Finance, Reverse Osmosis, Water Quality


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Oxnard AWPF currently under construction

Finance agreed for Camarillo regional desalter studies

Two water districts and two - possibly three - cities in southern California have agree to finance studies for a regional brackish-water desalination plant to be located near Camarillo.

Spanish water investment to hit € 1.2 billion this year

Desalination and water reuse projects are likely to be among the new water infrastructure projects worth € 700 million due to be tendered by Spain's Ministry for Environment & Rural & Marine Affairs (MARM) in the second half of 2011.

Arizona RO plant opens solar-energy system

A 459 kW photovoltaic (PV) solar power system has been completed at the Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Facility for the Town of Gila Bend, Arizona, by Solon Corporation, the company announced on 13 February 2013.

Qingdao desalination plant starts commercial operation

Spanish company Abengoa has begun commercial operations at the 100,000 m³/d desalination plant in Qingdao in Shandong province, the second largest commercial port in northern China.

Hyflux looking for Tuaspring desalination finance

Singapore desalination provider Hyflux Ltd announced on 11 January 2013 that it was starting financing discussions for the Sing$ 1.05 billion (US$ 855 million) Tuaspring Desalination Plant in Singapore.

Work on Carlsbad should start early in 2013

Work on the 189,000 m³/d Carlsbad seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant is expected to start early in 2013, following approval by the board of the San Diego County Water Authority (SDCWA) on 29 November 2012 of the water-purchase agreement between SDCWA and Poseidon Resources, developers of the desalination plant.

Solar still v RO comparison for S Australia desalination

A full solar distillation plant was compared with reverse osmosis (RO) for a small groundwater desalination project in South Australia and RO was chosen as the preferred option.

SDCWA considered Carlsbad desalination size reduction

Some of the thinking of the San Diego County Water Authority (SDCWA) about the ongoing negotiations over the purchase of water from the Carlsbad desalination plant were revealed at a special board of directors meeting on 14 June 2012.

Groundbreaking follows Singapore II desalination finance deal

A day after Hyflux Ltd announced that it had secured financing for the second Singapore seawater desalination plant, a groundbreaking ceremony took place on 5 July 2011 at the International Water Week linked by video to the site.

RWL-led Mexico seawater desalination project starts construction

A consortium of RWL Water Group and Mexico's, Libra Ingenieros Civiles and RJ Ingenieria has begun construction of 22,000 m3/d reverse osmosis (RO) seawater desalination plant in Mexico's Baja California.

Biwater gets Barclays backing for Caribbean SWRO plant

A Caribbean water and wastewater project, including a 10,400 m³/d seawater desalination plant, has received financial backing worth US$ 43 million from Barclays, backed by a UK Export Finance Guarantee.

Russia sets up water treatment membrane development project

The Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies (Rusnano) is to finance a project for producing nanostructured membranes and separation modules for water treatment in various industries.

Al Dur desalination financing tied up

Gulf Investment Corporation (GIC) and GDF Suez announced on 26 July 2009 completion of the limited recourse financing of the US$ 2.1 billion Al-Dur Independent Water & Power Producer (IWPP) project , which includes a 218,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant as well as a 1,240 MW combined-cycle gas-turbine power plant.

Befesa closes Quindao desalination finance

Spanish contractor Befesa announced on 23 July 2009 that its subsidiary Befesa Water has closed financing for the design, construction and operation over 25 years of a 100,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant in Qingdao, China.

The Hadera plant illustrated in front of its associated power station.

Hadera desalination extension finance fixed

Financing worth US$ 80 million has been agreed for the 74,000 m³/d expansion of the Hadera reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Israel, IDE Technologies announced on 3 July 2009.

Barclays to assist with Carlsbad desalination financing

Poseidon Resources announced on 17 June 2009 that it has selected Barclays Capital as its financial advisor in connection with the financing of its 50 MGD (189,000 m³/d) reverse-osmosis seawater desalination plant in Carlsbad, California.

Befesa ties up Tenes project finance

Madrid-based contractor Befesa, through its subsidiary Befesa Agua, announced on 1 December 2008 closure of the US$ 185 million financing for the design, construction, funding and 25-year operation of the Tenes seawater desalination plant in Algeria.

