Germany, Nanofiltration, Recovery, Monitoring, Water Quality, Malta
Ceramic nanofiltration company gets big investor
ItN Nanovation AG, a start-up company in Saarbrucken, Germany, making nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 9 December 2010 a framework investment agreement with the US investment fund YA Global Master SPV Ltd, part of the Yorkville Group.
Aquarion buys Hager + Elsaesser
Water treatment firm Aquarion Group has acquired German water technology company Hager + Elsaesser (H+E) for an undisclosed sum.
Aquarion acquires Germany's MFT
Swiss oil and gas industry water systems company, Aquarion Group, has acquired Membran- Filtrations-Technik (MFT) of Germany for an undisclosed sum.
Berlin venue for next GWI/IDA water summit
Former UN secretary general Kofi Annan will be the guest speaker at the next Global Water Summit organized by Global Water Intelligence and the International Desalination Association, which will be in Berlin, Germany, on 18-19 April 2011.
Maltese desalination test-bed shows SalTec energy-recovery advantages
Throughout the desalination industry, plant operators are looking for long-term solutions with lower lifecycle cost because of the link between water costs and energy costs. In order to meet operators' demands and requirements, equipment manufacturers are investing considerable resources in the development of new technologies that will reduce energy costs. The Water Services Corporation in Malta is one example of a forward-looking operator of a seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant seeking to ensure the production of high-quality drinking water at an affordable price. Established in 1993 to produce and distribute potable water on the islands of Malta and Gozo, WSC has an annual production target of 35 million m to satisfy the needs of its 400,000 residents and in excess of one million tourists. With the drive to produce greater efficiencies and water quality WSC has taken an opportunity to investigate and monitor the potential of a new technology from KSB, the SalTec pressure boosting and energy recovery system. The SalTec DT pressure exchanger in combination with KSB's HGM RO high-pressure pump creates a highly attractive proposition for RO plant designers and operators. The SalTec DT system provides a nominal capacity of 250 m /h, giving it the capability to operate in plants with train sizes ranging between 4,400 m /d and 5,000 m /d of permeate at common recovery rates.
B&V puts forward four water-reuse recommendations
Four key recommendations have been put forward by Dan McCarthy, president and CEO of Black & Veatch's global water business, for overcoming global barriers to reuse of water as part of an integrated water industry portfolio.
Study starts on salinity reclamation of W Australian river
Mitigation measures such as desalination and diversion could be proposed for the Collie river basin in Western Australia as a result of an independent review of possible strategies for salinity recovery, which has just been started by consultants KPMG and Worley Parsons.
Abu Dhabi rejects more desalination despite growing water stress
Environment Policy and Planning at Environment Agency - Abu Dhabi (EAD) has rejected upping desalination as a means to counter growing water scarcity in the emirate, opting instead for conservation and reuse.
Tunisia and Malta to share desalination expertise
Tunisia has signed an agreement with the Mediterranean island of Malta involving sharing of expertise on desalination plants.
RO consumes 4% of Malta's electricity, says new group
Reverse-osmosis desalination plants consume almost 4% of Malta's electricity supply, according to a statement from the newly-formed Malta Water Association (MWA) on 22 March 2011. The group, made up of hydrologists, engineers and other water experts, warned that urgent action is needed to protect Malta's water resources, which "are among the scarcest in the world and under severe stress."
Three desalination workshops follow IDA World Congress
Three different aspects of desalination will be covered in workshops announced on 10 September 2009 by the International Desalination Association (IDA), which will follow its upcoming World Congress in Dubai.
Suez and Rosneft to build on 'exploratory agreement'
Suez's new agreement with Russian oil and gas giant Rosneft, signed in May 2018, aims to support improved water treatment across the oil company's vast portfolio.
The Long Read: Do we have the technology for potable water reuse?
Water reuse for drinking purposes is racing up the agenda in the US and elsewhere. Work to draw up new rules for potable reuse is advancing in states including California and Arizona, as well as in Canada and the European Union. Technologies are being piloted, and plants permitted.
