexico State University (NMSU) in the USA has been licensed to Sterling Water LLC of Qatar.

Reclamation funds reuse in California and New Mexico

Five congressionally authorized water reclamation and reuse projects in California and New Mexico, USA, will receive cost-shared funding for planning, design and construction of their projects, following a Bureau of Reclamation announcement on 21 May 2013.

Texas treatment company spins off frac water firm

A company called Green Hydro LLC has been spun off by Texas-based Advanced Hydro Inc to use desalination to address increasing demand for water use in hydraulic fracturing.

New Mexico city seeking 4 MGD desalination plant

The city of Alamogordo, New Mexico, USA, is looking to use a 4 MGD (15,000 m³/d) desalination plant to provide a safe dependable supply from brackish water wells.

SWMOA New Mexico/Colorado workshops in April

The Southwest Membrane Operator Association (SWMOA) is holding two membrane operator training workshops in New Mexico and Colorado in April 2012.

New Mexico mulls new rules to allow water reuse for oilfield drilling

State environmental regulators in New Mexico are considering a proposed rule that would allow the reuse of produced water in oilfield drilling operations.

Nine desalination studies bag US$ 1.4 million funding

Nine research projects and pilot studies will share US$1.4 million in funding under a desalination and water purification research programme set up by the US Bureau of Reclamation.

Left to right: City of Rockingham Mayor Barry Sammels with Parliamentary Secretary for Regional Development Gary Gray and Murdoch University Professor John Yovich at Murdoch's pilot desalination plant in Rockingham.

Australia's desalination centre sited at Murdoch University

Australia's new National Centre of Excellence in Desalination is to be hosted by Murdoch University's Rockingham campus as a result of a Aus$ 20 million (US$ 15.5 million) award from the federal government.

The Brackish Groundwater National Desalination Research Facility in New Mexico would become a state-of-the art desalination research facility.

US bill seeks major desalination research expansion

US Senate hearings began on 10 March 2009 into a bill on the relationship between energy and water which could have wide implications for desalination research, both in the US and internationally.

What is the Alamagordo research facility for?

The Brackish Groundwater National Desalination Research Facility in New Mexico, USA, has provided and continues to provide a testbed for many different varieties of desalination, which could provide future directions for the technology. The facility's manager, Randall Shaw, outlines the purpose of the center and the research currently under way. This article first appeared in the May/June 2013 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

The two-effect Suns River setup.

Alamogordo test brings solar-still record

At the end of September 2012, desalination.biz reported that KII Inc and its Suns River brand had successfully started-up and operated its patented solar-still technology to produce safe water for human uses. Suns River demonstrated its technology at the Brackish Groundwater National Desalination Research Facility in Alamogordo, New Mexico, owned and operated by the US Bureau of Reclamation. The still's creator fills in the background. This article first appeared in the November/December 2012 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Nine water purification projects bag US$ 1.49 million in funding

The US Bureau of Reclamation has selected nine projects to receive US$ 1.49 million under its Desalination and Water Purification Research programme.

1,100 US counties face water supply crisis by 2050, says report

A new analysis for the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), examining the effects of global warming on water supply and demand in the contiguous United States, has found that more than 1,100 counties will face higher risks of water shortages by mid-century as the result of global warming.

Navajo powerplant could be key to Sandoval BWRO

A Navajo tribal enterprise to colocate a gas-fired power plant could be a key element of a proposed desalination plant for brackish groundwater in New Mexico, USA. The plant is also looking at an annual revenue of US$ 4.6 million from selling waste residuals. The commissioners of Sandoval County gave approval for design work to start on the plant, which would be sited west of Rio Rancho in the Rio Puerco basin on 21 January 2010. Their approval was based on the findings of a preliminary engineering report, the purpose of which was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the county's proposal to develop a wholesale water utility. It included an evaluation of various issues facing the County and presented a recommended action plan. This article was first published in the February/March 2010 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

“The membrane industry as we know it would not exist without Dr Sourirajan’s breakthrough.” Photo credit Krishna Rajan 1967

AMTA's Hall of Fame honours industry pioneers

A raft of industry awards was unveiled at the Membrane Technology Conference 2017, including AMTA's four-strong Hall of Fame 2017, which recognises pioneering careers in membrane technology.