MF/RO plant may be Santa Clarita salt solution

A microfiltration/reverse-osmosis (MF/RO) advanced wastewater treatment plant is one of several options being considered by the Santa Clarita Valley Sanitation District (SCVSD) in California, USA, to deal with excessive chloride levels in the wastewater it discharges to the Santa Clara River from its two treatment plants.

GE expands HERO licensing agreement

GE Power & Water announced on 1 February 2011 that it has completed a new expanded licensing agreement to allow it to continue offering High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HERO™) systems to help more of its industrial customers increase their water usage efficiency and reuse capacity.

Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant, Queensland, Australia

Bundamba wastewater reuse plant passes second quality test

The second Water Quality Report for the Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant in Queensland, Australia, has confirmed the excellent quality of the purified water it produces and proved that the water is safe to add to the drinking supply, says government agency WaterSecure

The Sidem distillers were delivered in two major shipments direct to the project site, each one weighing 2,600 tonnes. Six of the distillers were shipped from UAE, and the other four came from China

How we delivered Az Zour North phase one

"With hindsight we were very lucky to get everything through on time and that our construction partner Hyundai Heavy Industries was on time. Fortunately we escaped a lot of those little wrinkles that need sorting out during construction, and can drag on and on, and so we kept to time," says Andy Biffen, chief executive of project delivery vehicle Az Zour Shamal.

Carlsbad desalination agreement to be published soon

A proposed purchase agreement for water from the Carlsbad Desalination Plant will be released to the public later in August, the San Diego County Water Authority (SDCWA) announced after a special meeting of the board on 9 August 2012.

Sydney Desalination Plant

Sydney desalination plant may not restart for 3 years

Sydney's 250,000 m³/d desalination plant is to be switched off on 1 July 2012 and may not be restarted for three years.

Three desalination workshops follow IDA World Congress

Three different aspects of desalination will be covered in workshops announced on 10 September 2009 by the International Desalination Association (IDA), which will follow its upcoming World Congress in Dubai.

The new desalination plant at Playas de Rosarito will be on the coast adjacent to the existing power station

Consolidated Water lines up Mexican mega-project

The Playas de Rosarito seawater RO desalination mega-plant project has been six years in the making. It began as a twinkle in Consolidated Water's eye even before Mexico had introduced its new public-private partnerships law, but the act's introduction in 2012 gave the project a clear structure for moving ahead.

The Victorian Desalination Plant is located at the southerly most tip of Australia on the Bass Coast

AquaSure's Victorian Desalination Plant secures its first water order

The Victorian Desalination Project (VDP) is a mega-size seawater RO facility, able to produce up to 150 billion litres of water a year when running at full capacity. Located at the southerly most tip of Australia on the Bass Coast, it was procured by the Victorian State government from AquaSure, a joint venture of Degrémont (now Suez), Macquarie Capital, and Thiess (now Ventia), in 2009, for a capital cost of $3.5 billion.

Financial meetings held over Gaza desalination project

The Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) announced on 18 January 2012 that a delegation headed by deputy secretary general Rafiq Husseini visited Kuwait and Saudi Arabia during the previous week to present the Gaza water desalination project to financing institutions.

Ashdod desalination financing agreement signed

A financing agreement Tuesday to build and operate the Ashdod desalination plant in Israel for 25 years was signed on 13 December 2011 by a subsidiary of state-owned national water company Mekorot.

Djibouti 'planning desalination plant with EU aid'

The government of Djibouti in east Africa is planning to build a 45,000 m³/d desalination plant with European Union (EU) finance, according to a report in Gulf News on 4 December 2011.

Lessees sought for Sydney desalination plant

The government of the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW) has called for registrations of interest (ROIs) for the long-term lease of Sydney's three-year-old 250,000 m³/d desalination plant.

GES takes control of Palmachim desalination plant

Global Environmental Solutions Ltd (GES) will take control of Israel's Palmachim seawater desalination plant after its acquisition of the 28% stake in the plant's facility company, Via Maris, previously held by Tahal Group International BV.

Palmachim only Israeli desalination plant to agree extension

Only one of the three existing large desalination plants in Israel asked to submit proposals to the government for increasing their output has come up with an offer.

