Researchers uncover new membrane fouling mechanism
Researchers have uncovered "an additional reverse osmosis (RO) membrane fouling mechanism" arising from organic compounds present in ultrafiltration (UF) permeate during wastewater desalination.
Aquarion acquires Germany's MFT
Swiss oil and gas industry water systems company, Aquarion Group, has acquired Membran- Filtrations-Technik (MFT) of Germany for an undisclosed sum.
Aquarion buys Hager + Elsaesser
Water treatment firm Aquarion Group has acquired German water technology company Hager + Elsaesser (H+E) for an undisclosed sum.
UF membrane cooperation agreed by inge and Aquasource
Germany's inge GmbH and France's Aquasource have agreed to enter into a strategic cooperation effective from April 2014, with each company focusing on their respective competences.
memsys and Horizon combine to reduce ZLD costs
A pilot trial is due to start in May 2014 of a method to reduce the costs of zero liquid discharge (ZLD) technology at a coal to chemical (CTX) project in northern China.
Commercialization moves nearer for memsys MD system
In what memsys CEO, Götz Lange, calls "a clear step towards commercialization of the company's membrane distillation (MD) technology", the Germany/Singapore based company has announced the formation of a Business Development Unit.
KfW signs Djerba desalination loan agreement in Tunisia
Tunisia's Société Nationale d'Exploitation et de Distribution des Eaux (SONEDE) signed an agreement on 22 August 2013 with the German development bank KfW for a loan of around € 60 million for the Djerba seawater desalination plant.
German membrane-maker Lanxess moves its HQ
Reverse-osmosis membrane and ion-exchange manufacturer Lanxess has moved its headquarters to Köln, Germany, and will officially manage its global operations from there as of 1 August 2013.
Germany's Lahmeyer acquires GKW Consult
Two long-standing German consulting engineering firms have been combined, hard on the heels of the Dutch DHV-Haskoning merger.
Ceramic nanofiltration company gets big investor
ItN Nanovation AG, a start-up company in Saarbrucken, Germany, making nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 9 December 2010 a framework investment agreement with the US investment fund YA Global Master SPV Ltd, part of the Yorkville Group.
Berlin venue for next GWI/IDA water summit
Former UN secretary general Kofi Annan will be the guest speaker at the next Global Water Summit organized by Global Water Intelligence and the International Desalination Association, which will be in Berlin, Germany, on 18-19 April 2011.
2011 IWA Membrane Technology conference dates
The 6th International Water Association Specialist Conference on Membrane Technology will take place on 4-7 October 2011 in Aachen, Germany. The conference is organised by the Institute for Environmental Engineering (ISA) and the Institute for Chemical Process Engineering (AVT) of RWTH Aachen University and will be held at the conference centre Eurogress in Aachen.
Lanxess moves into water filtration membranes
Speciality chemicals manufacturer Lanxess AG on 21 January 2010 launched construction of a new plant to develop and produce membrane filtration technology at its site in Bitterfeld, Germany.
Germans delivering small MVC/MED units to Saudi Arabia
Medesa GmbH of Germany has delivered a 180 m³/d desalination unit to the Al Marshad Group for the industrial area in Yanbu, Saudi Arabia.
European desalination conference program published
The full programme for the European Desalination Society's conference and exhibition in Baden Baden, Germany, on 17-20 May 2009 is now available.
IDA 2015 World Congress draws 1,700 delegates
More than 1,700 delegates from 63 countries attended the International Desalination Association's (IDA's) 2015 World Congress held in San Diego recently according to the association's key metrics published this week. Awards for papers and presentations topped US$ 30,000.
Desalination course just misses quake
Earth tremors felt during the European Desalination Society's fouling and scaling course in L'Aquila, Italy, last week, were obviously precursors of the major earthquake that struck the town at 03:30 on 6 April causing over 190 deaths.
H2O Innovation commissions pathfinding Indian membrane plant
Canada's H2O Innovation announced on 31 January 2011 that its Indian joint venture, H2O Innovation India Ltd, had commissioned the 7,000 m³/d membrane water treatment system it had designed for Larsen & Toubro Heavy Engineering (L&T) in Gujarat state.
MIT membrane start-up completes funding round
The conclusion of an initial round of funding for Clean Membranes Inc, a start-up company based in Lexington, USA, will permit progress on development of a new generation of non-fouling membranes usable for sea and brackish water desalination.
