Finance, Sewerage, Russia


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Russia sets up water treatment membrane development project

The Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies (Rusnano) is to finance a project for producing nanostructured membranes and separation modules for water treatment in various industries.

Russia looks to export nuclear power and desalination packages

Russia's nuclear power company, Rosatom, is aiming to sell integrated, large nuclear power and desalination plants overseas through its export arm Rosatom Overseas.

Russian nuclear giant musters experts to lead desalination drive

Russia's nuclear energy corporation, Rosatom, has formed a group of expert desalination advisors as part of its push to win customers for its thermal desalination technologies. The company is targeting world regions where clean water is scarce as a path to becoming "leaders in the global nuclear market," according to Rosatom.

Multi-technology GE upgrade for Russian refinery treatment

Membrane bioreactor (MBR), electrodialysis reversal (EDR) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology will all feature in a major upgrade for the wastewater treatment at one of Russia's biggest oil refineries.

Vapour compression desalination plants for Indian oilfield

Texas-based MECO, which supplies desalination equipment to the offshore, pharmaceutical and military sectors, announced in December 2011 that it would be designing and constructing two vapour compression (VC) desalination plants for an oilfield off the Indian coast.

Vladivostok SWRO project for Aqua-Chem

A custom-built 2.64 MGD (10,000 m³/d) seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant is being installed in eastern Russia, off the coast of Vladivostok, by Aqua-Chem Inc of the USA.

Norit X-Flow Aquaflex membranes

Giant Moscow UF plant gets Norit X-Flow membranes

One of the largest ultrafiltration (UF) plants in the world, the South-West Moscow drinking water plant in Russia, is currently being expanded to a total of 275,000 m³/d using Norit X-Flow membranes.

US$ 8 million contracts boost for H2O Innovation

Quebec-based H2O Innovation Inc announced new contracts for desalination and water treatment systems totaling Can$ 7.8 million (US$ 8 million) on 24 March 2011.

Nuclear energy to supply Jordan desalination plants

Four nuclear power plants in the southern region of Jordan will provide almost 750 MW of energy for desalination and water pumping, according to a report in the Jordan Times.

Russians to cooperate on Jordan desalination

Desalination plants were included in a nuclear cooperation agreement signed on 22 May 2009 by Russia and Jordan, which also included power stations, research facilities and personnel training centres to be built in Jordan.

Desalination plants part of Palestine agreement

Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu issued a statement on 4 February 2011 agreeing to improvements in water, sewerage and electricity in Palestinian areas, following a meeting with Tony Blair, representative of the "Quartet" (USA, the United Nations, Russia and the European Union).

Chris MacNee, chief executive of Hydrology, believes that Brazil offers opportunities for smaller operators

'Adjustable' desal plant in Brazil financed by project bond

UK water company Hydrology is to build and operate an "adjustable" desalination plant in Cubato in Sao Paulo state, Brazil, to supply industrial conglomerate Unigel.

Ex-USSR water minister promotes desalination for Crimea

Desalination of water from the Azov Sea could be one of the best sources for a water supply to Crimea, recently annexed by the Russian Federation, according to Polad Polad-zade, former USSR minister of water resources and deputy president of the Union of Watermen & Irrigators.

Bahamas desalination plant production to be expanded

Consolidated Water Co Ltd announced on 1 February 2011 that it has entered into a binding letter agreement with its customer, the Water & Sewerage Corporation (WSC), to increase the daily production capacity of its Blue Hill plant in Nassau, Bahamas, by approximately 67% to 12 million GPD (45,000 m³/d) compared with the plant's current capacity of 7.2 million GPD (27,000 m³/d).

The coastal region of Bushehr, in the Persian Gulf, is in the south west of Iran

Iran poised to finance nuclear plants with co-located desalination

Iran has begun constructing two nuclear power plants, to be co-located with desalination facilities of 200 million m3/d, reports Iranian government news agency, Islamic Republic News Agency.

Hyflux looking for Tuaspring desalination finance

Singapore desalination provider Hyflux Ltd announced on 11 January 2013 that it was starting financing discussions for the Sing$ 1.05 billion (US$ 855 million) Tuaspring Desalination Plant in Singapore.

