Forward Osmosis, Temperature
Veolia supplies RO desalination to Mauritania mine
A 1,500 m³/d reverse-osmosis (RO) brackish-water desalination plant has been supplied to a mine in Mauritania by Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies South Africa, with a heat-exchanger to cool the water.
Modern Water in tie up with Bilfinger Deutsche Babcock
Water and wastewater treatment technologies firm, Modern Water has signed an agreement with construction, operation and maintenance services company, Bilfinger Deutsche Babcock Middle East. The deal covers the joint development and commercialisation of Modern Water's proprietary forward osmosis technology, in multi-stage flash (MSF) desalination plants across the Middle East and Northern Africa.
Topics and presenters announced for IDA Academy course
The next International Desalination Association (IDA) Academy course, to be held at the International Water Summit in Abu Dhabi on 21‑22 January 2014 will feature Integration of Hybrid Technologies with Renewable Energy to Improve the Sustainability of Water Desalination and Sustainable Operation with Advanced Membrane Filtration.
Masdar desal pilot: the results so far
Masdar Clean Energy set a target for its pilot projects of one cubic metre of water for every 3.6 kilowatt hours of energy used. This is a particularly challenging target in the Persian Gulf, where salinity is very high, the water temperature is high, it's very shallow, and there's high organic matter.
China opens laboratory to drive forward osmosis development
A pairing of leading players in China's water and petrochemicals industries have launched a venture to develop forward osmosis in seawater desalination that they claim will: "open up a new way for zero liquid discharge (ZLD) in seawater desalination of seawater resources with low energy consumption."
Membrane market growth to run until 2020
The fruits of growing research and development in forward osmosis for desalination are highlighted in a recent sector report as drivers of growth in the market for membrane separation technologies running to at least 2020.
Study shows novel heavy-metals-from-wastewater method
Scientists in Singapore and Saudi Arabia have reported a novel method for extracting toxic and valuable heavy metals from wastewater using forward osmosis (FO).
Oasys forward osmosis concentrates in China
Massachusetts-based Oasys Water has claimed its recent contract to supply a forward osmosis brine concentrator to a fossil-fuelled power plant in China to be a world first.
US research challenges value of forward osmosis in seawater desalination
Researchers in the US have claimed that forward osmosis desalination of seawater is significantly less energy efficient than reverse osmosis
Masdar picks four firms to test new desalination techniques
Abu Dhabi clean energy company, Masdar, has selected four international water technology firms to test techniques that could reduce the energy intensity of desalination and lead to a large renewably powered water purification station.
Desalination quartet booked for Masdar pilot plants in UAE
Three major contractors in the global desalination business - Abengoa, Degrémont and Sidem/Veolia - together with forward-osmosis developer Trevi Systems, were awarded contracts on 5 May 2014 by Abu Dhabi's Masdar, to each start the construction of a 1,500 m³/d desalination plant as part of Masdar's pilot project announced in 2013.
Forward-osmosis companies launch international association
Four companies specializing in forward osmosis membrane technology launched the International Forward Osmosis Association (IFOA) on 7 April 2014.
Low-energy desalination trials delayed
Trials of four new energy efficient desalination systems from leading water technology players that could "revolutionise the industry" have been delayed from their summer 2015 start with October forecast as the date when all will be in pilot operation.
Oasys announces sales hook-up with oil & gas servicer
Forward-osmosis specialist Oasys Water announced on 12 December 2013 that it had recently signed an exclusive sales agreement with National Oilwell Varco LP (NOV), a leading global provider of equipment and services used in the oil and gas market.
Modern Water set for first FO desalination plant in China
Modern Water is set to build a forward-osmosis (FO) desalination plant in Xugong Island, China, as a result of one of three deals signed by the UK company during a trade mission to China led by UK prime minister David Cameron.
Woongjin backs Californian FO membrane‑maker
Korean membrane company Woongjin Chemical Company has signed an agreement with California startup Porifera Inc providing investment for the Silicon Valley company to develop, manufacture and commercialize forward osmosis (FO) membranes at high volume.
Modern Water gets £ 9.5 million from share issue
UK forward-osmosis (FO) and monitoring specialist Modern Water plc announced on 12 February 2013 that it had raised, subject to certain conditions, £ 10.0 million (approximately £ 9.5 million net of expenses) by way of a placing of 20,000,000 new ordinary shares with both new and existing institutional shareholders at a price of £0.50 per ordinary share.