Consolidated Water lines up Mexican mega-project
The Playas de Rosarito seawater RO desalination mega-plant project has been six years in the making. It began as a twinkle in Consolidated Water's eye even before Mexico had introduced its new public-private partnerships law, but the act's introduction in 2012 gave the project a clear structure for moving ahead.
Finance agreed for Camarillo regional desalter studies
Two water districts and two - possibly three - cities in southern California have agree to finance studies for a regional brackish-water desalination plant to be located near Camarillo.
GE expands HERO licensing agreement
GE Power & Water announced on 1 February 2011 that it has completed a new expanded licensing agreement to allow it to continue offering High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HERO) systems to help more of its industrial customers increase their water usage efficiency and reuse capacity.
CCC to rule on Cambria desalination plant studies
California Coastal Commission (CCC) staff have advised the commission at its meeting this week to agree to a US Army Corps of Engineers proposal to test a beach in the Cambria region, near San Luis Obispo, for use as beach wells for a desalination plant.
Membrane 'summit' will precede AMTA conference
The 2nd Osmosis Membrane Summit will precede this year's annual conference of the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) in San Diego.
Kenya's a contender for IDA 2021 World Congress
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has shortlisted Mombasa, Kenya, among four finalists to host its 2021 World Congress, reports The Star.
Q&A: AMTA president Brent Alspach on why the need for membranes has never been more acute
In the week of the AMTA/AWWA Membrane Technology Conference 2018, in Florida, US, Brent Alspach, president of AMTA and director of applied research at Arcadis, outlines the water challenges and how current and in-development membrane-based treatments are addressing them.
New contracts end H2O Innovation's year strongly
Canada's H2O Innovation Inc is to supply membrane nanofiltration (NF) water supply systems to two municipalities in Canada and expand an existing system in a third, among contracts totaling Can$ 8 million (US$ 8.25 million) announced on 6 July 2011.
Pentair to buy CPT division from Norit
Pentair Inc is to acquire the Netherlands-based Clean Process Technologies (CPT) division of Norit Holding BV in the second quarter of this year for € 503 million (US$ 705 million), plus net debt at closing.
Commercialization moves nearer for memsys MD system
In what memsys CEO, Götz Lange, calls "a clear step towards commercialization of the company's membrane distillation (MD) technology", the Germany/Singapore based company has announced the formation of a Business Development Unit.
2011 IWA Membrane Technology conference dates
The 6th International Water Association Specialist Conference on Membrane Technology will take place on 4-7 October 2011 in Aachen, Germany. The conference is organised by the Institute for Environmental Engineering (ISA) and the Institute for Chemical Process Engineering (AVT) of RWTH Aachen University and will be held at the conference centre Eurogress in Aachen.
Lanxess moves into water filtration membranes
Speciality chemicals manufacturer Lanxess AG on 21 January 2010 launched construction of a new plant to develop and produce membrane filtration technology at its site in Bitterfeld, Germany.
Germans delivering small MVC/MED units to Saudi Arabia
Medesa GmbH of Germany has delivered a 180 m³/d desalination unit to the Al Marshad Group for the industrial area in Yanbu, Saudi Arabia.
European desalination conference program published
The full programme for the European Desalination Society's conference and exhibition in Baden Baden, Germany, on 17-20 May 2009 is now available.
KfW signs Djerba desalination loan agreement in Tunisia
Tunisia's Société Nationale d'Exploitation et de Distribution des Eaux (SONEDE) signed an agreement on 22 August 2013 with the German development bank KfW for a loan of around € 60 million for the Djerba seawater desalination plant.
German membrane-maker Lanxess moves its HQ
Reverse-osmosis membrane and ion-exchange manufacturer Lanxess has moved its headquarters to Köln, Germany, and will officially manage its global operations from there as of 1 August 2013.
Germany's Lahmeyer acquires GKW Consult
Two long-standing German consulting engineering firms have been combined, hard on the heels of the Dutch DHV-Haskoning merger.
UF membrane cooperation agreed by inge and Aquasource
Germany's inge GmbH and France's Aquasource have agreed to enter into a strategic cooperation effective from April 2014, with each company focusing on their respective competences.
memsys and Horizon combine to reduce ZLD costs
A pilot trial is due to start in May 2014 of a method to reduce the costs of zero liquid discharge (ZLD) technology at a coal to chemical (CTX) project in northern China.
