Forward Osmosis, Seawater, Produced Water, Legislation, Mexico, Wastewater Treatment, Recovery, Cyprus, Oil & Gas, Hawaii


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Oasys deal to treat Texas produced water with FO

Oasys Water has struck an agreement with Houston-based Select Energy Services, LLC (SES), a leading provider of engineered water solutions to the oil and gas industry, for exclusive use of its forward osmosis (FO) technology in the Permian Basin in West Texas and New Mexico, USA.

Speakers announced for IDA conference in Banff

Speakers and sessions for the May conference on Water Recycling and Desalination for the Oil & Gas Industry have been announced by the organizers, the International Desalination Association (IDA).

Desalitech and Veolia tie up Mexican MoU

Desalitech Inc has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies to bring advanced cost‑effective high‑recovery water solutions to Mexico and additional countries worldwide.

Aquatech sells produced-water evaporators in Alberta

Aquatech is to design, engineer, supply and supervise installation and commissioning of a produced-water evaporator system for Pengrowth Energy Corporation's Lindbergh 12,500 bpd Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) enhanced oil-recovery facility.

Oil and gas player commissions produced water treatment plant

Encana Oil and Gas has designed and commissioned a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant to treat produced water from its oil sand wells in the Moneta Divide, Wyoming. It has since sold the plant along with all its Moneta Divide assets to Aethon Energy.

Texas treatment company spins off frac water firm

A company called Green Hydro LLC has been spun off by Texas-based Advanced Hydro Inc to use desalination to address increasing demand for water use in hydraulic fracturing.

Veolia gains Colombian produced-water clean-up contract

Ecopetrol America Inc, the US subsidiary of the Colombian national oil company, has awarded a contract to Veolia to provide equipment and services that will be used to treat the produced water from the Castilla oilfields in the Llanos Basin, southeast of Bogota.

Registration open for AMTA/AWWA membrane conference

Registration has been opened and new sessions added to the programme for the 2013 Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition in San Antonio, Texas, on 25-28 February 2013.

Oasys announces sales hook-up with oil & gas servicer

Forward-osmosis specialist Oasys Water announced on 12 December 2013 that it had recently signed an exclusive sales agreement with National Oilwell Varco LP (NOV), a leading global provider of equipment and services used in the oil and gas market.

STW puts zero liquid system on show

STW Water Process and Technologies, this week will hold demonstrations in the Texas state capital, Austin, of a zero liquid discharge (ZLD) thermal water processing technology it licences from Salttech under an exclusive agreement.

Queensland legislates for centralised CSG brine disposal

The Queensland state government in Australia is introducing legislation to bring about centralised treatment and disposal of water and brine produced from the coal-seam gas (CSG) industry.

Memco's ERI PX-180 (left) and its Isobarix replacement (right)

Second Isobarix ER unit installed in Mexico

Isobarix has installed its second commercial XPR energy-recovery unit for Memco Sistemas de Separacion SA de CV, who operate several seawater reverse-osmosis plants at resorts in Cancun and Los Cabos, Mexico.

Another oil-sands evaporation contract for GE in Alberta

GE has won its fifth contract in the Alberta oil sands of Canada for use of its evaporation technologies for recycling the blowdown from once-through steam generators (OSTGs).

China opens laboratory to drive forward osmosis development

A pairing of leading players in China's water and petrochemicals industries have launched a venture to develop forward osmosis in seawater desalination that they claim will: "open up a new way for zero liquid discharge (ZLD) in seawater desalination of seawater resources with low energy consumption."

Oasys forward osmosis concentrates in China

Massachusetts-based Oasys Water has claimed its recent contract to supply a forward osmosis brine concentrator to a fossil-fuelled power plant in China to be a world first.

Tri-Tech planning forward-osmosis pilot plants

Chinese water and wastewater treatment company Tri-Tech Holdings announced on 13 May 2011 that its current plans include constructing and operating one or more forward-osmosis (FO) pilot units using technology licensed from Arizona-based Hydration Technology Innovations (HTI).

US to develop natural-gas wastewater standards

Over the coming months, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to begin the process of developing a proposed standard for wastewater discharges produced by natural-gas extraction from underground coalbed and shale formations.

