Forward Osmosis, Forward Osmosis, Desalination, Forecast, Saudi Arabia, Membrane


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Desalination quartet booked for Masdar pilot plants in UAE

Three major contractors in the global desalination business - Abengoa, Degrémont and Sidem/Veolia - together with forward-osmosis developer Trevi Systems, were awarded contracts on 5 May 2014 by Abu Dhabi's Masdar, to each start the construction of a 1,500 m³/d desalination plant as part of Masdar's pilot project announced in 2013.

Modern Water ties in with Chinese partner

UK forward-osmosis desalination developer Modern Water plc has signed a framework agreement with Hangzhou Development Center of Water Treatment Technology Company Ltd (Hangzhou Water) in China.

Moore takes over engineering for Modern Water

Brian Moore has left Thames Water to become Modern Water's new engineering manager as part of the UK membrane desalination company's planned growth in its engineering department.

IDA announces lecturers for next Academy session

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has announced the line-up for the next one-day course in its Desalination Academy, which will take place on 5 December 2012 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, alongside the Saudi Water & Power Forum.

IDA announces scholarship program winners

Students from Brazil and Singapore are this year's winners of the Channabasappa Memorial Scholarship awarded by the International Desalination Association (IDA).

Forward-osmosis patent filed by QuantumSphere

Another forward-osmosis process has taken a step forward. QuantumSphere Inc filed for a US patent on 14 January 2009 for its water purification process, which, it claims, serves as a more energy-efficient alternative to desalination methods now commonly used.

FO pilot plant could follow HTI Dubai link-up

Forward-osmosis (FO) system manufacturer Hydration Technology Innovations LLC (HTI) has signed an international distribution, services and cooperation agreement for FO technology with Future Technologies LLC of Dubai. Future Technologies will distribute HTI's FO OsMem™ membrane technology for industrial applications.

IDE to design PRO power-generation pilot in Norway

The Norwegian renewable-energy company Statkraft has made an agreement for IDE Technologies to design and later purchase and construct a 2 MW osmotic power-generation pilot plant in close cooperation with Statkraft.

Membrane 'summit' will precede AMTA conference

The 2nd Osmosis Membrane Summit will precede this year's annual conference of the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) in San Diego.

Membrane market growth to run until 2020

The fruits of growing research and development in forward osmosis for desalination are highlighted in a recent sector report as drivers of growth in the market for membrane separation technologies running to at least 2020.

Woongjin backs Californian FO membrane‑maker

Korean membrane company Woongjin Chemical Company has signed an agreement with California startup Porifera Inc providing investment for the Silicon Valley company to develop, manufacture and commercialize forward osmosis (FO) membranes at high volume.

Buenos Aires membrane papers deadline 15 June

A deadline of 15 June 2012 has been set for papers for the International Water Association (IWA) 3rd Regional Conference on Membrane Technology.

Forward-osmosis companies launch international association

Four companies specializing in forward osmosis membrane technology launched the International Forward Osmosis Association (IFOA) on 7 April 2014.

Low-energy desalination trials delayed

Trials of four new energy efficient desalination systems from leading water technology players that could "revolutionise the industry" have been delayed from their summer 2015 start with October forecast as the date when all will be in pilot operation.

GE's Muscat takes over as Oasys Water CEO

Former GE executive Bob Muscat has been appointed chief executive officer of Oasys Water, the US forward-osmosis desalination specialist.

Modern Water set for first FO desalination plant in China

Modern Water is set to build a forward-osmosis (FO) desalination plant in Xugong Island, China, as a result of one of three deals signed by the UK company during a trade mission to China led by UK prime minister David Cameron.

Masterclass webinar to look at combining reuse and desalination using forward osmosis

Award-winning researcher, Gaetan Bandin, will present the next Desalination and Water Reuse Masterclass Webinar on 30 June looking at opportunities and challenges for forward osmosis and pressure assisted osmosis (PAO) to combine water reuse and desalination.

Oasys announces sales hook-up with oil & gas servicer

Forward-osmosis specialist Oasys Water announced on 12 December 2013 that it had recently signed an exclusive sales agreement with National Oilwell Varco LP (NOV), a leading global provider of equipment and services used in the oil and gas market.