IDE to design PRO power-generation pilot in Norway
The Norwegian renewable-energy company Statkraft has made an agreement for IDE Technologies to design and later purchase and construct a 2 MW osmotic power-generation pilot plant in close cooperation with Statkraft.
Chinese website and new director for Modern Water
UK forward-osmosis specialist Modern Water plc has recently appointed William Harvey as its director of strategy and new business development for its Membrane Processes division as well as its electrocoagulation products.
Modern Water ties in with Chinese partner
UK forward-osmosis desalination developer Modern Water plc has signed a framework agreement with Hangzhou Development Center of Water Treatment Technology Company Ltd (Hangzhou Water) in China.
Moore takes over engineering for Modern Water
Brian Moore has left Thames Water to become Modern Water's new engineering manager as part of the UK membrane desalination company's planned growth in its engineering department.
Small FO desalination plant commissioned in Oman
A 200 m³/d forward-osmosis (FO) desalination plant has been commissioned by Modern Water at Al Najdah in the Al Wusta region of Oman.
IDA announces lecturers for next Academy session
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has announced the line-up for the next one-day course in its Desalination Academy, which will take place on 5 December 2012 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, alongside the Saudi Water & Power Forum.
Buenos Aires membrane papers deadline 15 June
A deadline of 15 June 2012 has been set for papers for the International Water Association (IWA) 3rd Regional Conference on Membrane Technology.
Oasys deal to treat Texas produced water with FO
Oasys Water has struck an agreement with Houston-based Select Energy Services, LLC (SES), a leading provider of engineered water solutions to the oil and gas industry, for exclusive use of its forward osmosis (FO) technology in the Permian Basin in West Texas and New Mexico, USA.
GE's Muscat takes over as Oasys Water CEO
Former GE executive Bob Muscat has been appointed chief executive officer of Oasys Water, the US forward-osmosis desalination specialist.
FO pilot plant could follow HTI Dubai link-up
Forward-osmosis (FO) system manufacturer Hydration Technology Innovations LLC (HTI) has signed an international distribution, services and cooperation agreement for FO technology with Future Technologies LLC of Dubai. Future Technologies will distribute HTI's FO OsMem membrane technology for industrial applications.
Modern Water claims first FO commercial desalination contract
UK-based Modern Water has won what is believed to be the first ever forward-osmosis (FO) commercial contract for desalination, following its award of a UK£ 500,000 (US$ 810,000) contract for a 200 m³/d plant by Oman's Public Authority for Electricity & Water (PAEW).
Tri-Tech planning forward-osmosis pilot plants
Chinese water and wastewater treatment company Tri-Tech Holdings announced on 13 May 2011 that its current plans include constructing and operating one or more forward-osmosis (FO) pilot units using technology licensed from Arizona-based Hydration Technology Innovations (HTI).
IDA announces scholarship program winners
Students from Brazil and Singapore are this year's winners of the Channabasappa Memorial Scholarship awarded by the International Desalination Association (IDA).
HTI deal takes forward osmosis to China
The world's only commercial manufacturer of forward-osmosis (FO) membranes, modules and systems, Hydration Technologies Innovations LLC (HTI), reached an international distribution, services and cooperation agreement for FO technology with Chinese company Tri-Tech Holding Inc.
Membrane 'summit' will precede AMTA conference
The 2nd Osmosis Membrane Summit will precede this year's annual conference of the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) in San Diego.
Modern Water claims Oman success
Modern Water plc announced on 12 November that its desalination plant in Oman has been successfully commissioned and fresh water production has commenced.
New tech to drive 9.5% annual desalination growth - report
By 2020, the annual supply of water from desalination will have reached 54 billion m³, according to a report released on 17 March 2009 by Lux Research.
US bill seeks major desalination research expansion
US Senate hearings began on 10 March 2009 into a bill on the relationship between energy and water which could have wide implications for desalination research, both in the US and internationally.
TWO process to recover sodium sulphate from ion-exchange
California-based Catalyx Inc has signed a build-own-operate contract with RG Global Lifestyles Inc, which owns Catalyx Fluid Systems (CFS), for a brine dehydration system to facilitate recovery of sodium sulfate from ion-exchange regenerant brine.