World's largest membrane leachate-treatment plant handed over
Norit X-Flow and ISTAÇ (Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality Environmental Protection & Waste Materials Valuation Industry) celebrated the handover on 17 August 2010 of a notable wastewater treatment project: the treatment of leachate from the Istanbul landfill in Odayeri and Kömürcüoda.
Pedal-powered nanofiltration kits sent to Haiti
Researchers from the Department of Environmental Science & Engineering at South Korea's Gwangju Institute of Science & Technology (GIST) sent several human-powered nanofiltration (NF) water- treatment systems to the earthquake victims of Haiti in January.
Nine desalination studies bag US$ 1.4 million funding
Nine research projects and pilot studies will share US$1.4 million in funding under a desalination and water purification research programme set up by the US Bureau of Reclamation.
AMTA/AWWA 2015 membrane conference abstracts invited
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the American Water Works Association have issued a call for papers for their fourth joint Membrane Technology Conference to be held in Florida in 2015.
Proposals sought for membrane-integrity test method
The WateReuse Research Foundation has issued a Request for Proposals to create a method for testing the integrity of high-pressure membranes used for nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) in water treatment and desalination.
Contamination security white papers released in USA
New security technologies for detecting and monitoring water supplies could be developed as a result of a contamination warning system (CWS) demonstration pilot project in the USA undertaken by CH2M Hill and the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD).
Modern Water appoints US monitoring sales VP
UK-based Modern Water plc has appointed a vice president of sales, Americas, for its Monitoring division. This appointment will strengthen the geographical reach of the division and will drive Modern Water's sales activity in North, Central and South America.
IDA finalises Huntington Beach desalination energy conference topics
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has finalised the speakers and topics for its new-style conference Desalination: An Energy Solution, which is being held on 2-3 November 2010 in Huntington Beach, California, the city likely to host the USA's next large desalination plant after Carlsbad.
Energy Recovery partners with Duchting Pumpen on new energy savings agreement package
Pressure energy specialist Energy Recovery has signed a master agreement with Germany-based pumps manufacturer Duchting Pumpen to provide a new combined solution for desalination.
Malta tenders Euro 10 million desalination project
The Water Services Corporation of Malta has issued a tender for a reverse osmosis plant at Hondoq Bay on the Island of Gozo.
IDA releases more detail of Portofino conference
Abstracts of four "notable" papers for the the International Desalination Association's (IDA) Desalination Industry Action For Good conference in Portofino, Italy, in May were sent out by the association on 18 February 2011.
Mann+Hummel buys into membrane-maker Microdyn-Nadir
Industrial filtration group Mann+Hummel announced on 8 May 2014 that it had taken a 50% stake of the German‑based company Microdyn‑Nadir.
Boiler-feed treatment extension for Aquatech in India
Aquatech has been awarded a third contract extension to provide operating services for a boiler feed water treatment plant at Reliance Industries Limited's PTA (purified terephthalic acid) manufacturing unit in Hazira, Gujarat, India.
New clarifier solves Virginia UF membrane problems
Funds from the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) have enabled completion of a new pretreatment system for an ultrafiltration membrane system at the Fairmont Water Filtration Plant in West Virginia.
Metito lands Bechtel SWRO desalination in Australia
Dubai-based Metito has landed two new seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants in Australia and is currently nearing completion of one in Qatar.
Escondido hires consultants for potable water reuse
The City of Escondido in southern California approved on 27 June 2012 spending of US$ 1.14 million to hire a team led by Black & Veatch and including Brown & Caldwell for services towards its Indirect Potable Reuse Program.
Mitsui acquires minority stake in Water Standard
Houston-based Water Standard Management (US) Inc, which focuses on water treatment for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), announced on 30 May 2012 that Japan's Mitsui & Co Ltd has acquired a minority interest in the company.
MBR/RO at heart of PepsiCo reuse plant in Chile
A membrane bioreactor (MBR), reverse osmosis (RO) and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection are all part of a wastewater treatment and reuse plant upgrade being completed by Siemens Industry Automation Division for PepsiCo in Chile.