Korean membranes chosen for Iranian process water
CSM fouling-resistant reverse-osmosis membranes, manufactured by Woongjin Chemical of South Korea, have been selected for the Fajr Phase II Project in Iran to help reduce biological fouling and scaling.
Live Webinar Masterclass - Membrane Fouling Control
The first in a series of Desalination and Water Reuse Masterclass webinars will run on 12 February this year. Each event will offer practical, readily applicable guidance delivered by an expert in the topic covered.
Melbourne researchers' anti fouling membrane claim
Researchers from the Melbourne School of Engineering at the University of Melbourne have developed what they claim to be an anti fouling microfiltration system that outstrips existing technology on energy efficiency with negligible compromise on performance.
SEDA to hold May Day membrane cleaning workshop
The Southeast Desalting Association is holding a workshop in Cape Coral, Florida, on 1 May 2014 focused on reverse osmosis (RO) membrane cleaning.
SEDA December workshop to look at chemicals for RO
The Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA) has announced a technology transfer workshop on Chemical Treatment for Reverse Osmosis (RO) to be held in Palm Bay, Florida, in December 2013.
Nearly 200 abstracts received for AMTA/AWWA conference
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) says that 193 abstracts have been received for its joint conference next year with the American Water Works Association (AWWA) in San Antonio, Texas.
AWA to hold membrane fouling master class
Membrane fouling is to be the subject of a master class to be held by the Australian Water Association (AWA) in November 2012.
Israel Chemical sells water treatment arm to Kurita in US$ 317 million deal
Israel Chemical (ICL), has sold its water treatment business, APW, to Japanese water treatment giant Kurita Water Industries for €250 million (US$ 317 million). The sale was part of ICL's aim to divest non-core assets.
GDF Suez bags Lahmeyer
GDF Suez' consultancy arm, Tractebel Engineering, has bought Germany-based water and energy consultancy Lahmeyer International from financial investment firm Capiton.
Nanovation wins US$ 1.7 million Veolia contract in Saudi
Germany's Nanovation has been awarded a €1.3 million (US$ 1.7 million) contract to supply its flat sheet ceramic ultrafiltration membranes to Veolia Water's VWS Saudi Industries for a new waterworks project at Al Quaiyah, east of Jeddah.
Aquarion sets up in Russia
Swizerland-based water systems company, Aquarion Group, has established a Russian operation, Aquarion Russia, to focus on providing water and wastewater treatment to industrial customers in Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States.
Pumps-as-a-service: the future beckons
On 1 May 2017, Fredrik Ostbye, a Swedish entrepreneur with a track record of digital product development, joined the 72-year old Danish pumps manufacturer Grundfos in the newly created role of group vice president and head of digital transformation.
Mann+Hummel buys into membrane-maker Microdyn-Nadir
Industrial filtration group Mann+Hummel announced on 8 May 2014 that it had taken a 50% stake of the German‑based company Microdyn‑Nadir.
Chile project envisions multiple mining clients for solar-powered SWRO
Energias y Aguas del Pacifico (ENAPAC), a proposed solar-powered seawater desalination plant and water transport project aims to support expansion of mining operations in Chile's Atacama region.
Vial appointed business development manager by inge
Denis Vial has been appointed business development manager by German ultrafiltration (UF) membrane manufacturer inge GmbH, effective 1 March 2014.
Grundfos gains outpace global pumps market
Pumps manufacturer Grundfos has reported organic sales growth of 0.5 per cent for 2016, helped by a strong second half.
Matthias Zachert becomes chairman of Lanxess
The supervisory board of membrane-maker Lanxess AG resolved at its meeting on 26 January 2014 to end, by mutual agreement, the appointment of Axel C Heitmann as member and chairman of the board of management of the company, effective 28 February 2014.
SafBon to supercharge production of ItN membranes
SafBon is dramatically stepping up production of ItN Nanovation ceramic flatsheet membranes to fulfil new orders.
BASF industrial water business transfered to Degrémont
German chemical giant BASF announced on 30 September 2013 the successful closing of the transaction to divest its subsidiary Industrial Water Management France SAS, headquartered in Lyon, France, to Degrémont, a subsidiary of Suez Environnement.
Energy Recovery partners with Duchting Pumpen on new energy savings agreement package
Pressure energy specialist Energy Recovery has signed a master agreement with Germany-based pumps manufacturer Duchting Pumpen to provide a new combined solution for desalination.