Water Standard finds its shipbuilder in Samsung

Texas-based Water Standard and Korea's Samsung Heavy Industries announced an agreement on 28 June 2011 to collaborate on the design and development of vessels to deliver water treatment solutions to the offshore oil and gas sector.

Water Planet wins produced water contracts

Water treatment technology firm, Water Planet, has won a contact to provide industrial wastewater treatment and reuse systems for two recycling centres in California, USA that could recycle oil and gas industry produced water at nearly 20 Ml/d.

RWL consortium wins Baja California desalination deal

Mid market water treatment firm, RWL Water, in a consortium with Mexican partners, Libra Ingenieros and RJ Ingenieria, has won a contract to build a 22,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant in San Quintín, Baja California.

IDE to design PRO power-generation pilot in Norway

The Norwegian renewable-energy company Statkraft has made an agreement for IDE Technologies to design and later purchase and construct a 2 MW osmotic power-generation pilot plant in close cooperation with Statkraft.

Membrane 'summit' will precede AMTA conference

The 2nd Osmosis Membrane Summit will precede this year's annual conference of the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) in San Diego.

IDE in talks with Hawaii desalination plant proposer

Desalination designer and builder IDE Technologies has confirmed to D&WR that it has been talking with billionaire Larry Ellison, who is proposing to build a 2.5 MGD (9,500 m³/d) seawater desalination plant on the island of Lanai.

The Brackish Groundwater National Desalination Research Facility in New Mexico would become a state-of-the art desalination research facility.

US bill seeks major desalination research expansion

US Senate hearings began on 10 March 2009 into a bill on the relationship between energy and water which could have wide implications for desalination research, both in the US and internationally.

Pressure-exchanger court case goes to Hauge

The latest round of the "pressure-exchanger wars" between inventor Leif J Hauge, his company Isobarix Inc and energy-recovery equipment manufacturer Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) has gone in favour of Hauge.

Juan Miguel Pinto is confident that Latin America’s market for desalination and reuse projects is poised for growth. The question is not if, but when?

Interview: Juan Miguel Pinto, ALADYR president

The new president of ALADYR, the Latin America desalination and water reuse association, sees his organisation as a window onto the region for international companies. His big aim is to step up events during 2018, taking knowledge of desalination and reuse out to the market.

Flowserve wins pumps and ERDs for Larnaca desalination

DWEER™ energy-recovery units and Flowserve DMX high-pressure pumps are to be supplied for the 60,000 m³/d Larnaca seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant currently being rebuilt in Cyprus.

Adionics launches liquid-to-liquid desalination system

France-based Adionics has launched a smart desalination solution that is able to remove specific salts to address the growing demand coming from oil and gas, food and beverages as well as mining.

Aquarion acquires Germany's MFT

Swiss oil and gas industry water systems company, Aquarion Group, has acquired Membran- Filtrations-Technik (MFT) of Germany for an undisclosed sum.

GE wins oilsands evaporator contract in Alberta

GE's water evaporation technology will treat de-oiled produced water, boiler and heat-recovery steam-generator blowdown and brackish makeup water for Sunshine Oilsands at its West Ells project in Ft McMurray, Alberta, Canada.

Papers invited for 2013 AWWA/AMTA event

With the 2012 AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference under way this week in Phoenix, Arizona, a call for papers has been issued for next year's event in Texas.

X-Flow commissions Chinese produced-water projects

Three water-reuse projects for oilfields in China that use Pentair X-Flow ultrafiltration (UF) membrane technology have been commissioned recently.

Nirosoft wins large Colombian desalination plant

Nirosoft Industries Ltd has been awarded a contract by Pacific Rubiales Energy Corp (PREC) for design and construction of a produced-water desalination plant in Colombia.

TWO process to recover sodium sulphate from ion-exchange

California-based Catalyx Inc has signed a build-own-operate contract with RG Global Lifestyles Inc, which owns Catalyx Fluid Systems (CFS), for a brine dehydration system to facilitate recovery of sodium sulfate from ion-exchange regenerant brine.