Forward-osmosis patent filed by QuantumSphere
Another forward-osmosis process has taken a step forward. QuantumSphere Inc filed for a US patent on 14 January 2009 for its water purification process, which, it claims, serves as a more energy-efficient alternative to desalination methods now commonly used.
Masterclass webinar to look at combining reuse and desalination using forward osmosis
Award-winning researcher, Gaetan Bandin, will present the next Desalination and Water Reuse Masterclass Webinar on 30 June looking at opportunities and challenges for forward osmosis and pressure assisted osmosis (PAO) to combine water reuse and desalination.
India's NIOT prepares detailed report on offshore desalination
The National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) of India has finalised designs and submitted a detailed project report for an offshore desalination plant using low temperature thermal technology, reports New Indian Express.
Saudi Arabia and China to develop nuclear desalination projects
Saudi Arabia and China have signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) on developing desalination projects using gas-cooled nuclear reactors.
Adsorption pilot phase two will focus on ZLD
MEDAD Technologies, a specialist in adsorption, has worked to commercialise a multi-effect distillation adsorption desalination (MED-AD) system since spinning off from the National University of Singapore (NUS) in 2012.
AquaSure's Victorian Desalination Plant secures its first water order
The Victorian Desalination Project (VDP) is a mega-size seawater RO facility, able to produce up to 150 billion litres of water a year when running at full capacity. Located at the southerly most tip of Australia on the Bass Coast, it was procured by the Victorian State government from AquaSure, a joint venture of Degrémont (now Suez), Macquarie Capital, and Thiess (now Ventia), in 2009, for a capital cost of $3.5 billion.
Singapore University shares its work at the forefront of plasmonic photothermic technology
A conjoined approach to solving the problems of growing demand for energy and water would definitely be attractive. At the National University of Singapore, we have integrated the solutions to these two problems by designing a plasmonic solar thermal collector nanocomposite, comprising a Ag/SiO2 core, with a TiO2 outer shell as a photocatalyst.
UAE is eyeing alternative energy sources to power desalination
Dubai Electricity and Water Authority is seeking proposals to study the feasibility of powering desalination by geothermal energy, reports The National.
Italmach acquires Compass, adds manufacturing base in North America
Italmach Chemicals has acquired Compass Chemical International, adding a strategically important site in Texas that it hopes will support its growth in the oil and gas industry.
Mississippi researchers win funding for low-temperature desalination
Mississippi State University (MSU), is to use US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funding to work on a low-cost desalination process.
Conwed hits half a century
Plastic netting manufacturing giant, Conwed, hits 50 this year. Minneapolis-based Conwed has, since its launch in 1966, developed netting solutions for industrial and consumer products worldwide including, in recent years, desalination membranes.
MIT spinout cracks fracking water waste
A Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) spinout, Gradiant Corporation, is working toward making hydraulic fracturing (fracking) a water-neutral process, by making water reuse more economical. Fracking produces millions of litres of wastewater and much of it is discarded into deep injection wells, and clean water has to be purchased.
Is low temperature the next hot prospect?
Membrane-based desalination has been the lead technology set in recent years but Thermal Purification Technologies thermal process could tick boxes for sustainability and cost with a system that uses low-quality heat to produce high purity water. So with a big hitter in Metito as its strategic partner with even bigger backers including Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, could established technologies have a challenger in low-temperature distillation? This article first appeared in the February 2015 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
French and Kuwaitis sign solar desalination agreement
French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius and his Kuwaiti counterpart Sheikh Sabah Al- Khaled Al- Hamad Al-Sabah have signed a memo of understanding for implementing a project for water desalination using solar energy.
India to set up low-temperature distillation desalination at power plant
A new low-temperature thermal desalination (LTTD) plant is being set up at a lignite-fired power station in southern India.
Metito backs low-temperature distillation to challenge lead desalination technologies
Dubai-based water technology firm, Metito, is set to make a "significant investment" in clean-tech company Thermal Purification Technologies (TPTec), to develop TPTec's patented low-temperature distillation (LTD) technology. Metito claims LTD could displace existing membrane and thermal desalination technologies.