AWWA seeks sustainable water papers

The American Water Works Association announced on 23 September 2009 a call for papers for the 2010 Sustainable Water Management Conference & Exposition in Albuquerque, New Mexico, during 11 - 14 April 2010.

Oil and gas operators in the State of New Mexico, US, inject the majority of wastewater into deep wells

US EPA and New Mexico to clarify reuse rules for oil and gas

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has signed a memorandum of understanding with the State of New Mexico to clarify existing regulatory and permitting frameworks for reusing wastewater produced by oil and gas extractors.

Oasys deal to treat Texas produced water with FO

Oasys Water has struck an agreement with Houston-based Select Energy Services, LLC (SES), a leading provider of engineered water solutions to the oil and gas industry, for exclusive use of its forward osmosis (FO) technology in the Permian Basin in West Texas and New Mexico, USA.

H2O Innovation wins North American contracts worth US$ 3.6 million

H2O Innovation has bagged four new contracts worth a total of US$ 3.6 million with two each in the US and Canada. These new deals, the company reported, will maintain its sales backlog for water treatment projects at US$ 38.6 million excluding its Professional Water Technologies, Piedmont and H2O Innovation Maple businesses.

New Mexico: pumping a gallon of oil can produce up to five gallons of wastewater

US EPA white paper 're-visioning' oil and gas produced water

The US Environmental Protection Agency and the state of New Mexico has issued a draft white paper on oil and gas wastewater, recycling, and reuse.

WateReuse launches video about urban water cycle

The WateReuse Research Foundation announces the release of The Ways of Water, an animated video that presents an overview of the many human interventions in the water cycle and looks at the benefits of some key water provision options including Direct Potable Reuse (DPR).

Solar/MED design aims to desalinate CSG water

A three-way partnership in Australia has entered a solar-powered desalination system for the coal‑seam gas (CSG) industry into the Australian Innovation Challenge being run by Shell and The Australian newspaper.

ERD comparison tool developed by WateReuse project

A tool to allow engineers to evaluate commercially available energy-recovery devices (ERDs) for reverse-osmosis (RO) systems has been developed under a research project funded by the WateReuse Research Foundation.

Australian study finds way to up value of desalination for farming

Scientists at Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) have found that the addition of nutrients could make desalinated water more financially attractive to farmers.

NWC report boosts Australian brackish desalination

Brackish groundwater desalination can be considered a viable community water supply option in some areas, says a report just announced by Australia's National Water Commission (NWC).

IDA Fellowship winners from Iran and Japan

This year's winners of the International Desalination Association's Fellowship awards come from Iran and Japan, IDA announced on 27 April 2009.

Desert community MD trial produces first water

First water was produced in mid-November 2013 by the membrane distillation plant set up in the Great Victoria Desert, Australia, by a team from the National Centre for Excellence in Desalination Australia (NCEDA).

Australia's first groundwater replenishment trial launched

Western Australia's water minister, Graham Jacobs, launched Australia's first Groundwater Replenishment Trial on 30 November 2010, which research indicates may be cheaper than desalination.

Southern California gets wastewater reuse and desalination grants

Southern California's Joint Water Purification Pilot Program (JWPPP), which will evaluate the feasibility of wastewater reuse using advanced water treatment, has received a US$ 334,000 grant from the US Bureau of Reclamation's WaterSMART program.

The Orange County Water District Groundwater Replenishment System will test closed circuit desalination technology in a six-month pilot

Desalitech and CH2M to pilot closed circuit tech in Orange County

Desalitech and CH2M are to supply a ReFlex Max system for a six-month pilot study to be conducted at Orange County Water District's Groundwater Replenishment System (GWRS).