MD desalination pilot successfully used with waste heat
Results from an Australian trial to demonstrate the potential for a membrane distillation (MD) process to use waste heat from heavy industry to desalinate saline effluent have shown the system can produce high-quality water at temperatures as low as 30°C without an increase in greenhouse-gas emissions.
Desalitech closed-circuit technology set for BWRO project
Israel-based Desalitech Ltd announced on 7 April 2011 that it had been awarded a contract to design and build a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system for Environmental Protection Technologies (EPT), a global company that leads the industrial wastewater treatment market in Israel.
VWS Westgarth bags Angolan offshore UF/SRP contract
A multimillion dollar contract for design, supply and delivery of an ultrafiltration (UF) system and a sulphate-removal package (SRP) for offshore oilfield exploration in Angola has been won by UK-based VWS Westgarth, a subsidiary of Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies.
Proton compares closed-circuit versus conventional RO
Proton anti-scaling software from Amercian Water Chemicals was first introduced at the AMTA Conference in 2014. The platform's innovative approach to modelling membrane treatment systems which, unlike other anti-scalant predictors, accounts for ion complexes and ion activity in water, and differentiates between nano-filtration and reverse osmosis membranes, enabled it to improve on the accuracy of predicting water quality and chemical dosing requirements.
Brazilian offshore SRP system awarded to VWS Westgarth
VWS Westgarth has been awarded a multi-million dollar contract by SBM Atlantia for of a seawater sulphate-reduction package (SRP), using Dow FilmTec membranes, in a Brazilian offshore oil and gas field.
Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination: Innovative Intake Designs
The search for additional reductions in the cost of seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination needs new leads now energy recovery has gone about as far as it can go. The authors believe this can be done by improving raw-water quality using innovative intake designs. The use of "filtration" type intakes can have a significant effect on reducing the life-cycle cost of a SWRO plant. This article first appeared in the November/December 2010 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
West Basin district dedicates desalination demo facility
California's West Basin Municipal Water District is nearing completion of its new desalination demonstration facility, following formal dedication of the plant on 12 November 2010.
Desalitech teams with TEC to target municipalities
Reverse osmosis (RO) specialist, Desalitech, has tied up with Treatment Equipment Company (TEC) to provide sales support for municipal water treatment projects.
"We're now at more than $100 million revenue." Doug Brown, AquaVenture chairman and CEO
AquaVenture chief executive Doug Brown has a track record of delivering shareholder value. When he joined water technology and engineering firm Ionics as chief executive in 2003, the struggling business was trading at $16 a share.
Severn-Trent wins Chilean mining desalination contract
US water and wastewater treatment company Severn Trent Services has been awarded a contract to provide a seawater desalination plant that will serve the potable and process water needs of the Minera Esperanza copper and gold mine in Antofagasta, Chile.
Innovations in IDA Congress technical program
Round-table sessions and touch-screen availability of poster presentations will be used for the first time in the International Desalination Association's World Congress in Dubai on 7-12 November 2009, IDA announced on 19 October 2009.
CaribDA, ERI and Dow back operator training
In co-operation with Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) and Dow Water & Process Solutions, the Caribbean Desalination Association is organising a two-day operator training program at the Westin Dawn Beach Resort in St Maarten on 17-18 September 2009.
West Basin desalination demo could begin next year
Construction could begin in 2010 on the Ocean-Water Desalination Demonstration Project at Redondo Beach near Los Angeles, California, the West Basin Municipal Water District announced on 30 July 2009.
Egypt's first ZLD plant is up and running
The first zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plant in Egypt, part of a water treatment facility designed and supplied by Aquatech, has been commissioned.
Some Gold Coast desalination issues still unresolved
A large number of non-compliance issues relating to the Gold Coast seawater desalination plant in Queensland, Australia, have been listed in a letter sent on 2 July 2009 by Keith Davies, CEO of WaterSecure, who are taking over the project, to the Queensland Department of Infrastructure & Planning.