Scientists to probe outlet brine risks to sealife
Scientists have been commissioned to investigate whether brine waste from two proposed 150 Ml/d seawater reverse osmosis desalination plants could damage or alter the marine environment along the KwaZulu-Natal coastline in South Africa.
GE to supply evaporator/ZLD technology for Italian oilfield
GE's advanced evaporator and zero liquid discharge (ZLD) technology is to be used to recycle up to 98% of produced water at six Total E&P Italia SpA oilwells in the Tempa Rossa field in the Basilicata region of southern Italy.
LTTD seawater plant 'to be started in Chennai by July'
A start on a Low Temperature Thermal Desalination (LTTD) plant about 30 km off the coast of Chennai is to be made by July, according to a report from India.
Solar/MED design aims to desalinate CSG water
A three-way partnership in Australia has entered a solar-powered desalination system for the coal‑seam gas (CSG) industry into the Australian Innovation Challenge being run by Shell and The Australian newspaper.
Indian ministry seeks to get LTTD program going again
Revised cost estimates for the six additional low temperature thermal desalination (LTTD) plants to be built at different locations in India's Lakshadweep Islands area are being prepared by the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT).
Understanding potential of low temperature distillation for desalination
In October 2012, Watersolutions AG introduced the Watersolutions LTD system, a patented thermal process for desalination based on the principle of low temperature distillation. The company's vision is to offer a new option for desalination - one that is simple to install, yet robust and highly efficient with low running and maintenance costs. This article first appeared in the November/December 2012 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Timeline established for IDA desalination energy guide
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has established a timeline for producing its guidelines for reducing energy consumption in desalination ending at its 2015 World Congress.
Monterey consultant can't choose between projects
The Monterey Peninsula Regional Water Board (MPRWA) in California still has to decide between three competing seawater desalination projects for the area after its Technical Advisory Committee accepted on 17 September 2012 a report by consultants Separation Processes Inc of Carlsbad.
Proton compares closed-circuit versus conventional RO
Proton anti-scaling software from Amercian Water Chemicals was first introduced at the AMTA Conference in 2014. The platform's innovative approach to modelling membrane treatment systems which, unlike other anti-scalant predictors, accounts for ion complexes and ion activity in water, and differentiates between nano-filtration and reverse osmosis membranes, enabled it to improve on the accuracy of predicting water quality and chemical dosing requirements.
Aquatech to supply Oman oilfield water softener
Aquatech announced on 4 April 2012 that it had been awarded a contract to construct a 237 m³/h produced-water softening plant for the Amal Steam Facilities Phase 1B in Oman.
EDS adds SDI Workshop to Barcelona events
The European Desalination Society has added a workshop on the Silt Density Index to the satellite events around its upcoming Barcelona conference, the society confirmed in an announcement on 12 March 2012.
Koreans devoting R&D cash to gas-hydrate desalination
Korea's Minister of Land, Transport & Maritime Affairs, Kwon Do-youp, unveiled "a new paradigm" in desalination development when he announced on 4 October 2011 that Korea was pursuing gas-hydrate desalination.
Ministry updates India's low-temperature desalination plans
India's Ministry of Earth Sciences (MES) released an update on 29 August 2011 about its program for development of Low Temperature Thermal Desalination (LTTD).
Desalination help published with WHO drinking water standards
The World Health Organization launched the 4th edition of its Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (ISBN: 978 92 4 154815 1) at the Singapore Water Week on 4 July 2011 - and also launched a separate guide for desalination.
Oil company invests US$ 2.5 million in Saltworks desalination
Canadian oil company Cenovus Energy Inc is investing Can$ 2.5 million (US$ 2.56 million) in Vancouver-based desalination startup company Saltworks Technologies Inc.
ACWA wins two membrane-based projects in Saudi
Two separate contracts for membrane-based water and wastewater projects in Saudi Arabia have been awarded to ACWA Emirates LLC of Dubai.
Vacuum-driven MD breakthrough promised by memsys
Vacuum-driven membrane distillation (MD) delivers high flux and true multi-effect distillation with very good energy recovery. The process runs at low temperature levels and is fully modular. This article describes the background of the development of the memsys company, membrane distillation, its specific advantages and potential applications, current and planned demonstration plants, and MD s future role in desalination. This article first appeared in the February/March 2011 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Desalination affected by California powerplant ruling
The powerplant with which California's new 189,000 m³/d Carlsbad seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant is co-located has been ordered to cease once-through cooling by 2017. The Huntington beach powerplant, site of another proposed desalination plant, has been given until 2020.