California to promote reuse and streamline permitting

In the future, most new water in California will come from a combination of improved conservation and water use efficiency, conjunctive use (coordinated management of local surface and groundwater), recycled water, drinking water treatment, groundwater remediation, and desalination.

WE&RF's Jeff Mosher is charged with allocating a research budget of £8 million

"We are figuring out how to manage a portfolio of water resources" Jeff Mosher, WE&RF

The new head of research at the Water Environment & Reuse Foundation, US, outlines a vision for research to support integrated water resource management.

Rick Stover is executive vice president of Desalitech and an IDA board member

Desalitech's Rick Stover: "The world's experts on desal and reuse are coming to Miami"


Desalitech executive vice president Rick Stover says that delegates can expect stimulating open forum discussions, papers and research at the IDA Energy and Environment Conference in Miami, USA, December 2016

Papers invited for 3rd salinity forum in June 2014

Papers have been invited for the 3rd International Salinity Forum in Riverside, California, in June 2014.

Deir al Balah Desalination Plant will eventually serve people in Rafah and Khan Yunis, in southern Gaza

New desalination plant poised to open in Gaza

A new desalination plant in Gaza is poised to begin producing after testing and technical training was completed by the Middle East Desalination Research Center (MEDRC), reports Muscat Daily.

Southern California reused-water purchase agreed

The Water Replenishment District of Southern California (WRD) and the Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County (SDLAC) signed a 30‑year recycled water purchase agreement on 29 August 2013, which will eliminate the need for water from northern California and the Colorado river for groundwater recharge.

Texas will need desalination says land commissioner

The Texas Land Commissioner, Jerry Patterson, said on 29 August 2013 at the Texas Groundwater Summit in San Marcos that the state would need more alternatives such as desalination to provide a solution for its thirsty growing population.

Ceramic membranes replace polymer in Saudi projects

German ceramic membrane-maker ItN Nanovation AG has received two orders for its flat membrane filters for groundwater projects in Saudi Arabia, replacing previously used polymer membranes.

Perth groundwater replenishment project gets go-ahead

The Western Australia state government announced on 1 August 2013 that it was adopting groundwater replenishment with reused municipal and industrial wastewater to help secure Perth's water supplies.

South Africa to focus on desalination and water reuse

Desalination and the reuse of wastewater from municipalities and mining are strongly emphasised in the 2nd National Water Resources Strategy (NWRS2) for South Africa released at the start of July 2013.

System for perchlorate in groundwater demonstrated

A demonstration system for the degradation of perchlorate, which minimises production of a secondary waste system such as that from ion‑exchange, has been installed at Aerojet General Corporation's site near Rancho Cordova in California, USA.

Proposed research project Future Water CRC will seek to use Australia's impaired water resources, and marginal lands, for economic benefit

Australian industry-led proposal for water research gets the green light

A proposed new industry-led water research centre in Australia has passed its first hurdle by being shortlisted for funding by the Australian government.

Parsons lands SAWS brackish water desalination job

Parsons Corporation is leading a joint venture to serve as the construction manager at risk for the San Antonio groundwater desalination program in Texas, USA.

Guadalupe-Blanco desalination feasibility award in May?

Interviews will be taking place on 1-2 May 2013 with the seven groups left in competition for the feasibility study for the Regional South Central Texas Power & Seawater Desalination Project proposed by the Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority (GBRA).

US farmers look to water reuse, as reservoir level drops

Water reuse in agriculture is gaining ground in the USA as farmers and water technologists seek to overcome the domestic water supply shortages caused by drought. The latest figures from the US Bureau of Reclamation show that water levels at Lake Mead, Nevada, the largest reservoir by capacity in the USA, hit a record low of 1,074 feet in March.