Work on Carlsbad should start early in 2013

Work on the 189,000 m³/d Carlsbad seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant is expected to start early in 2013, following approval by the board of the San Diego County Water Authority (SDCWA) on 29 November 2012 of the water-purchase agreement between SDCWA and Poseidon Resources, developers of the desalination plant.

Almogordo mobile desalination project in train

A mobile desalination facility to treat 4,000 acre-ft per year (af/y) (4.9 million m³/y) near Almogordo, New Mexico, moved closer to realisation when the City Commission approved an approach for a US$ 2.7 million loan/grant from the New Mexico Finance Authority on 1 November 2012.

Loans for Texas town proposing direct potable reuse

The Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) on 20 September 2012 approved loans totalling US$ 12 million to the City of Brownwood from the Texas Water Development Fund to finance wastewater system improvements, including possible direct potable wastewater reuse (DPR).

Carlsbad desalination agreement to be published soon

A proposed purchase agreement for water from the Carlsbad Desalination Plant will be released to the public later in August, the San Diego County Water Authority (SDCWA) announced after a special meeting of the board on 9 August 2012.

Sydney Desalination Plant

Sydney desalination plant may not restart for 3 years

Sydney's 250,000 m³/d desalination plant is to be switched off on 1 July 2012 and may not be restarted for three years.

SDCWA considered Carlsbad desalination size reduction

Some of the thinking of the San Diego County Water Authority (SDCWA) about the ongoing negotiations over the purchase of water from the Carlsbad desalination plant were revealed at a special board of directors meeting on 14 June 2012.

Desalination / reuse part of large EIB loan to Spain

Desalination plants, water-reuse schemes and connections from them to water networks will be among schemes funded by a € 350 million loan from the European Investment Bank (EIB) to the Spanish government agency Acuamed.

Financial meetings held over Gaza desalination project

The Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) announced on 18 January 2012 that a delegation headed by deputy secretary general Rafiq Husseini visited Kuwait and Saudi Arabia during the previous week to present the Gaza water desalination project to financing institutions.

Ashdod desalination financing agreement signed

A financing agreement Tuesday to build and operate the Ashdod desalination plant in Israel for 25 years was signed on 13 December 2011 by a subsidiary of state-owned national water company Mekorot.

Djibouti 'planning desalination plant with EU aid'

The government of Djibouti in east Africa is planning to build a 45,000 m³/d desalination plant with European Union (EU) finance, according to a report in Gulf News on 4 December 2011.

Lessees sought for Sydney desalination plant

The government of the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW) has called for registrations of interest (ROIs) for the long-term lease of Sydney's three-year-old 250,000 m³/d desalination plant.

GES takes control of Palmachim desalination plant

Global Environmental Solutions Ltd (GES) will take control of Israel's Palmachim seawater desalination plant after its acquisition of the 28% stake in the plant's facility company, Via Maris, previously held by Tahal Group International BV.

Palmachim only Israeli desalination plant to agree extension

Only one of the three existing large desalination plants in Israel asked to submit proposals to the government for increasing their output has come up with an offer.

CalAm seeks resolution of Monterey desalination finances

California American Water (CAW) has invoked a disputes procedure in continuing wrangles with its partners in the proposed Monterey Regional Desalination Project.

Ashdod desalination agreement finally signed

The agreement was finally signed in Israel on 8 August 2011 to establish Israel's fifth large seawater desalination plant at Ashdod through Mekorot Development & Enterprise, a spinoff of the national water agency.

Ashdod desalination plant gets financial approval

Israel's Ministerial Tender Committee for Desalination, under the Finance Ministry, announced on 7 July 2011 that it had accepted the proposal from national water company Mekorot to build the seawater desalination plant in Ashdod.

Groundbreaking follows Singapore II desalination finance deal

A day after Hyflux Ltd announced that it had secured financing for the second Singapore seawater desalination plant, a groundbreaking ceremony took place on 5 July 2011 at the International Water Week linked by video to the site.

The Blue Hills SWRO plant

ERI pumps and ERDs selected for Bahamas desalination expansion

High-pressure pumps and energy-recovery technology are to be provided for the 18,500 m³/d expansion to the Blue Hills seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in the Bahamas by Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).