CalAm seeks resolution of Monterey desalination finances

California American Water (CAW) has invoked a disputes procedure in continuing wrangles with its partners in the proposed Monterey Regional Desalination Project.

Ashdod desalination agreement finally signed

The agreement was finally signed in Israel on 8 August 2011 to establish Israel's fifth large seawater desalination plant at Ashdod through Mekorot Development & Enterprise, a spinoff of the national water agency.

Ashdod desalination plant gets financial approval

Israel's Ministerial Tender Committee for Desalination, under the Finance Ministry, announced on 7 July 2011 that it had accepted the proposal from national water company Mekorot to build the seawater desalination plant in Ashdod.

Interview: Kati Bell, Stantec global reuse leader

Canadian engineering giant Stantec acquired water business MWH Global for $795 million, back in 2016. Now that the dust has settled on the deal, how well is the integration of the two organisations proceeding, and as the global water reuse practice hits its stride, how could its work help to shape the water markets of the future?

Moody's rates water district high positive on back of Huntingdon proposal

Credit rating agency, Moody's Investors Service, has given a positive credit appraisal to the Orange County Water District's (OCDW's) approval of a non-binding arrangement to buy 70,000 Ml of water from Poseidon Water's proposed Huntington Beach desalination plant in California.

Barclays backs US$ 43 million Biwater British Virgin Islands project

Barclays Corporate and Investment Banking has awarded a two-tranche, US$43 million finance facility to Biwater to fund the construction of a seawater desalination, water storage and wastewater plant on Tortola - the largest and most populated of the British Virgin Islands.

Spatz joins board of Voltea Inc

The former chairman and CEO of Osmonics Inc, Dean Spatz, has joined the board of Voltea, the UK developer of capacitive deionization (CapDI) desalination.

Agreement at last on Ashdod water price

Israel's national water company, Mekorot, is reported to have won its battle against the Ministry of Finance over the price of water from the upcoming Ashdod desalination plant.

Bahamas desalination plant production to be expanded

Consolidated Water Co Ltd announced on 1 February 2011 that it has entered into a binding letter agreement with its customer, the Water & Sewerage Corporation (WSC), to increase the daily production capacity of its Blue Hill plant in Nassau, Bahamas, by approximately 67% to 12 million GPD (45,000 m³/d) compared with the plant's current capacity of 7.2 million GPD (27,000 m³/d).

November deadline for Singapore papers

Papers have been invited for the Water Convention held as part of the Singapore International Water Week, 4-8 July 2011.

UNEP report informs financiers about power-water relationship

The opportunities available to financial institutions to encourage the adoption of best practices, which may include the introduction of eco-friendly technologies, such as membrane technology to recycle wastewater, are stressed in a report just published by the UN Environment Programme's Finance Initiative (ENEP FI).

IFC to support large Moroccan desalination project

The International Finance Corporation (IFC), part of the World Bank, signed an agreement on 4 May 2010 with the government of Morocco to support private investment in a new desalination and irrigation plant that will help improve the water supply to a vital agricultural region.

Netanyahu steps into Ashdod desalination argument

Prime minister Binyamin Netanyahu has ordered Israel's national water authority, Mekorot, the Finance Ministry and the Infrastructure Ministry to submit proposals for a cost-effective desalination plant in Ashdod within 30 days, according to Israel National News (Arutz Sheva).

California board offers low-interest water‑reuse finance

California's Water Resources Control Board (WRCB) has approved new low-interest financing terms for water-recycling projects that can be completed within three years of governor Jerry Brown's drought declaration on 17 January 2014.

US Ex-Im Bank claims first ECA carbon policy

The US Export-Import Bank is claiming to be the first export credit agency (ECA) to adopt a comprehensive carbon policy after announcing on 3 November 2009 a new policy to guide its support of US exports in light of climate change concerns.

Poseidon disputes FWW Carlsbad finance figures

Poseidon Resources described as "erroneous information" figures in a press release issued on 30 October 2009 by consumer group Food & Water Watch (FWW) related to finance for the Carlsbad desalination project.