Napolitano seeks to reauthorize US desalination act

A bill, HR 745, to reauthorize the 1996 Water Desalination Act was introduced in the US House of Representatives by California representative Grace Napolitano on 15 February 2013.

Swiss water treatment to use PAC/UF combination

Wabag Water Technology has announced two water-treatment contracts in Switzerland based on ultrafiltration (UF) and worth around € 6 million which were won by the company at the end of 2012.

AMTA and AWWA announce ward winners

The American Membrane Technology Association and the American Water Works Association recently announced the winners of four awards at this year's Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition.

IDA 2015 World Congress draws 1,700 delegates

More than 1,700 delegates from 63 countries attended the International Desalination Association's (IDA's) 2015 World Congress held in San Diego recently according to the association's key metrics published this week. Awards for papers and presentations topped US$ 30,000.

Four workshops to precede AMTA / AWWA conference

There are now four preconference workshops prior to the Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition being held by the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the American Water Works Association (AWWA) in San Antonio, Texas, at the end of February 2013.

San Antonio first phase desalination set for 2016 finish

The first phase of a groundwater desalination plant in San Antonio is set to be completed next year. The US$ 193 million first phase will produce fresh drinking water at about 50 Ml/d for customers of the San Antonio Water System.

New COO and business lines for STW Resources

US water services provider STW Resource Holding Corp announced a new chief operating officer (COO) on 25 October 2012 and expanded business lines, including large-scale desalination and oil/gas water reclamation.

Another TWDB loan for SAWS desalination project

The Texas Water Development Board has given a US$ 50 million loan to the San Antonio Water System (SAWS) towards its first-ever groundwater desalination plant in southern Bexar County.

Brackish desalination studied for Oklahoma aquifer

The Central Oklahoma Water Resources Authority (COWRA) in the USA is currently working with local company Guernsey Engineering and California's Separation Processes Inc to do a feasibility study and pilot project to use brackish water from the Garber Wellington aquifer which underlies 3,000 sq miles (7,700 km²) of central Oklahoma.

Solar still v RO comparison for S Australia desalination

A full solar distillation plant was compared with reverse osmosis (RO) for a small groundwater desalination project in South Australia and RO was chosen as the preferred option.

Massive health grant aids Chino desalters expansion

California's Western Municipal Water District announced on 28 June 2012 that it had received a "monumental" US$ 51 million grant from the state's Department of Health towards the US$ 130 million expansion of the Chino desalination plants.

Land commission looking at Texas desalination

The Texas General Land Commission (GLO) has contracted two consulting firms to investigate the possibility of brackish-water desalination north of New Braunfels.

Western Australia's GWR scheme moves nearer

Western Australia's state government is to spend Aus$ 2.5 million (US$ 2.54 million) in 2012‑13 on preliminary design and investigation works to ensure that the Water Corporation is in a position to implement a groundwater replenishment scheme for Perth, should the trial be successful.

New Monterey desalination plan launched by Cal Am

A 5.4-9.0 MGD (20,440-34,000 m³/d) desalination plant located in North Marina employing slant well intake technology remains at the heart of California American Water (Cal Am)'s latest proposal for supplying the Monterey Peninsula.

Cape considers desalination as rationing looms

Cape Town, South Africa is considering investment in desalination and water reuse as part of its intensified focus on measures to conserve water amid fears that rationing is becoming more likely.

IDA World Congress in California

A pivotal event in the global desalination and water reuse sector will be held at the US industry's epicentre amid an historic drought when the 2015 IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse convenes in San Diego, California at the end of August 2015. The "location, theme and timing could not be more appropriate," said IDA secretary general, Patricia A Burke.

EDS/Wetsus issues membrane conference call for papers

A deadline of 30 June 2012 has been set for abstracts for the eighth in the series of conferences on Membranes in Drinking & Industrial Water Production, which will take place at Leeuwarden in the Netherlands on 10‑12 September 2012.