Calleri to direct inge business development and marketing
Ultrafiltration specialist inge GmbH, part of BASF, announced on 1 August 2013 the appointment of a new member to its executive board, as of 1 May 2013.
Namibia plans feasibility study to underpin PPP desal project
Namibia is looking to build a new 70,000 m3/d desalination plant in Erongo Region under a public-private partnership (PPP), as the country gets close to finalising PPP legislation, reports New Era.
Funding coming for new Indian desalination
The chief minister of the southern India state of Tamil Nadu, Jayaram Jayalaitha, announced on 10 April 2013 that the state government plans to build two more 100,000 m³/d desalination plants in drought-hit Ramanathapuram and Tuticorin districts at a cost of over US$ 147 million.
Jebel Ali M Station officially opened in Dubai
The United Arab Emirates' largest power production and water desalination plant, the Jebel Ali M Station in Dubai was officially opened on 8 April 2013 by the deputy ruler of Dubai, Shaikh Hamdan bin Rashid Al Maktoum.
BASF water business combined with other sectors
German chemical giant BASF has combined its water business with its oilfield and mining businesses as from 1 April 2013 to increase efficiency and support growth.
First seawater in Perth's 2nd desalination plant
The first intake of seawater into the second stage of the Southern Seawater Desalination Plant (SSDP) in Western Australia on 22 January 2013 marked another major milestone in commissioning the Aus$ 450 million (US$ 470 million)expansion project.
Siemens to sell its water treatment/desalination business
German giant Siemens is to sell its water treatment business known as Siemens Water Technologies, which is active predominantly in the North American market.
Agreement signed for memsys MD use in sugar industry
Memsys of Singapore/Germany has signed an exclusive global agreement with Concord Enviro of India for use of its membrane distillation (MD) system to treat molasses wastewater from the sugar industry.
German firm opens Singapore centre for R&D and UF
Mann+Hummel Singapore, worldwide headquarters of the water business division of the German filtration specialist, on 29 June 2012 opened a new centre and ultrafiltration cartridge production line.
Lahmeyer acquires IDP Consult of Philippines
German consulting group Lahmeyer announced on 15 June 2012 that it had acquired a majority interest in IDP Consult of the Philippines.
VWS buys inge UF modules for oil rig
VWS Westgarth has awarded a contract to BASF subsidiary inge GmbH for 600 dizzer® ultrafiltration (UF) modules for an oil rig.
Lanxess to double membrane production in 2017
Lanxess is to double the capacity of its membrane production facility in the city of Bitterfeld, Germany next year.
German UF developer InnoWa taken over
German hollow-fibre membrane developer InnoWa has been acquired by Stuttgart-based Mahle Industry GmbH, a manufacturer of industrial filtration equipment.
Four groups reported vying for Sydney desalination lease
News agency Reuters reported on 1 February 2012 that at least four groups were in line for the long-term lease of the Sydney desalination plant.
Mann+Hummel acquire Brazilian RO/UF specialist
Brazilian membrane water treatment specialist Fluid Brasil has been taken over by Mann+Hummel, the German company announced on 9 January 2012.
Rochem and APTwater announce merger
A merger was announced on 9 November 2011 between APTwater Inc of California, USA, and Rochem AG of Switzerland.
Xylem to distribute GE membrane filtration products
Xylem Inc, the ITT water technology spin-off officially launched on 1 November 2011, has signed up to be GE's distribution partner into the public utilities market for its advanced membrane filtration products.
German/Saudi JV to make ceramic membranes for RO pretreatment
German nanotechnology investment company Nanostart announced on 20 October 2011 that one of its holdings, ItN Nanovation AG, had finalised a joint venture (JV) agreement with Saudi Arabian company Jaffali to produce ceramic flat membranes (CFMs) primarily for pretreatment for reverse-osmosis.
BASF completes takeover of inge watertechnologies
German chemical giant BASF confirmed on 17 August 2011 the completion of its acquisition of inge watertechnologies AG, which was originally announced in April 2011.
BASF acquires inge to become membrane supplier
The German ultrafiltration (UF) manufacturer inge watertechnologies AG is to be acquired by chemical giant BASF.
Giant Moscow UF plant gets Norit X-Flow membranes
One of the largest ultrafiltration (UF) plants in the world, the South-West Moscow drinking water plant in Russia, is currently being expanded to a total of 275,000 m³/d using Norit X-Flow membranes.