TWO process to recover sodium sulphate from ion-exchange

California-based Catalyx Inc has signed a build-own-operate contract with RG Global Lifestyles Inc, which owns Catalyx Fluid Systems (CFS), for a brine dehydration system to facilitate recovery of sodium sulfate from ion-exchange regenerant brine.

Chinese website and new director for Modern Water

UK forward-osmosis specialist Modern Water plc has recently appointed William Harvey as its director of strategy and new business development for its Membrane Processes division as well as its electrocoagulation products.

HTI deal takes forward osmosis to China

The world's only commercial manufacturer of forward-osmosis (FO) membranes, modules and systems, Hydration Technologies Innovations LLC (HTI), reached an international distribution, services and cooperation agreement for FO technology with Chinese company Tri-Tech Holding Inc.

China opens laboratory to drive forward osmosis development

A pairing of leading players in China's water and petrochemicals industries have launched a venture to develop forward osmosis in seawater desalination that they claim will: "open up a new way for zero liquid discharge (ZLD) in seawater desalination of seawater resources with low energy consumption."

Modern Water gets £ 9.5 million from share issue

UK forward-osmosis (FO) and monitoring specialist Modern Water plc announced on 12 February 2013 that it had raised, subject to certain conditions, £ 10.0 million (approximately £ 9.5 million net of expenses) by way of a placing of 20,000,000 new ordinary shares with both new and existing institutional shareholders at a price of £0.50 per ordinary share.

Oasys deal to treat Texas produced water with FO

Oasys Water has struck an agreement with Houston-based Select Energy Services, LLC (SES), a leading provider of engineered water solutions to the oil and gas industry, for exclusive use of its forward osmosis (FO) technology in the Permian Basin in West Texas and New Mexico, USA.

Oasys forward osmosis concentrates in China

Massachusetts-based Oasys Water has claimed its recent contract to supply a forward osmosis brine concentrator to a fossil-fuelled power plant in China to be a world first.

Study shows novel heavy-metals-from-wastewater method

Scientists in Singapore and Saudi Arabia have reported a novel method for extracting toxic and valuable heavy metals from wastewater using forward osmosis (FO).

Tri-Tech planning forward-osmosis pilot plants

Chinese water and wastewater treatment company Tri-Tech Holdings announced on 13 May 2011 that its current plans include constructing and operating one or more forward-osmosis (FO) pilot units using technology licensed from Arizona-based Hydration Technology Innovations (HTI).

IChemE forecasts more UK municipal desalination by 2050

By 2050, at least four municipal desalination plants and up to 800 smaller units could be providing water to UK households and industry.

Masdar picks four firms to test new desalination techniques

Abu Dhabi clean energy company, Masdar, has selected four international water technology firms to test techniques that could reduce the energy intensity of desalination and lead to a large renewably powered water purification station.

Modern Water claims first FO commercial desalination contract

UK-based Modern Water has won what is believed to be the first ever forward-osmosis (FO) commercial contract for desalination, following its award of a UK£ 500,000 (US$ 810,000) contract for a 200 m³/d plant by Oman's Public Authority for Electricity & Water (PAEW).

Modern Water claims Oman success

Modern Water plc announced on 12 November that its desalination plant in Oman has been successfully commissioned and fresh water production has commenced.

New tech to drive 9.5% annual desalination growth - report

By 2020, the annual supply of water from desalination will have reached 54 billion m³, according to a report released on 17 March 2009 by Lux Research.

The Brackish Groundwater National Desalination Research Facility in New Mexico would become a state-of-the art desalination research facility.

US bill seeks major desalination research expansion

US Senate hearings began on 10 March 2009 into a bill on the relationship between energy and water which could have wide implications for desalination research, both in the US and internationally.

Small FO desalination plant commissioned in Oman

A 200 m³/d forward-osmosis (FO) desalination plant has been commissioned by Modern Water at Al Najdah in the Al Wusta region of Oman.

Topics and presenters announced for IDA Academy course

The next International Desalination Association (IDA) Academy course, to be held at the International Water Summit in Abu Dhabi on 21‑22 January 2014 will feature Integration of Hybrid Technologies with Renewable Energy to Improve the Sustainability of Water Desalination and Sustainable Operation with Advanced Membrane Filtration.