Agreement at last on Ashdod water price

Israel's national water company, Mekorot, is reported to have won its battle against the Ministry of Finance over the price of water from the upcoming Ashdod desalination plant.

RWL-led Mexico seawater desalination project starts construction

A consortium of RWL Water Group and Mexico's, Libra Ingenieros Civiles and RJ Ingenieria has begun construction of 22,000 m3/d reverse osmosis (RO) seawater desalination plant in Mexico's Baja California.

UNEP report informs financiers about power-water relationship

The opportunities available to financial institutions to encourage the adoption of best practices, which may include the introduction of eco-friendly technologies, such as membrane technology to recycle wastewater, are stressed in a report just published by the UN Environment Programme's Finance Initiative (ENEP FI).

IFC to support large Moroccan desalination project

The International Finance Corporation (IFC), part of the World Bank, signed an agreement on 4 May 2010 with the government of Morocco to support private investment in a new desalination and irrigation plant that will help improve the water supply to a vital agricultural region.

Netanyahu steps into Ashdod desalination argument

Prime minister Binyamin Netanyahu has ordered Israel's national water authority, Mekorot, the Finance Ministry and the Infrastructure Ministry to submit proposals for a cost-effective desalination plant in Ashdod within 30 days, according to Israel National News (Arutz Sheva).

Moody's rates water district high positive on back of Huntingdon proposal

Credit rating agency, Moody's Investors Service, has given a positive credit appraisal to the Orange County Water District's (OCDW's) approval of a non-binding arrangement to buy 70,000 Ml of water from Poseidon Water's proposed Huntington Beach desalination plant in California.

US Ex-Im Bank claims first ECA carbon policy

The US Export-Import Bank is claiming to be the first export credit agency (ECA) to adopt a comprehensive carbon policy after announcing on 3 November 2009 a new policy to guide its support of US exports in light of climate change concerns.

Poseidon disputes FWW Carlsbad finance figures

Poseidon Resources described as "erroneous information" figures in a press release issued on 30 October 2009 by consumer group Food & Water Watch (FWW) related to finance for the Carlsbad desalination project.

Bank Hapoalim heads Ashdod desalination financing

Bank Hapoalim is to head a syndicate that will provide NIS 1.5 billion (US$ 395 million) for the Ashdod desalination plant for Mekorot National Water Company subsidiary Mekorot Development and Initiations Ltd.

Finance secured for Palmachim desalination expansion

Financing for the expansion of Israel's Palmachim desalination plant from its current capacity of 30 million m³/year up to 45 million m³/y and ultimately even to 100 million m³/y was closed on 16 August 2009 by the Derech Yam Company.

US$ 2.9 billion Melbourne desalination contract goes to Degremont group

The Suez/Degremont-led consortium Aquasure has been awarded the contract to build the 150 million m³/year seawater desalination plant for Melbourne, Australia.

Al Dur desalination financing tied up

Gulf Investment Corporation (GIC) and GDF Suez announced on 26 July 2009 completion of the limited recourse financing of the US$ 2.1 billion Al-Dur Independent Water & Power Producer (IWPP) project , which includes a 218,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant as well as a 1,240 MW combined-cycle gas-turbine power plant.

Befesa closes Quindao desalination finance

Spanish contractor Befesa announced on 23 July 2009 that its subsidiary Befesa Water has closed financing for the design, construction and operation over 25 years of a 100,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant in Qingdao, China.

US export finance boost for water and energy projects

US exports for renewable-energy, water and nuclear-power projects approved after 1 July 2009 are eligible for a maximum repayment term of up to 18 years under export financing provided by the Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank).

The Hadera plant illustrated in front of its associated power station.

Hadera desalination extension finance fixed

Financing worth US$ 80 million has been agreed for the 74,000 m³/d expansion of the Hadera reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Israel, IDE Technologies announced on 3 July 2009.

Chennai desalination plant 'will finish in 2009'

The 100,000 m³/d Minjur desalination plant in Chennai, India, will be completed this year, the state government stated on 27 June 2009, despite a warning related to the implementing consortium from the Fitch financial ratings agency.