Pilot vapour-recompression plant tackles oil and gas water

A pilot project to treat produced water from oil and gas operations in southern Saskatchewan, Canada, has been initiated by Purestream Technology of Salt Lake City, USA, using its advanced vapour recompression (AVARA) system.

Nirosoft selects ERI PXs for Limassol desalination

The 50,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant currently under construction in Limassol, Cyprus, will use PX-260 pressure-exchangers from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).

Moore takes over engineering for Modern Water

Brian Moore has left Thames Water to become Modern Water's new engineering manager as part of the UK membrane desalination company's planned growth in its engineering department.

HTI deal takes forward osmosis to China

The world's only commercial manufacturer of forward-osmosis (FO) membranes, modules and systems, Hydration Technologies Innovations LLC (HTI), reached an international distribution, services and cooperation agreement for FO technology with Chinese company Tri-Tech Holding Inc.

Desalination and reuse in Mexico-Israel water agreement

Desalination and wastewater treatment and reuse were part of an agreement signed on 14 November 2011 between the Mexican national water agency, Conagua, and Israel's Ministry of Industry, Trade & Labor.

The site of the MBR system (circled) at the giant PINSA cannery in Mazatlan

Giant Mexican tuna cannery chooses MBR after pilot test

One of the world's largest tuna canneries in Mexico is installing a full-scale MeurerMBR membrane bioreactor following a successful pilot test.

El Salitral desalination bids to close in July

The Comisión Estatal del Agua (CEA) in the state of Baja California, Mexico, is expecting between five and eight firm offers when tenders close on 22 July 2011 for the El Salitral seawater desalination plant in Ensenada.

Consolidated bidding for Mexican SWRO desalination

Consolidated Water Co (CWCO) has declared itself to be one of the tenderers for the El Salitral desalination plant in Baja California, Mexico. Bids are due by June.

Mexican desalination plant to tender soon

Comision Estadal Del Agua De Baja California (CEA) in Mexico is to build a 21,600 m³/d desalination plant in the city of Ensenada, to be tendered with a 40% federal contribution towards its estimated cost of Peso 351.900 million (US$ 28.8 million). The successful tenderer will contribute the remaining 60%.

RWL-led Mexico seawater desalination project starts construction

A consortium of RWL Water Group and Mexico's, Libra Ingenieros Civiles and RJ Ingenieria has begun construction of 22,000 m3/d reverse osmosis (RO) seawater desalination plant in Mexico's Baja California.

Mexico invests heavily in six new desalination projects

Mexico is investing more than one billion pesos in six initiatives to construct seawater reverse osmosis desalination plants on the country's coast where, according to national water authority Conagua, water availability is low while there is high potential for development.

Consolidated back with Rosarito desalination project

Cayman Islands company Consolidated Water Co is back on board the Rosarito desalination project in Baja California, Mexico. The 100 MGD (375,000 m³/d) seawater plant is designed to supply drinking water demand on both sides of the US/Mexico border.

Multi-technology GE upgrade for Russian refinery treatment

Membrane bioreactor (MBR), electrodialysis reversal (EDR) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology will all feature in a major upgrade for the wastewater treatment at one of Russia's biggest oil refineries.

Consolidated expects more desalination in Mexico and Bali

Desalination supplier Consolidated Water Co, based in the Cayman Islands, says that its Rosarito project in Mexico has presented an opportunity for two other potential Mexican projects similar in size to its larger Caribbean operations.

Inima wins Mexico's El Salitral desalination plant

Spain's OHL Medio Ambiente Inima (Inima) has been awarded a contract for the design, construction, finance and operation and maintenance of a seawater desalination plant in Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico.

Australians win Cape Verde desalination agreement

A letter of intent involving a desalination plant with an initial capacity of 4,000 m³/d has been given to Water Resources Group (WRG) of Perth, Australia, from the Municipality of Santa Caterina in Cape Verde.

Land-purchase brings Consolidated's Mexican SWRO nearer

The planned Rosarito seawater desalination project in Mexico close to the US border took a step nearer on 22 May 2014 when Consolidated Water Co Ltd announced that it had completed the land purchase for the project.