IDA releases more detail of Portofino conference
Abstracts of four "notable" papers for the the International Desalination Association's (IDA) Desalination Industry Action For Good conference in Portofino, Italy, in May were sent out by the association on 18 February 2011.
Bahrain MoU signed for wind-powered desalination technology
Wind-powered desalination technology is to be promoted in Bahrain under a memorandum of understanding (MoU) signed on 31 January 2011 between Jade Consultancy of Bahrain and Synlift Systems GmbH of Germany.
EC-backed pilots to trial desalination by electrodialysis
A new European Commission-backed series of desalination pilots are about to kick off, as part of Horizon 2020, the European Union's biggest ever research and innovation programme.
IDA seeks nominations for new water reuse and conservation awards
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has invited nominations for three awards recognizing achievements in water reuse and conservation that will be presented at the association's first ever conference devoted to water reuse.
B&V puts forward four water-reuse recommendations
Four key recommendations have been put forward by Dan McCarthy, president and CEO of Black & Veatch's global water business, for overcoming global barriers to reuse of water as part of an integrated water industry portfolio.
IDA finalises Huntington Beach desalination energy conference topics
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has finalised the speakers and topics for its new-style conference Desalination: An Energy Solution, which is being held on 2-3 November 2010 in Huntington Beach, California, the city likely to host the USA's next large desalination plant after Carlsbad.
Global green group seeks to carve carbon emissions out of desalination
The Global Clean Water Desalination Alliance - H₂0 minus CO₂ initiative, launched at the current climate talks in Paris, has called on its 17-nation membership to use clean energy to power new desalination plants. The call was part of the alliance's aim to tackle the water-energy nexus and climate change.
New Indian partnership for inge watertechnologies
Germany-based ultrafiltration manufacturer inge watertechnologies AG is expanding its presence in the Indian subcontinent through a sales and distribution partnership with CN Tech Engineers (CNTE).
UF modules ordered for UAE steelworks' RO pretreatment
Ultrafiltration modules from Germany's inge watertechnologies AG have been ordered for a 80,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant at the Emirates Steel Industries steelworks in Mussafah, UAE.
Filtech 2011 papers deadline set for July 2010
A call for papers for the conference at Filtech 2011, the international exhibition of filtration and separation technologies, has been issued with a deadline of 5 July 2010.
D&WR Editorial Board member awarded doctorate
Marine environmental scientist Sabine Lattemann of the Institute for Marine Chemistry & Biology, University of Oldenburg in Germany, who is a member of the Editorial Board of Desalination & Water Reuse, has been awarded a PhD.
German water companies using UF to cure Pakistan's water woes
German water manufacturers Siemens and KSB have each ordered 800 ultrafiltration (UF) modules from inge watertechnologies AG for the "Clean Drinking Water for All (CDWA)" project funded by a group of development aid organizations in Pakistan.
Abu Dhabi rejects more desalination despite growing water stress
Environment Policy and Planning at Environment Agency - Abu Dhabi (EAD) has rejected upping desalination as a means to counter growing water scarcity in the emirate, opting instead for conservation and reuse.
Microdyn-Nadir and Ovivo target US membrane bioreactor market
German filtration firm, Microdyn-Nadir, has struck a partnership with water treatment systems specialist, Ovivo USA, to service the US membrane bioreactor market with a combination of the German company's membrane technology and Ovivo's membrane bioreactor system (MBR) integration range.
Steis replaces Distler as inge CEO
Bruno Steis, has replaced Wolfgang K Distler as the chief executive office of inge watertechnologies GmbH, the company announced on 18 May 2009.
EDS desalination courses relocate to Genoa
Following the disastrous earthquake which affected the headquarters of the European Desalination Society in L'Aquila, Italy, on 6 April 2009, the EDS has rescheduled and relocated upcoming courses to Genoa in July 2009.
KfW Dev Bank to fund €10 million reuse scheme in Palestine
Germany's KfW Development Bank is to fund a new water reuse scheme for agricultural irrigation in Nablus, on the northern West Bank, Palestine.
Olympic Dam desalination threatens cuttlefish, say researchers
Brine discharge from the proposed Olympic Dam seawater desalination plant in South Australia poses a potential threat to the unique spawning aggregation of the giant Australian cuttlefish, in the upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia, according to two researchers.