Papers invited for Singapore Water Week

Papers have been invited by 15 November 2009 for the 3-day conference during 29 June - 1 July 2010 that is one of the flagship events for the Singapore International Water Week.

Almogordo mobile desalination project in train

A mobile desalination facility to treat 4,000 acre-ft per year (af/y) (4.9 million m³/y) near Almogordo, New Mexico, moved closer to realisation when the City Commission approved an approach for a US$ 2.7 million loan/grant from the New Mexico Finance Authority on 1 November 2012.

Bank Hapoalim heads Ashdod desalination financing

Bank Hapoalim is to head a syndicate that will provide NIS 1.5 billion (US$ 395 million) for the Ashdod desalination plant for Mekorot National Water Company subsidiary Mekorot Development and Initiations Ltd.

Finance secured for Palmachim desalination expansion

Financing for the expansion of Israel's Palmachim desalination plant from its current capacity of 30 million m³/year up to 45 million m³/y and ultimately even to 100 million m³/y was closed on 16 August 2009 by the Derech Yam Company.

US$ 2.9 billion Melbourne desalination contract goes to Degremont group

The Suez/Degremont-led consortium Aquasure has been awarded the contract to build the 150 million m³/year seawater desalination plant for Melbourne, Australia.

Loans for Texas town proposing direct potable reuse

The Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) on 20 September 2012 approved loans totalling US$ 12 million to the City of Brownwood from the Texas Water Development Fund to finance wastewater system improvements, including possible direct potable wastewater reuse (DPR).

The IDA International Conference on Water Reuse and Recycling 2018 will feature two days of plenary, panel and technical sessions

IDA unveils lineup of speakers for water reuse conference

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has secured a stellar lineup of keynote speakers for its International Conference on Water Reuse and Recycling 2018, led by Spain's secretary of state for the environment, Maria Garcia Rodriguez.

US export finance boost for water and energy projects

US exports for renewable-energy, water and nuclear-power projects approved after 1 July 2009 are eligible for a maximum repayment term of up to 18 years under export financing provided by the Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank).

Lee Muller

Seven Seas hires ex-ContourGlobal VP as CFO

Florida-based Seven Seas Water Corporation announced on 17 December 2013 that Lee Muller has joined the company as senior vice president, chief financial officer (CFO) and a member of the executive committee.

Massive health grant aids Chino desalters expansion

California's Western Municipal Water District announced on 28 June 2012 that it had received a "monumental" US$ 51 million grant from the state's Department of Health towards the US$ 130 million expansion of the Chino desalination plants.

Carlsbad desalination plant set to start construction soon

The Carlsbad desalination plant jumped two of its final hurdles towards starting construction this week when it was backed by the courts and the local water quality board (WQB).

Malakoff ties up Al Ghubrah desalination finance

Malakoff Corporation Berhad announced on 26 July 2013 that it had signed the financing agreements of the 42 MIGD (191,000 m³/d) Al Ghubrah independent desalination project in Oman.

Billiton clears finance for 216,000 m³/d Chile desalination

An investment of US$ 1,972 million was approved by mining giant BHP Billiton on 25 July 2013 for its 216,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant in Escondida, Chile.

Desalination / reuse part of large EIB loan to Spain

Desalination plants, water-reuse schemes and connections from them to water networks will be among schemes funded by a € 350 million loan from the European Investment Bank (EIB) to the Spanish government agency Acuamed.

Investment and credit success for NanoH2O

Innovative membrane-maker NanoH2O Inc announced on 30 April 2012 that it has closed a US$ 40 million equity round and US$ 20.5 million in credit facilities.

Contamination security white papers released in USA

New security technologies for detecting and monitoring water supplies could be developed as a result of a contamination warning system (CWS) demonstration pilot project in the USA undertaken by CH2M Hill and the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD).

ASTM to develop standard for fracking water quality

The US standards body ASTM International is to develop standards to be used by contract laboratories, water utilities and other requiring or developing methods for hydraulic fracturing in the oil & gas industry.

Desalination help published with WHO drinking water standards

The World Health Organization launched the 4th edition of its Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (ISBN: 978 92 4 154815 1) at the Singapore Water Week on 4 July 2011 - and also launched a separate guide for desalination.