Large EDR river desalination plant opens in Spain
GE Water and Aigües Ter-Llobregat (ATLL) of Spain announced on 19 May 2009 the opening of the 220,000 m³/d electrodialysis reversal (EDR) brackish water desalination plant on the Llobregat river.
WateReuse has white paper for Obama and US Congress
The WateReuse Association prepared a white paper in December for the US Congress and President-elect Obama's transition team on Providing Safe, Secure and Sustainable Solutions for America's Water Needs.
Desalination and reuse in California/New Mexico get funding
US Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar announced on 1 July 2009 27 water reclamation and reuse projects in California and New Mexico identified by the Bureau of Reclamation to share in a total of US$ 134.3 million under the American Recovery & Reinvestment Act of 2009.
Experience helps boost production and stability at Ras Abu Jarjur
Improving production with reduced expenditure could be the main targets of any desalination facility around the world. Such feats are being methodically achieved at Ras Abu Jarjur reverse-osmosis (RO) plant in Bahrain as a result of a series of improvements. Of the many available desalination techniques, RO was seen from the earliest days as a reliable and cost-effective technology and was therefore employed at Ras Abu Jarjur. From the huge quantity of groundwater (40 million m /year) extracted from borewells, potable water totalling 29 million m /year is produced. The other 30% of water is being rejected to the Arabian Gulf, which has a similar salinity level and higher temperatures. Trials are being carried out to extend the brine staging by one more stage from two to three for the ninth and tenth trains and from three to four for the first to eighth trains, as the reject water from the trains is already filtered, acidified, dosed with antiscalant and most importantly possessing the required pressure energy (minimum of 38 bar) to be used. This strategy would increase the overall water recovery by another 4.5%. By closely following the guidelines of the scaling indices, solubility product limits of potential scale-forming constituents in the water and various performance-monitoring tools, it would be possible to recover another 2% of the water. The full article first appeared in the November/December 2008 issue of D&WR magazine. The paper on which it was based was awarded the prize for Best Oral Presentation at the International Desalination Association World Congress in Maspalomas in 2007.
"We are figuring out how to manage a portfolio of water resources" Jeff Mosher, WE&RF
The new head of research at the Water Environment & Reuse Foundation, US, outlines a vision for research to support integrated water resource management.
Monterey boreholes reveal good slant-well conditions
California American Water (Cal Am) reported on 20 December 2013 that data from its ongoing investigation into subsurface slant well intakes for its proposed Monterey desalination plant were showing promising results.
Desalitech to supply wastewater reuse system to steel mill
Desalitech is to supply an advanced wastewater recovery system to Mid American Steel and Wire, a leading supplier in the US wire and rod industry.
LACSD signs up Desalitech for chloride‑removal test
Desalination system developer Desalitech is to support a pilot project with the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (LACSD) to upgrade two Santa Clarita Valley wastewater treatment plants in order to meet state‑mandated chloride limits, the company announced on 2 October 2013.
IDA Conference Report
Banff gathering charts oil & gas territory
IDA launches reverse-osmosis certification program
The International Desalination Association (IDA) is to launch a reverse‑osmosis training certificate associated with its recently launched IDA Desalination Academy.
EDS publishes details of membrane design course
The European Desalination Society (EDS) has published details of its first event in 2013, a three-day intensive course on Membrane Technology Process & System Design.
H2O Innovation takes Californian reuse contract
A contract to expand the Leo J Vander Lans Advanced Water Treatment Facility in Long Beach, California, has been awarded to Canadian company H2O Innovation Inc.
Two workshops ahead for SEDA in January
The Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA) is holding two technology transfer workshops in Florida at the end of January 2013.
Membrane market growth to run until 2020
The fruits of growing research and development in forward osmosis for desalination are highlighted in a recent sector report as drivers of growth in the market for membrane separation technologies running to at least 2020.
H2O Innovation supplies US city with UF, NF and RO
The City of Delaware in Ohio, USA, has awarded a contract to Canada's H2O Innovation Inc for a drinking-water production system involving ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO).
SWMOA seeks papers for 2013 San Diego symposium
The Southwest Membrane Operator Association (SWMOA) has made a call for papers for its 2013 Annual Symposium in San Diego, California, on 22-24 April 2013.