UF nuclear plant contract for inge in China
Germany's inge watertechnologies AG will equip the Hongyanhe nuclear power plant near Dalian in the east of China with its dizzer 5000plus ultrafiltration (UF) modules, each rated for an output of up to 5.0 m³/h each.
Combining Forward Osmosis with Reverse Osmosis
A combination of forward osmosis with reverse osmosis could facilitate the treatment of some high fouling wastewaters. The system uses brine to draw water from the wastewater without high pressure or turbulence. Key element is the membrane's ability to allow rapid passage of water without much internal concentration polarization. The diluted draw solution can then be desalinated by reverse osmosis. The Two-Way Osmosis or TWO system may also be usable in very remote areas, where seawater ponds can be built for evaporative recovery of salt. Catalyx is designing a pilot system (patent pending) to desalinate seawater without external electric power. This article was published in the May/June 2009 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse.
Desalination using forward osmosis with nanofiltration membranes
Forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging membrane technology, often used for desalination. Like reverse osmosis (RO), FO uses a semi-permeable membrane to separate water from dissolved solutes. The semi-permeable membrane acts as a barrier that allows water to pass through while blocking salts. Generally, any dense, non-porous, selectively permeable material can be used as a membrane for FO. Professor Chung invented a novel polybenzimidazole (PBI) nanofiltration (NF) membrane with a narrow pore size and high flux for the FO process. PBI was chosen mainly because of its robust mechanical strength and excellent chemical stability. However, at high ionic strength (normal in FO applications) and normal operational pH values, the charge of the membrane surface is neutral, leading to a decrease in electrostatic repulsion between the membrane surface and electrolytes to be rejected. Consequently, monovalent salts rejection decreases. Ideal NF membranes for FO would be highly negatively charged at most pH values. Additionally, these membranes are hydrophobic and have a propensity to foul during operation. Therefore, this collaboration is performing research to improve the separation performance of the PBI FO membrane by (1) lowering membrane fouling via chemical modification, and (2) increasing its monovalent salt-rejection via membrane surface modifications. Since these properties are given to a porous PBI NF membrane instead of the conventionally used dense RO membranes, this project has the potential to revolutionize the field of desalination using FO. Development of a desalination process technology using the FO route has the potential to achieve up to a 75% decrease in costs and energy consumption in desalination, in comparison with conventional thermal or RO processes. This technology is still undergoing research. Acknowledgments The source of funding was the National Science Foundation, NSF OISE 0832894. This article appeared in D&WR magazine's May/June 2009 issue.
MBR upgrades mean less maintenance and longer life
In recent years, MBR membranes have evolved to the point where they require less maintenance and at the same time have a longer useful life. An added benefit comes from the more advanced designs that consume significantly less energy and lower operating costs. The new Puron module from Koch Membrane Systems Inc (KMS) is a second generation MBR membrane module that employs hollow fibers. Like several other second generation membranes, the high-strength fibers that comprise the Puron modules also overcome the fiber breakage problems typical of first generation systems that use non-braided fibers. Second generation systems position the membrane bioreactor industry for even more rapid growth. They offer several advantages, including improved performance in terms of reduced fouling and lower energy consumption. They are also more robust than first generation systems and are usually designed with compatibility in mind to minimize retrofitting costs. This article appeared in D&WR magazine's August/September 2008 issue.
Antiscalant removes need for acid in wastewater RO
Field trials of a new scale-inhibiting chemical for use with reverse-osmosis membranes in wastewater reuse plants show that, at a low dose rate, it can increase the solubility of calcium phosphate by over one hundred times, obviating the need for using dangerous and costly acid. Current design practices for large effluent reuse projects are focused on a combination of removing phosphate by precipitation prior to the RO plant and acid dosing to reduce pH to 6.0 and hence increase calcium phosphate solubility to prevent fouling. Conventional antiscalants are ineffective at high phosphate and high recovery rates, and the only other option has been to dose large quantities of acid to reduce feed pH to below 6.2. Reducing the pH from 7.5 to 6.0 on a 2,700 m /day plant would require 0.5 to 1 ton of 95% sulphuric acid per day. Handling this quantity of acid is an environmental, health, safety and logistical problem that many plant operators would like to move away from. The results from the field trials show that using a highly active threshold inhibiting antiscalant such as Genesys PHO at a low dose rate of 2 -5 mg/L can increase the solubility of calcium phosphate by over one hundred times. This article appeared in D&WR magazine's August/September 2008 issue.