Canadian low-energy desalination gets government boost
Saltworks Techologies Inc's low-energy desalination project is to receive up to Can$ 580,000 (US$ 577,000) from the Canadian government via Sustainable Development Technology Canada (SDTC).
Low-temperature distillation technology licensed to Sterling Water
The low-temperature distillation method of desalination developed by the New Mexico State University (NMSU) in the USA has been licensed to Sterling Water LLC of Qatar.
Queensland can use geothermal desalination says study
Queensland, Australia, has ample geothermal energy resources to power thermal desalination plants and provide clean water for small towns suffering from water shortages, according to The University of Queensland's Queensland Geothermal Energy Centre of Excellence.
Large EDR river desalination plant opens in Spain
GE Water and Aigües Ter-Llobregat (ATLL) of Spain announced on 19 May 2009 the opening of the 220,000 m³/d electrodialysis reversal (EDR) brackish water desalination plant on the Llobregat river.
Brownsville pilot study published
Pilot study results from consultant NRS Consulting Engineers have confirmed that seawater desalination on the shore of the Ship Channel in Brownsville, Texas, USA, is technically feasible.
The coming of membrane distillation technology
Membrane distillation (MD) is a unit operation that uses hydrophobic membranes as a barrier for contaminated water from which mass transport of vapor is driven by differences in vapor pressure. MD does not require a mechanical pressure pump, and temperature levels are such that low-grade heat sources may be used to supply the required energy for the process. It is therefore ideal for treatment of industrial effluents and for desalination in co-generation with thermal solar power plants. This article assesses membrane distillation, a technology that the author believes is becoming increasingly relevant, particularly for use with renewable energies and in less developed countries. The recent promotion of the Desertec energy creation project in the Sahara is just one opportunity he sees for the technology.
UF Pretreatment For Cold Seawater RO
The main obstacle to the use of UF membranes for SWRO pretreatment has always been the high operating cost. This paper describes operational experience of pilot projects using a new membrane designed for the lowest whole-life cost while enabling the most difficult seawater to be treated using membrane desalination. This article shows how the project results can be translated into a technical and commercial evaluation of the best pretreatment option for the desalination of water from low temperature water sources. The technical design details are described for the Evides demonstration plant in the Netherlands, fed from the river delta formed by the Meuse, the Scheldt and the Rhine rivers in southwest Netherlands. It also explains the decision-making process for selection from pretreatment options for the Thames Gateway SWRO project, a plant that is fed by water strongly influenced by tidal effects.
IDE wins brackish water desal plant contract in Israel
IDE Technologies has won a project to build and operate a brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) plant in Emek Hamainot, Israel.
Mining firm strikes funding deal for desalination plant at planned mine
Mining firm, White Mountain Titanium, has agreed a deal with US private equity company, Nexo Capital Partners, to fund, construct and manage a desalination plant to form part of White Mountain's planned Cerro Blanco mining project in Chile.
3rd Osmosis Membrane Summit set for Barcelona
Norwegian power company Statkraft, which is developing forward osmosis for energy, is organising the 3rd Osmosis Membrane Summit on 26-27 April 2012 alongside the European Desalination Society's conference and exhibition in Barcelona, Spain (23-26 April 2012).
Video Q&A: Boris Liberman, IDE Technologies
IDE Technologies' chief technology officer Boris Liberman gives Water. desal + reuse the lowdown on a demonstration project for its latest technology, Eco-Reuse.
Oasys furthers advance in China
US-based forward osmosis specialist, Oasys Water, has unveiled its latest advance in its bid to expand in China with its partner in the region, Beijing Woteer.