BEL pressure vessels set for Colombian desalination

Pressure vessels for the 79,500 m³/d produced-water desalination plant being designed and built for Pacific Rubiales Energy Corp (PREC) in Columbia are to be supplied by BEL Composite Industries.

FO pilot plant could follow HTI Dubai link-up

Forward-osmosis (FO) system manufacturer Hydration Technology Innovations LLC (HTI) has signed an international distribution, services and cooperation agreement for FO technology with Future Technologies LLC of Dubai. Future Technologies will distribute HTI's FO OsMem™ membrane technology for industrial applications.

Masterclass webinar to look at combining reuse and desalination using forward osmosis

Award-winning researcher, Gaetan Bandin, will present the next Desalination and Water Reuse Masterclass Webinar on 30 June looking at opportunities and challenges for forward osmosis and pressure assisted osmosis (PAO) to combine water reuse and desalination.

Oasys furthers advance in China

US-based forward osmosis specialist, Oasys Water, has unveiled its latest advance in its bid to expand in China with its partner in the region, Beijing Woteer.

Woongjin backs Californian FO membrane‑maker

Korean membrane company Woongjin Chemical Company has signed an agreement with California startup Porifera Inc providing investment for the Silicon Valley company to develop, manufacture and commercialize forward osmosis (FO) membranes at high volume.

Veolia installing evaporator in Alberta oil sands

Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies is currently installing an evaporator/crystallizer system at Southern Pacific Resource Corp's STP-McKay project currently under way in northern Alberta, Canada.

China's Tri-Tech acquires Wisconsin desalination provider

Desalination and wastewater treatment provider J&Y International Inc, based in Wisconsin, USA, was acquired by subsidiaries of Tri-Tech Holding Inc of China on 9 June 2011.

Joint venture aims to treat Texas frac water

A joint venture to treat brackish/produced water sources has been set up in Texas by STW Resources Holding Corp and CK Investments Energy Company (CKI).

Commission warns Australia about gas-production wastewater

Handling the wastewater resulting from coal-seam gas (CSG) production in Australia is likely to require a precautionary approach that will demand innovation from water managers and planners, and significantly greater coordination with existing project approval processes, the National Water Commission warned in December 2010.

Researchers claim electrodialysis good for fracking reuse

Researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Saudi Arabia's King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals have claimed to have found an economical way to use electrodialysis for removing salt from water produced in hydraulic fracturing (fracking) for shale gas.

Buenos Aires membrane papers deadline 15 June

A deadline of 15 June 2012 has been set for papers for the International Water Association (IWA) 3rd Regional Conference on Membrane Technology.

Nuverra/Haliburton accord on produced-water treatment

Nuverra Environmental Solutions Inc, which until mid-May 2013 was known as Heckmann Corporation, announced on 15 July 2013 that it has entered into an agreement with Halliburton to advance the treatment and recycling of produced water to be reused in the hydraulic fracturing process.

Membrane market growth to run until 2020

The fruits of growing research and development in forward osmosis for desalination are highlighted in a recent sector report as drivers of growth in the market for membrane separation technologies running to at least 2020.

Arizona wants DPR/seawater desalination plan to start now

An immediate start on work to prepare for direct potable water reuse and seawater desalination is proposed by the Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) in a report recently published by the US state's government.

Planned Mexican desalination plant to serve US utility

Reverse osmosis desalination company, Consolidated Water, has reported progress in its plan to build a seawater desalination plant in Mexico to supply a US water utility.

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can be used to capture salt and ions in seawater

MOF membranes will slash energy use, harvest lithium, say researchers

The authors of a new study on metal-organic framework (MOF) membranes have claimed that the material can desalinate water with far higher energy efficiency compared to traditional desalination membranes.

Koreans purchase Spanish desalination company

Spanish desalination and water treatment company Inima OHL Medio Ambiente has been bought by GS Engineering & Construction, a South Korean company based in Seoul.

Consolidated seeks to sell Mexican desalination stake

Caribbean-based Consolidated Water Co is looking to sell its 50% stake in the 100 MGD (378,500 m³/d) Rosarito desalination project in Baja California, Mexico.

Chinese website and new director for Modern Water

UK forward-osmosis specialist Modern Water plc has recently appointed William Harvey as its director of strategy and new business development for its Membrane Processes division as well as its electrocoagulation products.