US research challenges value of forward osmosis in seawater desalination

Researchers in the US have claimed that forward osmosis desalination of seawater is significantly less energy efficient than reverse osmosis

Registration open for AMTA/AWWA membrane conference

Registration has been opened and new sessions added to the programme for the 2013 Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition in San Antonio, Texas, on 25-28 February 2013.

Registration opened for next IDA Academy courses

The International Desalination Association has opened registration for the next IDA Desalination Academy courses in Singapore on 16‑19 September 2013.

Japanese desalination forum program announced

The program has been announced for the Japan Desalination Association (JDA) 2011 Forum in Tokyo on 16 February 2011.

Dr Isabel Escobar

Escobar appointed as editor-in-chief of IDA journal

Dr Isabel Escobar of the University of Toledo, Ohio, USA, has been appointed by the International Desalination Association (IDA) to succeed Dr Jim Birkett as editor-in-chief of the IDA Journal of Desalination & Water Reuse.

Speakers announced for IDA conference in Banff

Speakers and sessions for the May conference on Water Recycling and Desalination for the Oil & Gas Industry have been announced by the organizers, the International Desalination Association (IDA).

Stover becomes Oasys vice-president of engineering

Rick Stover, whose exit from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) was announced last week, joined Oasys, the developer of Engineered Osmosis™ systems for desalination, energy and resource recovery, as vice- president of engineering, on 19 January 2010.

Desalination tops user growth in membrane chemicals

The global market for membrane chemicals was worth US$ 1,013.8 million in 2013 and is expected to show a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8.1% to 2020 according to a report by market researcher, Future Market Insights. And desalination was expected to witness the highest end use sector growth of 11.4% between 2014 and 2020.

Wastewater leads membrane chemicals charge

Growth in the global membrane chemical market to 2020, will be led by the wastewater sector according to market analyst Future Market Insights (FMI). And desalination was expected to witness the highest compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 11.4% in the global membrane chemicals market between 2014 and 2020. 

Wastewater drive to boost membrane use in GCC region says analyst

Government identification of wastewater treatment in the municipal sector as a priority area in water production will be a key revenue generation source for membrane elements in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries according to market analyst Frost & Sullivan. And the demand for water in the region was set to double within twenty years the analyst forecast.

Reverse osmosis to drive US membrane demand to $6.2 billion in 2018

Water and wastewater industry demand for membranes will drive a 7.9%-a-year increase in US demand to reach US$ 6.2 billion by 2018 with reverse osmosis membranes surging 8.6% a year according to report by market research firm, The Freedonia Group.

3rd Osmosis Membrane Summit set for Barcelona

Norwegian power company Statkraft, which is developing forward osmosis for energy, is organising the 3rd Osmosis Membrane Summit on 26-27 April 2012 alongside the European Desalination Society's conference and exhibition in Barcelona, Spain (23-26 April 2012).

Inventor of water technologies Marc Vergnet adjusts the controls on Osmosun, his new solar-powered reverse osmosis desalination system that does not use batteries or energy storage, chemicals, or grid supplies of electricity

Masdar desal pilot: the results so far

Masdar Clean Energy set a target for its pilot projects of one cubic metre of water for every 3.6 kilowatt hours of energy used. This is a particularly challenging target in the Persian Gulf, where salinity is very high, the water temperature is high, it's very shallow, and there's high organic matter.

The water supplied will be used for agriculture and hydroelectric applications in Beit She’an valley, Israel

IDE wins brackish water desal plant contract in Israel

IDE Technologies has won a project to build and operate a brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) plant in Emek Hamainot, Israel.

IDA lifetime achievement award for Toray's Kurihara

A lifetime achievement award to Dr Masaru Kurihara of Toray Membranes was awarded by the International Desalination Association at its awards banquet which closed the IDA World Congress in Perth, Australia on 8 September 2011.

Cost, regulation and water scarcity are driving a shift in mindset toward resource recovery in brine treatment

The Long Read: Where's the innovation in brine treatment?