H2O Innovation wins Canadian and US contracts
A 5,000 m³/d nanofiltration water treatment plant is to be provided for the city of Saint-Tite, Quebec, Canada, by H2O Innovation Inc.
Buenos Aires membrane papers deadline 15 June
A deadline of 15 June 2012 has been set for papers for the International Water Association (IWA) 3rd Regional Conference on Membrane Technology.
AMTA/WEF workshop set for Seattle in May
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has announced that it will be holding a Technology Transfer Workshop in Seattle, Oregon, in May in cooperation with the Water Environment Federation (WEF).
EDS adds SDI Workshop to Barcelona events
The European Desalination Society has added a workshop on the Silt Density Index to the satellite events around its upcoming Barcelona conference, the society confirmed in an announcement on 12 March 2012.
Oil/gas sector MBR leads new H2O Innovation jobs
Supply of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) wastewater treatment and reuse system to an industrial user in the oil and gas industry in Alberta, Canada, was announced by H2 O Innovation Inc on 8 March 2012.
Jack August to give AWWA/AMTA keynote speech
Dr Jack L August Jr, historian and executive director of the Barry Goldwater Center for the Southwest and visiting scholar in legal history at Snell & Wilmer LLP will be keynote speaker at the AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition, which opens in Pheonix, Arizona, next week.
VSEP NF system used at Brazilian ethanol plant
A full-scale vibratory shear enhanced process (VSEP) membrane separation system has been commissioned successfully by New Logic Research at a Brazilian ethanol plant.
GE Water and Halvorsen TEC secure offshore sulphate removal deal
GE Water has secured the first order of its seawater sulphate removal technology for the offshore oil and gas industry from Norway's Statoil.
Tri-Tech to expand large UF/NF plant in China
The City of Ordos in China is to build what will be the largest water treatment plant in the world using ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) when it expands its existing plant to 148,000 m³/d.
Woongjin opens all-Americas headquarters and factory
A new American headquarters and membrane manufacturing facility was opened on 5 April 2011 in Anaheim, California, by Woongjin Chemical America Inc, manufacturer of CSM reverse-osmosis and nanofiltration membranes for desalination and water treatment.
Sinochem setting up seawater desalination industrial base
Sinochem Corp held a ground-breaking ceremony for a seawater desalination industrial base in Hangzhou, China, on 22 March 2011, coinciding with World Water Day
Desalination drives nanofiltration market growth
Desalination is one of the primary forces behind nearly three quarters of a 15% growth forecast in the nanofiltration (NF) market worldwide that will take it above US$ 445 million by 2019 according to market researcher BCC Research.
Ceramic filters bought for Saudi RO pretreatment
German start-up company ItN Nanovation AG, which makes nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 15 March 2011 an order in Saudi Arabia for its CFM Systems® nanoceramic-based filtration system for water purification.
USEPA chief briefs Senate on dangerous contaminants
Perchlorate, chromium-6 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water were all discussed by the US Environmental Protection Agency's administrator, Lisa P Jackson, in testimony before the Senate Committee on Environment & Public Works on 2 February 2011.
EDS posts desalination courses for early 2011
The European Desalination Society has posted a half-year series of courses on its website for 2011 related to water desalination and membrane technology. All the courses will take place in Pegli, close to Genoa, Italy, at the Hotel Mediterranée.
Swiss venue for IWA conference on nanotech in water
The International Water Association has announced a conference on nanotechnology in the water sector to take place in Switzerland on 15‑18 May 2011.
AMTA webinar to look at Florida nanofiltration plant
The American Membrane Technology Association's next webinar on 28 October 2010 will look at the split-feed nanofiltration plant in Jupiter, Florida.
FCC Aqualia bags Chile deals
Water management company FCC Aqualia, has won two water supply and purification contracts in Chile's mining and petrochemical industries worth a total of € 27 million (US$ 30.7 million).
SEDA to hold workshop on pretreatment for RO/NF
The Southeast Desalting Association is holding a workshop on 12 February 2014 at the Town of Jupiter Water Treatment Plant in Florida on Pretreatment for Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Nanofiltration (NF).