New tech to drive 9.5% annual desalination growth - report

By 2020, the annual supply of water from desalination will have reached 54 billion m³, according to a report released on 17 March 2009 by Lux Research.

Texas loan boosts Gulf of Mexico project

Texas has agreed a US$ 2 million loan for the Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority (GBRA) to fund a study into site and transport options for a power and water project including a seawater desalination plant on the Texas Gulf coast. The project will provide additional water supplies and add diversity to the region's water sources.

Desalination quartet booked for Masdar pilot plants in UAE

Three major contractors in the global desalination business - Abengoa, Degrémont and Sidem/Veolia - together with forward-osmosis developer Trevi Systems, were awarded contracts on 5 May 2014 by Abu Dhabi's Masdar, to each start the construction of a 1,500 m³/d desalination plant as part of Masdar's pilot project announced in 2013.

Gold miner opts for desalination to supply planned Mexican mine

The gold mining arm of energy firm, Chesapeake, has opted to use desalinated seawater to supply water for its proposed Metates gold and silver mining project in Durango state, Mexico. It has tendered for proposals to build and operate a 55Ml/d desalination facility to supply the mine with fresh water.

Modern Water ties in with Chinese partner

UK forward-osmosis desalination developer Modern Water plc has signed a framework agreement with Hangzhou Development Center of Water Treatment Technology Company Ltd (Hangzhou Water) in China.

Mexican desalination plant could be funded in 2011

Resources could be assigned in 2011 for a 17,280 m³/d desalination plant at Guaymas on the Gulf of California in Mexico.

The demonstration project will draw on lessons from the Mega-ton Water System, whose aim was to create a paradigm shift in energy consumption for reverse osmosis desalination

Hitachi and Toray target 20 per cent RO energy reduction in Saudi demo

Hitachi and Toray are to demonstrate a low energy seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) system in Saudi Arabia, in a project that will draw lessons from the Mega-ton Water System.

Hawaiian venue for AMTA/SWMOA workshop

The American Membrane Technology Association and the Southwest Membrane Operator Association are to hold a joint technology transfer workshop in Hawaii.

Reclamation Bureau's water recycling and reuse funding criteria published

The US government's Bureau of Reclamation published on 15 October 2010 the funding criteria under its Title XVI - Water Recycling & Reuse Program for two new funding opportunity announcements in fiscal year 2011.

Nine water purification projects bag US$ 1.49 million in funding

The US Bureau of Reclamation has selected nine projects to receive US$ 1.49 million under its Desalination and Water Purification Research programme.

From top left: Juan Miguel Pinto, Energy Recovery Inc, Guillaume Clairet, H20 Innovation, Renato Ramos, Dow Water & Process Solutions, and Miguel Angel Sanz, Suez

The experts' pick of the panels at IDA World Congress 2017

The crack team behind the technical program at IDA World Congress 2017 in Sau Paulo, Brazil, have selected their personal not-be-missed favourite sessions from a packed line-up.

New Mexico mulls new rules to allow water reuse for oilfield drilling

State environmental regulators in New Mexico are considering a proposed rule that would allow the reuse of produced water in oilfield drilling operations.

Desalination and reuse in California/New Mexico get funding

US Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar announced on 1 July 2009 27 water reclamation and reuse projects in California and New Mexico identified by the Bureau of Reclamation to share in a total of US$ 134.3 million under the American Recovery & Reinvestment Act of 2009.

Food for thought for delegates at EDS conference

The continuously queuing water tankers in the road servicing the King Hussein Bin Talal Convention Centre and its four adjacent hotels leave visitors in no doubt that Jordan is one of the most water-scarce countries in the world.

New Mexico: pumping a gallon of oil can produce up to five gallons of wastewater

US EPA white paper 're-visioning' oil and gas produced water

The US Environmental Protection Agency and the state of New Mexico has issued a draft white paper on oil and gas wastewater, recycling, and reuse.

1,100 US counties face water supply crisis by 2050, says report

A new analysis for the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), examining the effects of global warming on water supply and demand in the contiguous United States, has found that more than 1,100 counties will face higher risks of water shortages by mid-century as the result of global warming.