As water scarcity bites and the drive to recycle water grows, the focus on recovering clean water and other resources from brine is sharpening. The challenge is particularly pertinent for industrial operators.

US researchers develop lean energy membrane-based system

Researchers at Humboldt State University, USA are developing a portable prototype pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) seawater desalination (SWRO) system that exploits the osmotic pressure differential between brine waste from SWRO and wastewater. In turn the system deploys the PRO energy in the SWRO.

Combining Forward Osmosis with Reverse Osmosis

A combination of forward osmosis with reverse osmosis could facilitate the treatment of some high fouling wastewaters. The system uses brine to draw water from the wastewater without high pressure or turbulence. Key element is the membrane's ability to allow rapid passage of water without much internal concentration polarization. The diluted draw solution can then be desalinated by reverse osmosis. The Two-Way Osmosis or TWO system may also be usable in very remote areas, where seawater ponds can be built for evaporative recovery of salt. Catalyx is designing a pilot system (patent pending) to desalinate seawater without external electric power. This article was published in the May/June 2009 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse.

Desalination using forward osmosis with nanofiltration membranes

Forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging membrane technology, often used for desalination. Like reverse osmosis (RO), FO uses a semi-permeable membrane to separate water from dissolved solutes. The semi-permeable membrane acts as a barrier that allows water to pass through while blocking salts. Generally, any dense, non-porous, selectively permeable material can be used as a membrane for FO. Professor Chung invented a novel polybenzimidazole (PBI) nanofiltration (NF) membrane with a narrow pore size and high flux for the FO process. PBI was chosen mainly because of its robust mechanical strength and excellent chemical stability. However, at high ionic strength (normal in FO applications) and normal operational pH values, the charge of the membrane surface is neutral, leading to a decrease in electrostatic repulsion between the membrane surface and electrolytes to be rejected. Consequently, monovalent salts rejection decreases. Ideal NF membranes for FO would be highly negatively charged at most pH values. Additionally, these membranes are hydrophobic and have a propensity to foul during operation. Therefore, this collaboration is performing research to improve the separation performance of the PBI FO membrane by (1) lowering membrane fouling via chemical modification, and (2) increasing its monovalent salt-rejection via membrane surface modifications. Since these properties are given to a porous PBI NF membrane instead of the conventionally used dense RO membranes, this project has the potential to revolutionize the field of desalination using FO. Development of a desalination process technology using the FO route has the potential to achieve up to a 75% decrease in costs and energy consumption in desalination, in comparison with conventional thermal or RO processes. This technology is still undergoing research. Acknowledgments The source of funding was the National Science Foundation, NSF OISE 0832894. This article appeared in D&WR magazine's May/June 2009 issue.

Singapore and Tianjin next IDA Academy venues

Singapore is the venue for the next course in the schedule of the International Desalination Association (IDA) Academy.

Modern Water's pilot plant was housed in a 20-foot container

Modern Water signs first brine concentration deal after pilot

Modern Water has secured the first sale of its proprietary All-Membrane Brine Concentration (AMBC) technology, to a textile dyes company in India.

Modern Water opens new office in Shanghai

UK company Modern Water announced on 26 November 2013 the formation of Modern Water Technology (Shanghai) Co Ltd and the opening of its new office in Shanghai, China.

ERI to cooperate with Koreans on PRO for energy

Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) announced on 15 October 2013 that it has signed a mutual cooperation agreement with Seoul-based global company GS Engineering & Construction Corporation (GS E&C Corp), part of Korean conglomerate GS Group, to significantly advance osmotic power generation using ERI's PX Pressure Exchanger® technology.

Global membrane market growth nears 11%

The global membrane separation market is heading to top US$ 39 billion in 2019, at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.8% over the period according to a recent report published by market analyst, Persistence Market Research.

Researchers cast doubt on economics of osmotic power

New research findings have questioned the economics of power production from pressure retarded osmosis (PRO).

Aquaporin Inside membranes replicate nature's own way of filtering water using aquaporin protein

Aquaporin acquisition secures supply of membrane protein

Aquaporin of Denmark is to acquire Golgi, a company established in 2016 that is able to produce aquaporin protein in large quantities.