Another legal blow for Monterey desalination alternative

California American Water's (Cal Am's) progress in developing an alternative desalination project for California's Monterey Peninsula received yet another setback on 2 February 2012, when a judge issued an amended ruling on the environmental impact report (EIR) originally published for the abandoned Regional Desalination Project.

Control contract as GWRS expansion breaks ground

KDC Systems has been awarded a contract to install and/or integrate process control systems for the expansion of the membrane-based Groundwater Replenishment System (GWRS) for Orange County Water District, which broke ground on 17 January 2012.

Financial meetings held over Gaza desalination project

The Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) announced on 18 January 2012 that a delegation headed by deputy secretary general Rafiq Husseini visited Kuwait and Saudi Arabia during the previous week to present the Gaza water desalination project to financing institutions.

UCLA water summit will look at desalination/reuse

Seawater desalination and wastewater reuse will be key topics at a one-day summit on the Future of Water in Southern California to be held by the University of California, Los Angeles, on 27 January 2012.

Membrane plant to treat Delaware city groundwater

A membrane treatment plant is to be part of the renovation and extension of the existing 6 MGD (22,700 m³/d) water treatment plant in City of Delaware, Ohio, USA, which will start in 2012.

North Port awards groundwater RO contract

The City of North Port in Florida, USA, awarded a US$ 9 million contract on 12 September 2011 for a 1.5 MGD (5,676 m³/d) reverse-osmosis (RO) groundwater treatment plant to Wharton-Smith Inc, also of Florida.

Desalination and reuse in Mexico-Israel water agreement

Desalination and wastewater treatment and reuse were part of an agreement signed on 14 November 2011 between the Mexican national water agency, Conagua, and Israel's Ministry of Industry, Trade & Labor.

Outfall and intake problems hit OC desalination

The pilot plant for the South Orange Coastal Ocean Desalination Project in California has been forced to close down due to relocation of its outfall pipe due to heavy storms . The project has also run into problems with its intake water.

Bill to update US Desalination Act introduced

A bill to fund US government research and development projects into desalination was introduced into the US House of Representatives on 27 July 2011 by California Democrat representative Grace F Napolitano.

Perth desalination expansion to start immediately

The premier of Western Australia, Colin Barnett, announced on 1 August 2011 that work would begin immediately to double the capacity of the Southern Seawater Desalination Plant, the second major desalination plant in the Perth region.

Grant for Texas pilot wind-powered desalination plant

The Texas Department of Rural Affairs (TDRA) has made a US$ 2.75 million grant to Mitchell County, Texas, towards a US$ 8 million pilot project to use wind power for a brackish-water desalination project.

More federal money sought for Chino Desalters

Western Municipal Water District (WMWD) in California, USA, is to seek additional federal money later this financial year for the Chino Desalters Phase 3 expansion.

Perth desalination expansion could swap for reuse project

The water minister of Western Australia, Bill Marmion, was quoted in the Australian media on 27 May 2011 as saying that the expansion of the Southern Seawater desalination plant may be indefinitely delayed in favour of more water reuse.

The Orange County Groundwater Replacement System

Go-ahead for 113,500 m³/d Orange County GWRS expansion

Orange County's world-renowned membrane-based Groundwater Replenishment System (GWRS) in California is to be expanded by another 30 MGD (113,500 m³/d) following approval by the board of the Orange County Water District (OCWD) on 30 March 2011.

RO consumes 4% of Malta's electricity, says new group

Reverse-osmosis desalination plants consume almost 4% of Malta's electricity supply, according to a statement from the newly-formed Malta Water Association (MWA) on 22 March 2011. The group, made up of hydrologists, engineers and other water experts, warned that urgent action is needed to protect Malta's water resources, which "are among the scarcest in the world and under severe stress."

EPA funding for Arlington Desalter's biological denitrification

California's Western Municipal Water District (WMWD) confirmed on 10 February 2011 that it had secured a US$ 528,000 federal grant in January for design work on a treatment system that uses naturally occurring bacteria to remove toxic contaminants, including perchlorate and nitrate, from drinking water.