Desalitech ties up with Toyo for international market

Innovative reverse-osmosis (RO) developer Desalitech and Japan's Toyo Engineering Corporation announced on 11 December 2013 the formation of a strategic partnership to introduce water and wastewater treatment solutions to Japanese, East Asian and international markets.

LACSD signs up Desalitech for chloride‑removal test

Desalination system developer Desalitech is to support a pilot project with the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (LACSD) to upgrade two Santa Clarita Valley wastewater treatment plants in order to meet state‑mandated chloride limits, the company announced on 2 October 2013.

Aquatech increases Pennsylvania oil & gas resources

Aquatech has increased its oil & gas water management services in the Marcellus and Utica Shale regions of Pennsylvania with the acquisition of Fluid Recovery Services (FRS), based in Creekside.

US$ 6.25 million equity investment for Desalitech

Reverse-osmosis (RO) innovator Desalitech Inc has secured an equity investment of U$$ 6.25 million led by Liberation Capital LLC, which will be used for business expansion and working capital.

Agnihotri elected to board of ThermoEnergy Corp

Dr Dileep Agnihotri, the CEO and president of Advanced Hydro Inc, a company set up to commercialise a novel antifouling membrane coating technology at the University of Texas - Austin, has joined the board of ThermoEnergy Corp, a Massachusetts-based company engaged in development and sales of municipal and industrial wastewater-recovery and clean power-generation technologies.

Ozwater '12 abstracts required before 1 September

The Australian Water Association (AWA) has issued a call for papers for Ozwater '12 to be held on 8-10 May 2012 in Sydney.

“The membrane industry as we know it would not exist without Dr Sourirajan’s breakthrough.” Photo credit Krishna Rajan 1967

AMTA's Hall of Fame honours industry pioneers

A raft of industry awards was unveiled at the Membrane Technology Conference 2017, including AMTA's four-strong Hall of Fame 2017, which recognises pioneering careers in membrane technology.

The new desalination plant at Playas de Rosarito will be on the coast adjacent to the existing power station

Consolidated Water lines up Mexican mega-project

The Playas de Rosarito seawater RO desalination mega-plant project has been six years in the making. It began as a twinkle in Consolidated Water's eye even before Mexico had introduced its new public-private partnerships law, but the act's introduction in 2012 gave the project a clear structure for moving ahead.

US research challenges value of forward osmosis in seawater desalination

Researchers in the US have claimed that forward osmosis desalination of seawater is significantly less energy efficient than reverse osmosis

The US DOE will pit organisations against one another in a bid to drive innovation

US DOE to harness 'power of competition' in Water Security Grand Challenge

The US Department of Energy has set out ambitions to harness the "power of competition" to drive innovation in water technology through a new programme of activity.

Electrochemical desalination MoU signed in Singapore

A memorandum of understanding (MoU) between Singapore's national water agency, PUB, and Evoqua Water Technologies to further develop electrochemical desalination technology was one of five MoUs signed during Singapore International Water Week, which ended on 5 June 2014.

Modern Water set for first FO desalination plant in China

Modern Water is set to build a forward-osmosis (FO) desalination plant in Xugong Island, China, as a result of one of three deals signed by the UK company during a trade mission to China led by UK prime minister David Cameron.

Dr Richard Stover pictured at a Japan Desalination Association forum in February 2011.

Stover leaves Oasys for Desalitech

Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) old boy Dr Richard Stover has joined Tel Aviv-based Desalitech, a company with a desalination process that does away with energy-recovery devices.

Combining Forward Osmosis with Reverse Osmosis

A combination of forward osmosis with reverse osmosis could facilitate the treatment of some high fouling wastewaters. The system uses brine to draw water from the wastewater without high pressure or turbulence. Key element is the membrane's ability to allow rapid passage of water without much internal concentration polarization. The diluted draw solution can then be desalinated by reverse osmosis. The Two-Way Osmosis or TWO system may also be usable in very remote areas, where seawater ponds can be built for evaporative recovery of salt. Catalyx is designing a pilot system (patent pending) to desalinate seawater without external electric power. This article was published in the May/June 2009 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse.


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