Oasys furthers advance in China

US-based forward osmosis specialist, Oasys Water, has unveiled its latest advance in its bid to expand in China with its partner in the region, Beijing Woteer.

‘Forward osmosis and high recovery reverse osmosis has been fascinating to follow.’ John Williams, Lanxess Sybron Chemicals

Five Minutes With: John Williams, global business development, membranes, Lanxess Sybron Chemicals

Returning to the membrane industry 'feels like a very comfortable transition', says Lanxess new business development hire John Williams

Swcc and Hyrec sign MOU to use Hyrec's concentration technology at SWCC plants

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) and Hyrec Technologies Ltd. have signed a Memorandum of Understanding to deploy Hyrec's Osmotically Assisted Reverse Osmosis (OARO) technology for Zero Liquid Discharge desalination in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

The most-read stories on desalination and water reuse in 2018 around the globe

Most-read: our top 20 stories of 2018

The year 2018 was dominated by big project tenders in the Middle East, especially Saudi Arabia. Water. desalination + reuse rounds up the top stories from our industry.

The demonstration project will draw on lessons from the Mega-ton Water System, whose aim was to create a paradigm shift in energy consumption for reverse osmosis desalination

Hitachi and Toray target 20 per cent RO energy reduction in Saudi demo

Hitachi and Toray are to demonstrate a low energy seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) system in Saudi Arabia, in a project that will draw lessons from the Mega-ton Water System.

The Global Water Awards winners are awarded through voting by industry professionals

Suez and Middle East plants top 2018 Global Water Awards

Suez has scooped the Desalination Company of the Year Award, and Middle East facilities topped the desal plant categories at this year's Global Water Awards from Global Water Intelligence (GWI).

GrahamTek is an innovator in 16-inch reverse osmosis membrane technology

GrahamTek wins contract for SWCC pilot project

GrahamTek of South Africa has won a contract for a desalination pilot project for Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC), Saudi Arabia.

Hyflux wins Saudi deal for Yanbu

Desalination specialist, Hyflux, has won a US$ 48 million contract to build a containerised desalination system for Saudi Arabia.

Timeline established for IDA desalination energy guide

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has established a timeline for producing its guidelines for reducing energy consumption in desalination ending at its 2015 World Congress.

India 'to have 500 desalination plants by 2017'

India will have more than 500 desalination plants by 2017 in a market sector that is growing at 22%, according to a recently published market research report.

Urban surge drives 57% growth in Indian municipal water treatment market by 2018

Urban population growth in India will create huge demand for municipal water and wastewater treatment systems including desalination adding 57% to revenues over five years according to a recent report by market analyst Frost an Sullivan (F&S).

The new membrane facility will serve markets across the Middle East, North Africa and Asia

DuPont opens membrane factory in Saudi Arabia

DuPont Water Solutions has opened a new membrane manufacturing facility in Saudi Arabia.

Hyflux is pursuing a restructuring of its liabilities

Hyflux exits contract with SWCC amid company reorganisation

Hyflux has quit a contract with Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) for three seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants, amid moves to restructure the company.

Woongjin America changes name to TCK Membrane America

Woongjin Chemical America Inc, which makes both spiral-wound and hollow-fibre desalination and water treatment membranes, has changed its name to TCK Membrane America Inc.

Fluor to build Dow's RO membrane factory in Saudi Arabia

Fluor Corporation has been awarded a contract by the Dow Chemical Company to build Dow's reverse osmosis (RO) membrane manufacturing facility in Jubail Industrial City II in Saudi Arabia.

NanoH2O confirms its acquisition by LG Chem

Desalination membrane manufacturer NanoH2O confirmed on 12 May 2014 the finalization of its sale to Korea's LG Chem on 30 April 2014.

Hyflux sees Dahej desalination funding 'within year'

Hyflux has extended the time it foresees for financial closure on its Dahej seawater desalination plant in India to "within this year".

Mott MacDonald absorbs Australasian water specialist

The Mott MacDonald consultancy group has taken in AWT, a specialist water technology and consulting company based in New Zealand and Australia.

AMTA/AWWA 2015 membrane conference abstracts invited

The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the American Water Works Association have issued a call for papers for their fourth joint Membrane Technology Conference to be held in Florida in 2015.

Menningmann becomes president of Biwater AEWT

Jorg Menningmann has joined Biwater's desalination and membrane treatment sector as president of Biwater AEWT.

Saudi deal gives Toray fourth membrane‑making base

A new joint venture to sell desalination and water treatment membranes in the Middle East has been set up between Toray Industries of Japan and Abunayyan Holding, headquartered in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Rodrigo Turra

New Chile office and country chief for IDE Technologies

IDE Technologies has opened a new office in Chile and appointed Rodrigo Turra as country sales director.

SEDA Spring Symposium registration opened

The Southeast Desalination Association (SEDA) has opened registration for its Spring Symposium to be held in Florida in June 2014.

MEDRC to run membrane courses in Oman

The Middle East Desalination Research Centre (MEDRC) has obtained an exclusive license to present two David H Paul seminars in the Middle East/North Africa region.

EDS launches 2014 desalination courses with Rome event

The European Desalination Society (EDS) kicks off a list of six events in its series of Master Courses with a three-day course in Rome, Italy, on Membrane Technology, Process & System Design on 3‑5 March 2014.

CDM to build US$ 86 million Monterey desalination plant

California American Water (Cal Am) has selected CDM Constructors Inc to design and build the desalination facility proposed as part of its US$ 320 million Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project.

EDS announces membrane course in Rome in 2014

The European Desalination Society has announced a three-day intensive course on Membrane Technology, Process & System Design to take place in Italy next March.

Two Saudi SWRO membrane contracts awarded to NanoH2O

Desalination membrane manufacturer NanoH2O Inc has won supply contracts for two seawater desalination projects in Saudi Arabia.

Texas treatment company spins off frac water firm

A company called Green Hydro LLC has been spun off by Texas-based Advanced Hydro Inc to use desalination to address increasing demand for water use in hydraulic fracturing.

NanoH2O announces seawater membrane factory in China

Advanced desalination membrane-maker NanoH2O is to build a fully integrated manufacturing plant in Liyang, China, a city in the Yangtze River Delta, 250 km west of Shanghai.

SEDA Spring Symposium brochure available for download

The Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA) has a brochure available for its 2013 Spring Symposium to be held at Delray Beach, Florida.

SCMA conference has an eye to the weather

The contribution that membrane desalination and water treatment can make to combating the extreme weather conditions prevalent in the southern United States will provide a focus for the 2013 Annual Conference of the South Central Membrane Association (SCMA).

AMTA visiting Des Moines for tech transfer workshop

The American Membrane Technology Association is to hold a Technology Transfer Workshop in Des Moines, Iowa.

IWA extends deadline for Toronto membrane papers

The International Water Association (IWA) has extended the deadline for submission of papers for the 7th IWA Specialised Membrane Technology Conference & Exhibition for Water & Wastewater Treatment & Reuse.

AMTA and SEDA to hold Chesapeake membrane workshop

The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA), which promotes membrane processes for desalination and water / wastewater treatment, is to hold a joint technology transfer workshop with the Southeast Desalting Association in Chesapeake, Virginia, in May 2013.

SWMOA announces dates for 2013-14

The Southwest Membrane Operator Association (SWMOA) has announced additional workshop dates for desalination and water / wastewater treatment membrane operators for 2013 and the date and venue for its 2014 annual symposium.

NWMOA sets annual symposium date

The recently formed Northwest Membrane Operator Association (NWMOA), which provides education and support for desalination and water treatment membrane operators, is to hold its first annual symposium in Vancouver, Washington, in September 2013.

New AMTA/AWWA convention set for Las Vegas in 2014

The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has announced that it has reached an interim agreement with the American Water Works Association (AWWA) to renew their combined desalination and water treatment membrane event for 2014 in Las Vegas, Nevada.

NanoH2O membranes chosen for Palmachim expansion

Two additional 36,000 m³/d trains are to be added to the Palmachim seawater reverse- osmosis (RO) desalination plant in Israel using QuantumFlux (Qfx) high-rejection membranes manufactured by NanoH2O Inc.


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