Barclays to assist with Carlsbad desalination financing

Poseidon Resources announced on 17 June 2009 that it has selected Barclays Capital as its financial advisor in connection with the financing of its 50 MGD (189,000 m³/d) reverse-osmosis seawater desalination plant in Carlsbad, California.

Hawkes Bay desalter on the move again

The Hawkes Bay desalination project in Pakistan took a step forward on 15 January 2009, when Sindh chief minister Syed Qaim Ali Shah presided over a meeting regarding the desalination plant for Karachi at the Chief Minister's House.

Funding go-ahead for Chennai desalter

A 100,000m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant was approved on 2 January 2009 for the Indian city of Chennai by the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs.

Befesa ties up Tenes project finance

Madrid-based contractor Befesa, through its subsidiary Befesa Agua, announced on 1 December 2008 closure of the US$ 185 million financing for the design, construction, funding and 25-year operation of the Tenes seawater desalination plant in Algeria.

Oman water-reuse contract awarded by Haya Water

Oman's Haya Water awarded a RO 26.7 million (US$ 69.6 million) contract on 21 May 2012 to Contractors Union Co to construct the second phase of a water-reuse project in Al Qurum and Madinat Al Ilam areas in Muscat Governorate.

Barclays backs US$ 43 million Biwater British Virgin Islands project

Barclays Corporate and Investment Banking has awarded a two-tranche, US$43 million finance facility to Biwater to fund the construction of a seawater desalination, water storage and wastewater plant on Tortola - the largest and most populated of the British Virgin Islands.

Suez supports a biological treatment system for water reuse at the Bashneft oil refinery, Russia

Suez and Rosneft to build on 'exploratory agreement'

Suez's new agreement with Russian oil and gas giant Rosneft, signed in May 2018, aims to support improved water treatment across the oil company's vast portfolio.

Population growth, drought, pollution, and high levels of leakage threaten water supply in the world's big cities

The world's top 11 most water-challenged cities

The BBC world news desk has compiled a list of the top 11 cities most likely to run out of water -- and they're not where you might think.

Grundfos headquarters in Bjerringbro, Denmark, is the base for a global pumps business

Grundfos gains outpace global pumps market

Pumps manufacturer Grundfos has reported organic sales growth of 0.5 per cent for 2016, helped by a strong second half.

IDE Technologies will supply RO technology to support industry on the Taman Peninsular, Russia

IDE Technologies sells RO system to Russia's Oteko

IDE Technologies is to provide a reverse osmosis desalination system to Russian oil transporter Oteko for a plant on the shores of the Black Sea.

Grenada government tries again with RO desalination

The report on the Grenada government's website on 21 May 2014 that it was building reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination plants on the islands of Carriacou and Petite Martinique might not be quite as good as it sounds.

Investment in US water utilities will shift from federal to other sources over the coming decade

Stage set for proliferation of private finance in US utilities

Capital expenditure by US water and wastewater utilities is expected to top $532 billion between 2016 and 2025, but the upturn is unlikely to be funded by federal budgets.

Aquarion sets up in Russia

Swizerland-based water systems company, Aquarion Group, has established a Russian operation, Aquarion Russia, to focus on providing water and wastewater treatment to industrial customers in Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States.

Russian heavy oil recovery enhanced by water reuse

OPERATED BY Russia's second largest oil producer, a heavy oil field in northwest Russia has been increasing the volume of crude processing with technology that supports enhanced recovery rates and reduced environmental impact. In 2008, they took the first steps to develop a less water-intensive way of processing produced water by conducting a feasibility study comparing different water reuse strategies. By replacing traditional treatment methods with thermal evaporator technology for produced water, this will be the first entity in Russia to use recycled water from enhanced oil recovery in the treatment of heavy oil produced water. This article first appeared in the issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

California board offers low-interest water‑reuse finance

California's Water Resources Control Board (WRCB) has approved new low-interest financing terms for water-recycling projects that can be completed within three years of governor Jerry Brown's drought declaration on 17 January 2014.

Chinese licensee joins Dow residential Filmtec program

Haier Group of China, a leading multinational home appliances and consumer electronics company, has become the latest official licensee to partner with Dow Water & Process Solutions in its newly launched Filmtec™ reverse osmosis (RO) ingredient branding program.