NASA, space flight, water recycling and forward osmosis
For manned space vehicles and especially for the International Space Station, America's National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) has had to invent and adapt many technologies. Not least among these are those aimed at life support and water supply in particular. In developing these, forward osmosis (FO) is playing a prominent part. NASA Research in FO has demonstrated that it has both spacecraft and terrestrial applications. The terrestrial applications are just now becoming a reality. This article first appeared in the August/September 2011 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
IDA lifetime achievement award for Toray's Kurihara
A lifetime achievement award to Dr Masaru Kurihara of Toray Membranes was awarded by the International Desalination Association at its awards banquet which closed the IDA World Congress in Perth, Australia on 8 September 2011.
Aquaporin acquisition secures supply of membrane protein
Aquaporin of Denmark is to acquire Golgi, a company established in 2016 that is able to produce aquaporin protein in large quantities.
Modern Water opens new office in Shanghai
UK company Modern Water announced on 26 November 2013 the formation of Modern Water Technology (Shanghai) Co Ltd and the opening of its new office in Shanghai, China.
Stover leaves Oasys for Desalitech
Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) old boy Dr Richard Stover has joined Tel Aviv-based Desalitech, a company with a desalination process that does away with energy-recovery devices.
ERI to cooperate with Koreans on PRO for energy
Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) announced on 15 October 2013 that it has signed a mutual cooperation agreement with Seoul-based global company GS Engineering & Construction Corporation (GS E&C Corp), part of Korean conglomerate GS Group, to significantly advance osmotic power generation using ERI's PX Pressure Exchanger® technology.
Japanese desalination forum program announced
The program has been announced for the Japan Desalination Association (JDA) 2011 Forum in Tokyo on 16 February 2011.
IChemE forecasts more UK municipal desalination by 2050
By 2050, at least four municipal desalination plants and up to 800 smaller units could be providing water to UK households and industry.
ERI appoints Dyer as CTO
Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) has appointed Tim Dyer as chief technology officer (CTO) to replace Rick Stover, who left ERI in January to join forward-osmosis company Oasys. Previously ERI chief scientist, Dyer will manage all engineering and R&D initiatives.
Registration opened for next IDA Academy courses
The International Desalination Association has opened registration for the next IDA Desalination Academy courses in Singapore on 16‑19 September 2013.
Stover becomes Oasys vice-president of engineering
Rick Stover, whose exit from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) was announced last week, joined Oasys, the developer of Engineered Osmosis systems for desalination, energy and resource recovery, as vice- president of engineering, on 19 January 2010.
US researchers develop lean energy membrane-based system
Researchers at Humboldt State University, USA are developing a portable prototype pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) seawater desalination (SWRO) system that exploits the osmotic pressure differential between brine waste from SWRO and wastewater. In turn the system deploys the PRO energy in the SWRO.
Escobar appointed as editor-in-chief of IDA journal
Dr Isabel Escobar of the University of Toledo, Ohio, USA, has been appointed by the International Desalination Association (IDA) to succeed Dr Jim Birkett as editor-in-chief of the IDA Journal of Desalination & Water Reuse.
Singapore and Tianjin next IDA Academy venues
Singapore is the venue for the next course in the schedule of the International Desalination Association (IDA) Academy.
Forward osmosis is not to be ignored
For about 3 or 4 years now, D&WR has annually requested a feature from Modern Water about the company's development of forward osmosis and its desalination plants in Gibraltar and Oman. So it was with pleasure that we finally received the article below, which shows the consistent strides the firm has been making with the process. This article first appeared in the February/March 2013 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Oasys gets $10 million capital
Oasys, the Yale University forward-osmosis desalination start-up company, says that it has secured US$ 10 million in venture capital funding for production of a commercial unit in two years time, says the Boston Globe.
The Long Read: Where's the innovation in brine treatment?
As water scarcity bites and the drive to recycle water grows, the focus on recovering clean water and other resources from brine is sharpening. The challenge is particularly pertinent for industrial operators.
Combining Forward Osmosis with Reverse Osmosis
A combination of forward osmosis with reverse osmosis could facilitate the treatment of some high fouling wastewaters. The system uses brine to draw water from the wastewater without high pressure or turbulence. Key element is the membrane's ability to allow rapid passage of water without much internal concentration polarization. The diluted draw solution can then be desalinated by reverse osmosis. The Two-Way Osmosis or TWO system may also be usable in very remote areas, where seawater ponds can be built for evaporative recovery of salt. Catalyx is designing a pilot system (patent pending) to desalinate seawater without external electric power. This article was published in the May/June 2009 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse.