Florida, California, Tanks, Desalination, Sludge, Tanks


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The Orange County Groundwater Replacement System

Go-ahead for 113,500 m³/d Orange County GWRS expansion

Orange County's world-renowned membrane-based Groundwater Replenishment System (GWRS) in California is to be expanded by another 30 MGD (113,500 m³/d) following approval by the board of the Orange County Water District (OCWD) on 30 March 2011.

Mitsubishi unit bags sludge system order

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Mechatronics Systems (MHI-MS), has picked up an order for wastewater treatment facilities using its two-phase, activated sludge system, for installation at sister company Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation's Yokkaichi Plant in Mie prefecture.

The facility site at SEA Lab

West Basin district dedicates desalination demo facility

California's West Basin Municipal Water District is nearing completion of its new desalination demonstration facility, following formal dedication of the plant on 12 November 2010.

West Basin demonstrating desalination intake and outfall technologies

One of the first seawater desalination demonstration facilities to employ ocean-protection technology at the source of intake and discharge has begun construction in Southern California, USA.

Arlington Desalter

Desalination plant's nitrate removal has hidden benefits

A water district in California has found a novel way to remove multiple contaminants from groundwater currently feeding a desalination plant without creating waste that requires costly treatment and disposal.

June start for Clearwater RO plant in Florida

Construction is due to start in June 2013 on the second reverse-osmosis water treatment plant for City of Clearwater, Florida, following a groundbreaking ceremony on 6 May 2013.

MemPulse MBR equipment with air scouring technology significantly reduces energy consumption.

Modesto water quality project gets Siemens MBR equipment

Equipment for a 12.6 MGD (47,700 m³/d) membrane bioreactor (MBR) system is to be supplied to City of Modesto, California, USA, by Siemens Water Technologies for the Jennings Road Water Quality Control Facility.

San Francisco's Golden Gate Park

San Francisco plans wastewater reuse plant in city park

San Francisco's Public Utilities (SFPUC) unveiled plans on 7 September 2010 for its proposed Westside Recycled Water Project, part of its Water System Improvement Program.

Parkson breaks new ground with Saudi MBR plant

A 2,000 m³/d wastewater-reuse plant based on membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has just been commissioned in Rabigh, Saudi Arabia, by Florida-based Parkson.

AMTA to bid for 2015 IDA World Congress

The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has told D&WR that it will be bidding to stage the International Desalination Association (IDA) World Congress in 2015.

Can$ 4.7 million new orders for H2O Innovation

A 1.1 MGD (4,200 m³/d) ultrafiltration (UF) drinking water system for a community in British Columbia, Canada, is one of new contracts worth Can$ 4.7 million (US$ 4.6 million) announced on 6 June 2013 by H2O Innovation Inc.

The project site is U-shaped, and is surrounded by lots filled by industrial operators and their associated infrastructure

Jebel Ali project is a new direction for DEWA and Besix

The $237 million contract awarded by Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) for a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant represents a big step for the client, and for Besix Concessions & Assets, which won the work in partnership with Acciona Agua.

Multi-technology GE upgrade for Russian refinery treatment

Membrane bioreactor (MBR), electrodialysis reversal (EDR) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology will all feature in a major upgrade for the wastewater treatment at one of Russia's biggest oil refineries.

The schedule of tenders on Tuas Nexus was unveiled at Singapore International Water Week 2018 at Marina Bay Sands, Singapore

Singapore to tender S$5 billion of water and waste works

Singapore's PUB and National Environment Agency (NEA) are to tender more than S$5 billion ($3.7 billion) of works covering civil, mechanical and electrical engineering for Tuas Nexus, an integrated wastewater and waste treatment facility.

ACWA Emirates' membrane bio-reactor plant at Shaybah Oilfield, Saudi Arabia, recycles water for use at the site's residential complex

ACWA Emirates delivers MBR reuse plant for Saudi Aramco

ACWA Emirates has completed a water reuse plant at Shaybah Oilfield, Saudi Arabia, for crude and natural gas exporter Saudi Aramco.

ABS turbocompressors selected for Jurong MBR plant

Aeration for the membrane bioreactor (MBR) and the biological treatment tanks at Jurong Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore's largest MBR plant, is to be provided by ABS Turbocompressors HST.

STW finishes brine concentrator project at Horizon, Texas

Water management firm, STW Resources, has completed a US$ 2.2 million contract for the design, engineering and construction of a reverse osmosis (RO) concentrator for the Texas city, Horizon.

Nine desalination studies bag US$ 1.4 million funding

Nine research projects and pilot studies will share US$1.4 million in funding under a desalination and water purification research programme set up by the US Bureau of Reclamation.

Doosan picks up prize for zero liquid system

Doosan Hydro Technology was among the winners of the 2015 David W York Water Reuse Project of Year Award for its part in the city of Palm Coast's zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plant at Citation Boulevard, Florida.

MBR at heart of innovative wastewater reuse project

An innovative wastewater treatment/water reuse project was opened for the City of Clovis, California, USA, on 19 March 2010, featuring membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology, ultraviolet (UV) disinfection and a patented sludge-reduction system

AMTA/SEDA 2011 joint desalination conference set for Miami Beach

The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) will be holding its 2011 conference and exposition together with the Southeast Desalting Association in Miami Beach, Florida during 18-21 July 2011.

Miami-Dade's US$ 13 billion plans pull in punters for PPP

Miami-Dade County has become the most attractive public private partnership (PPP) opportunity in the US with players chasing US$ 13 billion in water and wastewater projects according to market analyst Bluefield Research.

Japan funds Cape Verde desalination scheme

Japan's International Cooperation Agency (JICA) is to provide US$ 150 million towards the funding of a US$ 200 million desalination plant for the Cape Verde republic off the coast of West Africa.

Offshore desalination prototype wins funding

Renewable sector engineering company 4NRg has won funding for its development of a prototype mechanical offshore desalination unit.

Dr Abdullah Al-Alshaikh, new IDA president

SWCC deputy governor elected as IDA president 2013-15

Dr Abdullah Al-Alshaikh, deputy governor for planning and development of Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) will become president of the International Desalination Association (IDA) on 24 October 2013 serving for the 2013‑15 term.

Oman trial plant eases water scarcity

Trial operation of a new desalination plant near the Oman capital, Muscat, is already alleviating water scarcity there according to the Oman's Public Authority for Electricity and Water.

South Australian town to get new desalination plant

South Australia's water minister, Ian Hunter, announced on 1 May 2013 that a brackish-water desalination plant to deliver improved water quality to the town of Hawker, in the Flinders Ranges 100km north of Port Augusta, had been approved for construction.

Pentair X-Flow wins UF order for Ghallilah desalination

Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes and skids are to be supplied to the 15 MIGD (68,000 m³/d) seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant at Ghallilah, Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates, by Pentair X-Flow.

Australia and NZ ferry RO units to Tuvalu

Australia and New Zealand are leading an urgent response to the drought currently afflicting the South Pacific islands of Tuvalu and Tokelau by transporting reverse-osmosis (RO) units to provide a water supply.

BEL hooks up with Strand for RO pressure-vessels in US

Desalination pressure-vessel manufacturer BEL Group Ltd, through BEL Composite America Inc, announced a strategic partnership on 30 July 2011 with Strand Composite Engineering & Construction LLC of Harrison, Arkansas, USA.

The solar panels at Beckton desalination plant, UK.

Solar panels commissioned at UK desalination plant

Thames Water in the UK at the end of July commissioned a 450 kW array of solar panels at its 150,000 m³/d Beckton brackish-water desalination plant as part of a bid to become Britain's biggest on-site solar power producer and industrial user.

Protesa wins two Cyprus desalination pipe contracts

Contracts for glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) pipes and fittings for two desalination plants in Cyprus were announced on 21 March 2011 by Spanish manufacturer Protesa.

Doosan Babcock wins maintenance and support deal at giant Taweelah plant

Energy engineering company, Doosan Babcock, has won a contract with Taweelah Asia Power Company (Tapco) to provide essential maintenance and technical support services for Tapco's desalination plant in Abu Dhabi.

New Mexico city seeking 4 MGD desalination plant

The city of Alamogordo, New Mexico, USA, is looking to use a 4 MGD (15,000 m³/d) desalination plant to provide a safe dependable supply from brackish water wells.

Construction starts on Durrat Al Bahrain desalination plant

Bahrain-based utility Energy Central Co (ECC)announced on 4 March 2009 that a groundbreaking ceremony has taken place at the Durrat Al Bahrain development, where the company is building a seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant with an ultimate capacity of 32,000 m³/d.

Aerial view of the Sydney construction site.

Sydney desalter construction reaches halfway point

Construction of Sydney's 250,000 m³/d Kurnell seawater desalination plant is just over 50% complete, D&WR has been told by Sydney Water. The intake and outlet tunnels were completed in December 2008.

Metito to supply RO plant for UAE oil base

Supply of a 2,700 m³/d reverse osmosis desalination plant and a 360 m³/d demineralization plant for an oil and gas installation on Das Island, UAE, has been awarded to UAE-based Metito by Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Company.

Innovative Flow Analysis Method for High Loading Rate DAF

Dissolved air flotation (DAF) is a well established method for removing suspended solids from wastewater that is gaining ground in the pretreatment of seawater for desalination. The authors describe a method for analyzing the flow of water in DAF to inform better design of DAF tanks. This article first appeared in the August 2014 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversation Corp has procured the desal units with a view to moving them around the country's coastline

SWCC procures three floating desalination units

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation has procured three desalination units to provide floating capacity of 150,000 m3/d of drinking water over 20 years.

X-raying goods vehicles at Kerem Shalom commercial crossing between Israel and Palestine

Gaza desalination plant delayed by goods blockade

Construction of a desalination plant in Gaza City, Palestine, has stalled after Israel halted the passage of goods into the State, reports Relief Web.

Tunisia has a programme of water projects designed to reduce reliance on groundwater sources

KfW finances Euro 82 million Tunisian desalination project

KfW Development Bank is to loan €82 million ($95 million) to Tunisia for a desalination plant in Zarat, Gabes Governorate, reports Tunis Afrique Presse.

Oceana is installing its own independent desalinated water supply to support its fish canning operations, in readiness for the day when Cape Town municipal supplies run dry

Western Cape food producer adopts desalination

Oceana, a canned fish producer based in Western Cape, South Africa, is installing two desalination plants in readiness for 'day zero,' in April 2018, when the region is expected to run out of water.

Agadir city, on Morocco's southern Atlantic coast, is well known for its tourism and golf courses

Abengoa's project in Agadir, Morocco, expands in size and scope

Abengoa is to expand capacity of a desalination plant project in development, and to construct additional capacity for irrigation purposes, in Agadir, Morocco.

New digital business practices will change desal and reuse project development and operations

The Long Read: How digital is transforming desal and reuse

The digital economy is transforming water utilities and industrial players, and bringing potentially profound changes for desalination and reuse specialists. The common thread is data.

One of the 10,000 m³ tanks under construction at Tordera.

Tordera SWRO storage tanks built within 16 weeks

The challenge of upgrading and nearly doubling the potable water storage capacity as part of an upgrade of the Tordera seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Blanes (Girona) near Barcelona, Spain, within a rigorous timeframe, was awarded to CST Vulcan, a division of CST Industries Inc. Using a specialised jacking system, allowing the tanks to be built from the ground up, construction was completed in August 2009, in less than 16 weeks total, allowing the overall project to continue on time and as planned.

Construction completed on Australia's largest recycled water project

Wastewater reuse is a hot topic in Australia, with the "toilet-to-tap" label being trotted out on many occasions. In the state of Queensland, it has a lot more relevance because, as well as a brand new desalination plant at Gold Coast, the state now has a giant new municipal water reuse scheme. This article discusses completion of the Western Corridor Recycled Water Project, the southern hemisphere's largest recycled water project, and provides a technical overview of the international award-winning Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant. Producing up to 232,000 m /d of water, the WCRWP is the largest in the southern hemisphere and the third largest in the world. It provides purified recycled water, a climate- and rainfall-resilient source of pure water, to three power stations located in South East Queensland. In the future, the project will supply water to industry and potentially agricultural users, and, should the region's drinking water supplies fall below 40%, the Wivenhoe Dam. The project includes a network of more than 200 km of large-diameter underground pipes, three advanced water treatment plants, nine storage tanks and 12 pumping stations. It also provides significant environmental benefits by removing up to 50% of nutrients that would previously have been released to waterways feeding environmentally sensitive Moreton Bay. This article appeared in the May/June issue of D&WR magazine.

Fort forges ahead with reuse project

The first water reuse project in Oklahoma state is reported to be making headway at the US army's post at Fort Sill.

New Zealand district to install Zeeweed MBR system

Rotorua District Council, New Zealand, is to install advanced bacteria-removing membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for the upgrade to its wastewater treatment plant using GE's Zeeweed 500d ultrafiltration technology.

Ovivo to supply largest US MBR to Canton, Ohio

The City of Canton, Ohio, is to use Ovivo membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology to upgrade its water reclamation facility from 39 MGD (147,600 m³/d) to 88 MGD (333,000 m³/d).

Mobile desalination units are replacing trucked-in water at the oil refinery

Bahrain oil refinery installs GE Water mobile technologies

Bahrain Petroleum Company has installed mobile technology from GE Water at Awali refinery to produce high-purity boiler feedwater.

H2O Innovation lands three water/wastewater contracts

H2O Innovation Inc announced on 14 January 2014 recent contracts totalling Can$ 6.5 million (UA$ 5.93 million) in Western Canada's energy sector.

Canada's largest MBR plant will have GE membranes

A 36,000 m³/d expanded membrane bioreactor will be at the heart of an upgraded wastewater treatment plant for the city of Brandon in Manitoba, Canada.

New Zealand city commissions MBR wastewater upgrade

The city of Rotorua on New Zealand's North Island has become the first city in the country to use a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for wastewater treatment on a major scale.

McLaughlin takes over at CST Industries

Liquid-storage tankmaker CST Industries of Lenexa, USA, has a new president and CEO following the departure of Brian Bauerbach, who is leaving the company to lead another venture.

Grundfos bags US$ 1.1 million grant for wastewater treatment research

Singapore has awarded pump and water technologies company, Grundfos, a S$1.4 million (US$ 1.1 million) grant to develop a wastewater filtration technology which the company says can "significantly reduce" capital investment and operational costs for wastewater treatment.

Energy Recovery bags US$ 1 mlllion US deal duo

Flow energy technology firm, Energy Recovery,  has won US$ 1 million in deals for desalination projects in California and Texas.

California Democrat bill rings cash for desalination

California Democrat senator, Dianne Feinstein, has introduced legislation to allocate investment to water desalination, recycling and additional storage totalling US$ 1.3 billion over ten years.

Judge rejects lawsuit against water authority over Carlsbad emissions

US water conservation group, San Diego Coastkeeper, this week failed in its bid to sue the San Diego County Water Authority for alleged environmental negligence in its water supply projects. Coastkeeper claimed the authority made inadequate provision for the environmental impact of its water supply schemes including the giant Carlsbad project currently nearing completion.

San Diego secures grant to up desalination capacity

San Diego Democrat Representative, Susan Davis, has announced a US$ 5.2 million federal grant to expand a desalination facility in a bid to secure water independence for the region.

California city ponders desalination revival

California's city of Morro Bay is poised to apply to the state Coastal Commission to operate continually its currently idle reverse osmosis desalination plant. The city let its operating permit expire in 2000, and the plant - built in 1992 - has not operated since then except for occasional emergency use.

Solar desalination plant to serve California's Central Valley

Solar desalinatetion specialist, HydroRevolution, is raising funding to construct a solar-powered multi-effect distillation desalination plant in the Panoche Water and Drainage District in the Central Valley.

California district probes impact of possible giant desalination plant

California's West Basin Municipal Water District board of directors has voted to begin an environmental impact report as part of its research towards the construction of a seawater desalination facility in the South Bay.

IDA World Congress in California

A pivotal event in the global desalination and water reuse sector will be held at the US industry's epicentre amid an historic drought when the 2015 IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse convenes in San Diego, California at the end of August 2015. The "location, theme and timing could not be more appropriate," said IDA secretary general, Patricia A Burke.

Carlsbad connects with San Diego network

Construction of a 15 km pipeline connecting California's near-complete giant Carlsbad desalination plant to the San Diego County Water Authority's distribution system is complete.

Avalon ponders second desalination plant to curb rationing

The city of Avalon on Catalina Island, California is considering a US$ 0.5 million contribution to a proposed second desalination unit in a bid to avoid further water rationing.

Consultant completes Carlsbad power supply support design

Engineering consultancy, NV5 Holdings, has completed the design and construction of support services for the power supply to the Poseidon desalination plant in Carlsbad, California.

Orange County officials nod towards Huntingdon deal

Orange County water officials have moved toward buying water from Posiedon's proposed giant desalination plant at Huntingdon Beach.

Santa Barbara ponders US$ 2 million subsurface intake test

Californian city, Santa Barbara, may put up to US$ 2 million into a study of a desalination facility seawater intake structure after environmental groups said the existing plant's open water intake pipe could be harmful to marine life.

California adopts new rules for checking desalination applications

California regulators have adopted the states' first rules for the permitting of seawater desalination projects.

California gives Monterey environmental thumbs up

The California Public Utilities Commission's recently published draft environmental impact report on the Monterey Peninsula Water Project and has rated the desalination project as the environmentally preferred of a number of options scrutinised as possible solutions to the region's drought problems.

Monterey slant test ousttrips expections

State utility, California American Water (CalAm) has reported that its test slant well for a proposed Monterey Peninsula desalination project is outstripping expected performance to a degree that suggests a smaller and cheaper production facility will be needed.

Containerized plant resolves district's drought difficulties

Membrane filtration company, H2O Innovation, has delivered a 3,200 m³/d containerized water treatment system to the Cambria Community Service District, California to "resolve promptly" the community's difficulties amid its tenth year of drought. The system treats a mix of brackish water, freshwater and secondary effluent to be injected into a groundwater basin.

Santa Barbara gets OK for desalination restart

A California state board has approved a permit to allow the city of Santa Barbara to restart its seawater desalination plant.

Californian water district backs talks over new desalination project

Orange County Water District in California, USA has voted to enter into formal negotiations with Poseidon Water to secure a proposed seawater desalination project in Huntington Beach, California.

California town uses fast-track laws to push through desalination plant

California coastal tourist town Cambria has used the state's fast-track approval scheme for measures to address its drought emergency to build a desalination plant scheduled to go on stream later this month after only six months in preparation.

Contractor strength drives investment grade rating for Carlsbad bonds

Credit rating agency, Fitch, has assigned an investment grade 'BBB-' rating to bonds issued for the under-construction Carlsbad desalination plant and associated networks in California.

Advisor ups Santa Barbara desalination restart cost by 25%

The city council of Santa Barbara in California may need to add to its planned water rates increase to cover the cost of a restart to the city's mothballed desalination plant according to acting water advisor, Josh Haggmark. He issued his warning after upping his US$ 32 million September estimate of the cost of re-booting the plant by about 25%.

Commission approves California American Water test slant well

The California Coastal Commission has approved the application by water utility, California American Water, (Cal Am) to construct a test slant well for its proposed 48 Ml/d seawater reverse osmosis desalination project.

Cal Am strikes deal on test well

Utility, California American Water (Cal Am), has struck a deal with cement maker, Cemex, to allow the water firm to drill slant test wells, and possibly production wells, on Cemex' north Marina sand mining plant site.

California district ups desalination and reuse incentive by 36%

Southern California's Metropolitan Water District has increased by 36% the financial incentive for water agencies to develop and produce recycled water, recovered groundwater, and desalinated seawater supplies.

California's West Basin water plans look to yes vote for bond

California's West Basin Municipal Water District plans to up its water recycling capacity and push ahead with desalination research with funds from a US$ 7.12 billion water bond which is subject to a state referendum next month.

Carlsbad could start earlier than scheduled

The US$1 billion Carlsbad seawater desalination plant under construction in California is 65% complete and could be in operation earlier than its planned 2016 start, according to its developer Poseidon Water.

New rules could rein in California coast desalination

Proposed new regulations in California could put a rein on planned desalination plants in the state including the giant, part completed, Carlsbad facility according to a water industry chief in the region.

A grand conference is AMTA/ AWWA's fourth

One thousand attendees turned up at Orlando, Florida for the fourth Membrane Technology Conference (MTC) hosted jointly by the American Water Works Association (AWWA) and American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) last week.

Combined cooling and desalination "limits environment impact"

Studies by a company proposing to construct a groundbreaking combination of desalination plant and data centre have shown the facility will cause only limited negative impact to the environment according to the researchers.

Research gives green light to proposed desalination plant

Studies by a company proposing to construct a "unique" combination of desalination plant and data centre have shown it will cause only limited negative impact to the environment according to the researchers.

Clear support for desalination in Soquel Water District

Seventy per cent of people in California's Soquel Creek District support desalination as an "excellent" or "good" option for addressing the water supply needs of the area, according to a survey carried out for the district.

Land-purchase brings Consolidated's Mexican SWRO nearer

The planned Rosarito seawater desalination project in Mexico close to the US border took a step nearer on 22 May 2014 when Consolidated Water Co Ltd announced that it had completed the land purchase for the project.

Reclamation grant for Sweetwater desalination expansion

The US Bureau of Reclamation is to provide the Sweetwater Authority in California with a US$ 1.5 million grant towards the expansion of the Richard A Reynolds desalination plant.

Monterey cost/benefit study to look at 'social ROI'

The Monterey Peninsula Water Management District (MPWMD) is soliciting statements of qualifications by 1 May 2014 from qualified organizations to perform triple bottom line cost-benefit analysis related to the proposed Pure Water Monterey Groundwater Replenishment (GWR) Project.

Carollo to evaluate restarting Santa Barbara desalination

The City of Santa Barbara, California, has selected Carollo Engineers to complete a three-phase evaluation for the reactivation of the city's Charles Meyer seawater desalination plant.

H2O Innovation updates Piedmont Pacific acquisition

Its recent acquisition of Piedmont Pacific means that Canada's H2O Innovation Inc is now supplying flexible pipe couplings to some of the largest desalination plants under construction in the world.

H2O Innovation wins Monterey SWRO subcontract

H2O Innovation Inc has been awarded the contract to design, supply and commission the seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination system for the Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project in California, USA.

Soquel Creek district to examine water-reuse options

Soquel Creek Water District in California, whose proposed desalination project with City of Santa Cruz was put on hold last year when Santa Cruz backed out, is re-evaluating water-reuse projects and their feasibility.

Cal Am applies for US$ 3 million desalination intake grant

California American Water (Cal Am) is seeking a US$ 1 million grant from the California Department of Water Resources to help fund the installation of a US$ 3 million slant test well, which is needed for its proposed Monterey desalination project.

California extends desalination funding deadline

The California Department of Water Resources has extended to 31 January 2014 its deadline for the receipt of applications for desalination grant funding.

Carlsbad SWRO first year milestones revealed

Following the early January celebration of the first year of construction of the Carlsbad seawater reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant in California, developer Poseidon Resources provided D&WR with a breakdown of the work so far.

Monterey boreholes reveal good slant-well conditions

California American Water (Cal Am) reported on 20 December 2013 that data from its ongoing investigation into subsurface slant well intakes for its proposed Monterey desalination plant were showing promising results.

CDM to build US$ 86 million Monterey desalination plant

California American Water (Cal Am) has selected CDM Constructors Inc to design and build the desalination facility proposed as part of its US$ 320 million Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project.

H2O Innovation to buy Piedmont Pacific

Canada's H2O Innovation Inc announced on 25 November 2013 the signing of an agreement to purchase all of the issued and outstanding common stock shares of Piedmont Pacific Corporation, the Oakland-based flexible pipe couplings manufacturer, for a total consideration of approximately Can$ 4.0 million (US$ 3.8 million).


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