Sanjeev Sharma

Sharma leads IDE's marketing in Indian region

Sanjeev Sharma has been appointed head of marketing for desalination company IDE Technologies Ltd in the Indian region.

Aquatech wins ZLD job in Turkmenistan

Aquatech has been awarded a contract to design and supply a zero‑liquid discharge ZLD wastewater-reuse system in a gas‑field development project in Turkmenistan.

Biwater gets Barclays backing for Caribbean SWRO plant

A Caribbean water and wastewater project, including a 10,400 m³/d seawater desalination plant, has received financial backing worth US$ 43 million from Barclays, backed by a UK Export Finance Guarantee.

Lee Muller

Seven Seas hires ex-ContourGlobal VP as CFO

Florida-based Seven Seas Water Corporation announced on 17 December 2013 that Lee Muller has joined the company as senior vice president, chief financial officer (CFO) and a member of the executive committee.

Malakoff ties up Al Ghubrah desalination finance

Malakoff Corporation Berhad announced on 26 July 2013 that it had signed the financing agreements of the 42 MIGD (191,000 m³/d) Al Ghubrah independent desalination project in Oman.

Billiton clears finance for 216,000 m³/d Chile desalination

An investment of US$ 1,972 million was approved by mining giant BHP Billiton on 25 July 2013 for its 216,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant in Escondida, Chile.

Russians award Aqua-Chem SWRO contract

The Russian government has ordered the second phase of a 10,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis desalination system from Matrix, a division of Aqua-Chem Inc of Florida, USA.

Arizona RO plant opens solar-energy system

A 459 kW photovoltaic (PV) solar power system has been completed at the Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Facility for the Town of Gila Bend, Arizona, by Solon Corporation, the company announced on 13 February 2013.

Qingdao desalination plant starts commercial operation

Spanish company Abengoa has begun commercial operations at the 100,000 m³/d desalination plant in Qingdao in Shandong province, the second largest commercial port in northern China.

UF nuclear plant contract for inge in China

Germany's inge watertechnologies AG will equip the Hongyanhe nuclear power plant near Dalian in the east of China with its dizzer 5000plus ultrafiltration (UF) modules, each rated for an output of up to 5.0 m³/h each.

Miner ties up with Chinese steel firm in desalination deal

White Mountain Titanium Corporation has signed a non-binding memorandum of understanding (MOU) with China's state-controlled metallurgy and engineering firm, Sinosteel Equipment and Engineering, which includes a desalination project.

RWL consortium wins Baja California desalination deal

Mid market water treatment firm, RWL Water, in a consortium with Mexican partners, Libra Ingenieros and RJ Ingenieria, has won a contract to build a 22,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant in San Quintín, Baja California.

Egypt unveils three public/private desalination deals for 2016

Egypt has unveiled plans for at least three desalination public private partnerships in 2016 among a dozen infrastructure projects in various sectors.

Giant solar desalination project plans US$ 10 million public offering

Shares in what would be California's first commercial-scale solar desalination plant issued by WaterFX will this year form a US$ 10 million state-registered direct public offering (DPO) in the state.

Mining firm strikes funding deal for desalination plant at planned mine

Mining firm, White Mountain Titanium, has agreed a deal with US private equity company, Nexo Capital Partners, to fund, construct and manage a desalination plant to form part of White Mountain's planned Cerro Blanco mining project in Chile.

Texas county desalination scheme slated to supply industry

The Texas General Land Office has agreed a deal with desalination firm, Seven Seas Water, to develop a plan for building a seawater desalination plant in the San Patricio-Nueces county.

IDA World Congress in California

A pivotal event in the global desalination and water reuse sector will be held at the US industry's epicentre amid an historic drought when the 2015 IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse convenes in San Diego, California at the end of August 2015. The "location, theme and timing could not be more appropriate," said IDA secretary general, Patricia A Burke.

Grundfos reforms in bid to double Asia Pacific revenues

Danish pump manufacturer, Grundfos, has unveiled an organisational restructure in its Asia Pacific operations where it is looking to "double revenues over the next five years." The reshuffle will "improve customer service, enhance organisational efficiency, and drive the next phase of growth in the Asia Pacific."