Dow project seeks to promote reuse
Dow Water & Process Solutions, is participating in one of ten European Commission-funded projects that aim to stimulate innovation and improve cohesion in Europe's water reuse sector.
H₂O Innovation bags Clearlogx
Membrane filtration company, H₂O Innovation, as acquired all of the assets of control technology specialist, Clearlogx, that relate to its control technology and its specialty coagulants.
Video Q&A: Ronit Erlitzki, AdEdge Water Technologies
AdEdge Water Technologies' director of business development Ronit Erlitzki, presents a new technology that uses flow reversal to minimise membrane fouling.
Masterclass webinar to look at combining reuse and desalination using forward osmosis
Award-winning researcher, Gaetan Bandin, will present the next Desalination and Water Reuse Masterclass Webinar on 30 June looking at opportunities and challenges for forward osmosis and pressure assisted osmosis (PAO) to combine water reuse and desalination.
Singapore's PUB draws curtain on algae
Singapore's national water agency PUB has for the first time installed silt curtains at the waters off Tuaspring and Singspring desalination plants, to protect them from damaging fouling of their reverse osmosis membranes by mounting levels of algae in the water.
Video Q&A: Doug Eisberg, Avista Technologies
Avista Technologies' director of business development Doug Eisberg, explains how new applications of membranes in water reuse systems are bringing fresh challenges.
A grand conference is AMTA/ AWWA's fourth
One thousand attendees turned up at Orlando, Florida for the fourth Membrane Technology Conference (MTC) hosted jointly by the American Water Works Association (AWWA) and American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) last week.
AMTA NEWS Novel sub-nanofiltration ceramic membrane production uses DNA
A novel method for creating ceramic reverse osmosis membranes with sub-nanometre pores by using the genetic material, DNA, as a template former, overcomes the poor reproducibility encountered in conventional methods according to the developer of the technology, Cerahelix.
Microbubble membrane cleaning stems fouling
In spring 2014 we published an article on how Genesys developed its microbubble-based membrane cleaning system. In this follow up Genesys presents results from a case study of the technology in a wastewater reverse osmosis plant. This article first appeared in the February 2015 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Kuwait plant to get GE membranes
Kuwait's Sulaibiya wastewater treatment and reclamation plant will be upgraded with GE's water reuse technology.
AMTA unveils annual gongs for membrane experts
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has conferred its annual roster of awards for membrane specialists, include its Lifetime Service Award, Hall of Fame Awards, and Operator of the Year Award.
Membrane market growth to run until 2020
The fruits of growing research and development in forward osmosis for desalination are highlighted in a recent sector report as drivers of growth in the market for membrane separation technologies running to at least 2020.
First guide to harmful algal blooms launches at IDA World Congress 2017
UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) and Middle East Desalination Research Centre (MEDRC) introduced the world's first guide to harmful algal blooms (HABs) on Tuesday 17 October 2017, at IDA World Congress.
Researchers share industry prize for fouling research
Doctoral students, Ariel Atkinson of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Erin Partlan of Clemson University, have received the 2014 Fellowship for Membrane Technology award from the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the National Water Research Institute (NWRI) for research in membrane fouling.
Nine desalination studies bag US$ 1.4 million funding
Nine research projects and pilot studies will share US$1.4 million in funding under a desalination and water purification research programme set up by the US Bureau of Reclamation.
Researchers cast doubt on economics of osmotic power
New research findings have questioned the economics of power production from pressure retarded osmosis (PRO).
Why MFI is edging SDI as a fouling index
PARTICULATE FOULING has plagued reverse osmosis (RO) systems since their first use in desalination and remains a persistent issue today for RO and other pressure-driven systems such as microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF). In the early 1960s, the Du Pont company/Permasep Product successfully launched the hollow-fine-fibre (HFF) permeator onto the desalination market, where it dominated for several decades. A well-known weakness of this permeator was its vulnerability to fouling. Initially, this vulnerability was attributed to suspended and colloidal matter in the feed water, ie, particulate fouling. Therefore, Du Pont developed, the Silt Density Index (SDI), initially named the Fouling Index, as a parameter to characterize the fouling potential of the feedwater for permeators. The fouling mechanism turned out to be more complicated than just fouling of the membrane surface as initially assumed. Gradually it became clear that the fouling was initiated by local clogging of the woven or non-woven fabric between the fibres, which is needed to ensure equal flow distribution of the feed water (see Figure 1). This article first appeared in the issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.