Visalia wastewater upgrade will be largest MBR in California

The City of Visalia, USA, is upgrading its wastewater treatment plant with membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology and will be the largest MBR plant in California when it enters service in 2013.

MemPulse MBR equipment with air scouring technology significantly reduces energy consumption.

Modesto water quality project gets Siemens MBR equipment

Equipment for a 12.6 MGD (47,700 m³/d) membrane bioreactor (MBR) system is to be supplied to City of Modesto, California, USA, by Siemens Water Technologies for the Jennings Road Water Quality Control Facility.

Stockholm water week seeks abstracts and seminars

Abstracts and seminar proposals have been invited for the 2010 World Water Week in Stockholm, Sweden, during 5-11 September 2010.

National Water Co 'to take over 15 Saudi cities by 2014'

The Saudi Arabian company set up to take over privatised water services, including desalination, will have 15 cities on its books by 2014, a senior official told media at the Wastewater Treatment and Reuse 2009 conference organised by MEED.

USEPA to enforce Clean Water Act better

US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administrator Lisa P. Jackson announced on 15 October 2009 at a House of Representatives Transportation & Infrastructure Committee hearing that the agency is stepping up its efforts on Clean Water Act enforcement.

Another TWDB loan for SAWS desalination project

The Texas Water Development Board has given a US$ 50 million loan to the San Antonio Water System (SAWS) towards its first-ever groundwater desalination plant in southern Bexar County.

District backs out of California's GRIP water-reuse project

One of the three main partners in a US$ 210 million indirect potable water-reuse scheme in California's San Gabriel Valley has walked away from the project.

South African RO plant begins production

The 15,000 m³/d reverse-osmosis desalination plant for Mossel Bay, South Africa, should go into full production this week, after three weeks of commissioning.

Carlsbad desalination water price will be US$ 1.65‑1.86/m³

The Water Purchase Agreement for the proposed Carlsbad seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in California was released on 27 September 2012 by the San Diego County Water Authority (SDCWA).

Abu Dhabi signing for Al Zawra desalination plant

A 30 MIGD (136,400 m³/d) seawater desalination plant is to be built in Ajman, UAE, following the signing of a memorandum of understanding on 4 February 2014 between Abu Dhabi National Energy Company PJSC (TAQA) and the Federal Electricity & Water Authority (FEWA).

Tunisia desalination project completes feasibility check

Tunisia's National Water Company has completed a feasibility study for a seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant to be located at Zaarat, in the south east of the country. The plant will be constructed in two 50,000 m³/d phases.

SAWS brackish desalination test plant.

Further funding for San Antonio BWRO desalination project

Initial project construction for the brackish groundwater desalination program planned by San Antonio Water System (SAWS) in the USA will now be possible following a US$ 24.6 million loan from the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB).

Federal funds for Melbourne reuse project

Federal government funding totaling Aus$ 11.4 million (US$ 11.2 million) will enable City West Water in Melbourne, Australia, to roll out an aquifer and storage recovery scheme as part of its West Werribee Dual Supply project.

Osmoflo to provide desalination for Australian steelmaker

Australian steel producer OneSteel has contracted Osmoflo to finance, design, build and operate for 10 years a 4,000 m³/d desalination facility at its Whyalla plant on the river Murray in South Australia.

Mott Macdonald to advise lender in Moroccan dealination project

Banque Marocaine du Commerce Extérieur has appointed consultant, Mott Macdonald, as technical advisor in support of the bank's role as financer for a MAD 937 million (US$ 94.6 million) desalination project in Morocco.

Sembcorp announces successful IPO for Salalah IWPP

Singapore's Sembcorp Industries announced on 26 September 2013 the successful close of its intial public offering (IPO) for part of its joint venture in Oman, Sembcorp Salalah Power & Water Co.

Carlsbad water-purchase deal near to conclusion

The water-purchase contract between San Diego County Water Authority and Poseidon Resources Inc relating to the Carlsbad desalination plant in southern California could be tied up by the end of July.

Aerial view of the Hadera desalination plant.

Israel's giant Hadera desalination plant inaugurated

Israel's president, Shimon Peres, inaugurated the 275,000 m³/d Hadera desalination plant, the largest reverse-osmosis plant in the world at present, on 16 May 2010.