Oman gives green light to five bids to tender for giant desalination duo

The Omani government has prequalified five utility-led consortiums for the next phase of a competitive tender for a license to build two major water desalination projects on Oman's Batinah coast.

The treatment plant at Tubli, Bahrain, will produce 230,000 m3/d of water for reuse

Bluewater Bio bags Bahraini upgrade project

Bluewater Bio of the UK has won a project to upgrade Tubli wastewater treatment plant in Bahrain that will more than double the plant's capacity for water reuse.

Energy Recovery hires senior management duo

Pressure energy technology firm Energy Recovery has appointed Chris M Gannon as chief financial officer and Eric O Siebert as vice president of corporate strategy. Both appointments are effective from 8 June 2015.

Veolia-led group refinances Oman project

Oman's Veolia-led Sharqiyah Desalination Company has refinanced its existing debt of US$ 120.8 million and raised new debt of US$ 42.7 million to fund its expansion of its reverse osmosis water desalination plant at Sur, in the sultanate.



Mott Macdonald to advise lender in Moroccan dealination project

Banque Marocaine du Commerce Extérieur has appointed consultant, Mott Macdonald, as technical advisor in support of the bank's role as financer for a MAD 937 million (US$ 94.6 million) desalination project in Morocco.

Papermaker ups water performance with Desalitech reverse osmosis

Arizona-based papermaker, Doubletree Paper Mills, said it has increased its purified water recovery by 20% at its Gila Bend plant since replacing its reverse osmosis water treatment system in 2014 with Desalitech's ReFlex RO system. The modification has also cut wastewater output by almost two thirds and lopped 25 % off energy consumption said Doubletree.

Abengoa wins contract for Morocco desalination plant

Morocco's National Power and Drinking Water Office (ONEE) has contracted Spanish desalination company, Abengoa, to construct a 100,000 m³/d plant, some 45 km from the city of Agadir.

ACWA Power Barka signs desalination plant expansion deal in Oman

Power and water developer, ACWA Power Barka, has signed a water purchase agreement with Oman Power and Water Procurement Company and other deals for its 56,825 m³/d, phase 2 expansion of its existing water desalination plant at Barka, 65km north of the Oman capital, Muscat.

Bank lends US$ 22 million to Korean firm to fund Mexican desalination project

The North American Development Bank has provided a U$ 22 million loan to South Korean company GS Inima Environment which is building a US$ 48 million, 28.5 Ml/d reverse osmosis desalination plant in Ensenada, Mexico.

Indian state chief minister pushes for third Chennai desalination plant

Chief minister of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, O Panneerselvam, has pushed the case for a third desalination plant for the city of Chennai.

Desalitech lands US$ 11 million in venture capital funding

US desalination firm Desalitech has landed US$ 11 million in venture capital from existing investor, Liberation Capital, along with AquAgro Fund. The money will help Desalitech expand sales of its water purification products, the company said.

Metito backs low-temperature distillation to challenge lead desalination technologies

Dubai-based water technology firm, Metito, is set to make a "significant investment" in clean-tech company Thermal Purification Technologies (TPTec), to develop TPTec's patented low-temperature distillation (LTD) technology. Metito claims LTD could displace existing membrane and thermal desalination technologies.

Tunisia poised to tender for Sfax desalination plant

Tunisia's national water company, Sonede, is poised to launch a tender for the construction of its 150,000 m³/day desalination plant at the coastal city, Sfax in May 2015.

Australian reuse project wins US$ 10 million grant

The council for the Light region of South Australia has won a A$ 10.7 million (US$ 10 million) federal grant to complete funding for a "foundation" programme, the Gawler Water Reuse Project.

US city seeks to buy itself out of 'albatross' desalination deal

The mayor of US city, Brockton in Massachusetts has proposed an US$ 88 million bid by the city to buy its near-unused Dighton desalination plant to free it from a 20-year contract with the plant owner.

Tunisia desalination project completes feasibility check

Tunisia's National Water Company has completed a feasibility study for a seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant to be located at Zaarat, in the south east of the country. The plant will be constructed in two 50,000 m³/d phases.


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