Chino desalters get first general manager

Curtis Paxton, currently assistant general manager and chief operating officer of the Palmdale Water District, is to become the first general manager of the Chino Basin Desalter Authority (CBDA) in California from 24 January 2011.

SAWS brackish desalination test plant.

Further funding for San Antonio BWRO desalination project

Initial project construction for the brackish groundwater desalination program planned by San Antonio Water System (SAWS) in the USA will now be possible following a US$ 24.6 million loan from the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB).

Commission warns Australia about gas-production wastewater

Handling the wastewater resulting from coal-seam gas (CSG) production in Australia is likely to require a precautionary approach that will demand innovation from water managers and planners, and significantly greater coordination with existing project approval processes, the National Water Commission warned in December 2010.

Obama ups federal powers to curb river pollution

US president, Barrack Obama, has stepped up federal protection of the country's waterways and drinking water supplies with a rule that clarifies which water courses and bodies may be covered by the 1972 Clean Water Act.

CaribDA to sponsor Chile desalination seminar

The Caribbean Desalination Association (CaribDA) announced on 14 October 2010 that it would be a sponsor of a seminar on Desalination, Innovations & Sustainable Development to be held in Antofagasta, Chile, during 29 November - 1 December 2010.

Egypt and Bahrain seek joint desalination projects

Egypt and Bahrain are looking to develop joint water desalination projects between the two countries.

Water Corporation serves more than two million customers across Perth and Western Australia

Water Corporation customers want desalination as first choice for drinking water

The Water Corporation of Western Australia has found that desalination tops the list as the preferred source for new drinking water for all four of its customer groups.

Egypt to step up seawater desalination efforts

Egypt's president Hosni Mubarak has instructed the government to expand its seawater desalination initiatives and step up efforts to discover additional sources of groundwater, according to the Egyptian daily Al-Masry Al-Youm.

New Indian partnership for inge watertechnologies

Germany-based ultrafiltration manufacturer inge watertechnologies AG is expanding its presence in the Indian subcontinent through a sales and distribution partnership with CN Tech Engineers (CNTE).

California's West Basin water plans look to yes vote for bond

California's West Basin Municipal Water District plans to up its water recycling capacity and push ahead with desalination research with funds from a US$ 7.12 billion water bond which is subject to a state referendum next month.

Solar electrodialysis brings water to off-grid villages

A simple set of solar panels and a battery system connected to an electrodialysis desalination unit could provide fresh water for a typical Indian village according to researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the US.

Community-level solar RO plant (250 L/h capacity)

India's BARC develops small solar RO and UF units

Domestic and community-level reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination units have been developed for producing safe drinking water by Saly T Panicker at the Desalination Division of India's Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.

Q&A: AMTA president Brent Alspach on why the need for membranes has never been more acute

In the week of the AMTA/AWWA Membrane Technology Conference 2018, in Florida, US, Brent Alspach, president of AMTA and director of applied research at Arcadis, outlines the water challenges and how current and in-development membrane-based treatments are addressing them.

West Basin desalination demo could begin next year

Construction could begin in 2010 on the Ocean-Water Desalination Demonstration Project at Redondo Beach near Los Angeles, California, the West Basin Municipal Water District announced on 30 July 2009.

Joint venture wins Perth groundwater replenishment contract

Western Australia's Water Corporation has awarded a contract to design, construct, and commission a full-scale advanced water replenishment plant (AWRP) to a joint venture between CH2M Hill,and engineering company Thiess. The project will help secure Perth's drinking water supplies through 2060

Victoria urged to set new reuse and desalination goals

A committee set up by the Victoria state government in Australia has recommended that enforceable water recyling and reuse targets at Melbourne's sewage treatment plants should be raised to 50% by 2012 and 70% by 2015.


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