November ballot for Santa Cruz desalination

Barely two weeks after the City of Santa Cruz in California had accepted the preliminary design report by CDM Smith for its proposed 2.5 MGD (9,500 m³/d) seawater desalination plant, the city clerk's office confirmed on 3 July 2012 that proponents of a charter amendment for a vote on the desalination project had collected enough signatures to place it on the November 2012 ballot.

CaribDA calls for 2014 conference papers

The Caribbean Desalination Association (CaribDA) has issued a call for papers for its Biennial Conference & Exposition in June 2014.

Saudis launch national solar desalination initiative

The King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology announced on 24 January 2010 the launch of the National Initiative for Solar Water Desalination (NISWD) under the patronage of the King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud.

Land-purchase brings Consolidated's Mexican SWRO nearer

The planned Rosarito seawater desalination project in Mexico close to the US border took a step nearer on 22 May 2014 when Consolidated Water Co Ltd announced that it had completed the land purchase for the project.

Funding for Melbourne desalination tied up, says report

Despite previous pessimistic media speculation, it appears that the consortium building the Melbourne desalination plant have been offered more funding than they actually need for the project, avoiding the need for any public money.

Grenada government tries again with RO desalination

The report on the Grenada government's website on 21 May 2014 that it was building reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination plants on the islands of Carriacou and Petite Martinique might not be quite as good as it sounds.

Hyflux given loan for membranes and high‑pressure pumps

Singapore's Hyflux Ltd announced on 14 June 2012 that its wholly-owned subsidiary, Hydrochem (S) Pte Ltd, has agreed a US$ 14.4 million loan with the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) for the purchase of key components for the Tuaspring Desalination Plant in Singapore.

Texas state funding wind-powered desalination pilots

The Texas Department of Rural Affairs (TDRA) is offering US$ 1.5 million to smaller local governments in the US state for brackish-water desalination demonstration projects using wind energy. Deadline for applications for the 2010 Desalination Fund is 29 January 2010.

US$ 6.25 million equity investment for Desalitech

Reverse-osmosis (RO) innovator Desalitech Inc has secured an equity investment of U$$ 6.25 million led by Liberation Capital LLC, which will be used for business expansion and working capital.

Sydney Desalination Plant leased for US$ 2.3 billion

The New South Wales state government in Australia accepted on 10 May 2012 a binding offer for refinancing the Sydney Desalination Plant (SDP) from a consortium of Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan (OTPP) and Hastings Funds Management.

Desalitech secures another US$ 5 million funding

Desalitech, provider of Closed Circuit Desalination (CCD™) reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination technology, announced on 11 June 2013 that it secured an additional US$ 5 million equity funding from Liberation Capital and its institutional investors.

Dubai cooling company deploys 3,000 m³/d RO plant

Emirates Central Cooling Corporation (Empower) in Dubai announced on 17 April 2012 that it was deploying reverse-osmosis technology in its plant at the Dubai International Finance Centre (DIFC) to produce an average of 3,000 m³/d of polished water.

Zero purchase for Melbourne desalination water next year

The government of the Australian state of Victoria has placed its first order for water from the Melbourne desalination plant at Wonthaggi - for zero cubic metres for the next financial year.

Melbourne desalination problems cost Suez € 237 million

Cyclones and labour problems in 2011 at the Melbourne desalination plant in Victoria, Australia, cost the Suez Environnement group a total of € 237 million, group CEO Jean-Louis Chaussade said when the group's figures for the year were announced on 8 February 2012.

Alamagordo completes first stage of RO project

The City of Alamagordo in New Mexico, USA, announced on 26 March 2013 that it had completed Phase 1 of its Westside Infrastructure Improvements Project, which will eventually include a 6 MGD (22,700 m³/d) desalination plant.

Gulf red-tide early-warning system funding 'soon'

A new early-warning system in the Gulf for harmful algal blooms (HABs), also known as red tides, using satellite imagery, remote sensing, and modeling could be one result of a conference on HABs held on 16‑17 April 2014 by the Middle East Desalination Research Center (MEDRC).


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