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West Basin demonstrating desalination intake and outfall technologies

One of the first seawater desalination demonstration facilities to employ ocean-protection technology at the source of intake and discharge has begun construction in Southern California, USA.

The Orange County Groundwater Replacement System

Go-ahead for 113,500 m³/d Orange County GWRS expansion

Orange County's world-renowned membrane-based Groundwater Replenishment System (GWRS) in California is to be expanded by another 30 MGD (113,500 m³/d) following approval by the board of the Orange County Water District (OCWD) on 30 March 2011.

ACWA Emirates' membrane bio-reactor plant at Shaybah Oilfield, Saudi Arabia, recycles water for use at the site's residential complex

ACWA Emirates delivers MBR reuse plant for Saudi Aramco

ACWA Emirates has completed a water reuse plant at Shaybah Oilfield, Saudi Arabia, for crude and natural gas exporter Saudi Aramco.

Parkson breaks new ground with Saudi MBR plant

A 2,000 m³/d wastewater-reuse plant based on membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has just been commissioned in Rabigh, Saudi Arabia, by Florida-based Parkson.

The facility site at SEA Lab

West Basin district dedicates desalination demo facility

California's West Basin Municipal Water District is nearing completion of its new desalination demonstration facility, following formal dedication of the plant on 12 November 2010.

The schedule of tenders on Tuas Nexus was unveiled at Singapore International Water Week 2018 at Marina Bay Sands, Singapore

Singapore to tender S$5 billion of water and waste works

Singapore's PUB and National Environment Agency (NEA) are to tender more than S$5 billion ($3.7 billion) of works covering civil, mechanical and electrical engineering for Tuas Nexus, an integrated wastewater and waste treatment facility.

The project site is U-shaped, and is surrounded by lots filled by industrial operators and their associated infrastructure

Jebel Ali project is a new direction for DEWA and Besix

The $237 million contract awarded by Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) for a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant represents a big step for the client, and for Besix Concessions & Assets, which won the work in partnership with Acciona Agua.

Commission vote halts Huntington Beach application

Poseidon Water withdrew its application for a coastal development permit (CDP) for its proposed Huntington Beach seawater desalination plant after the California Coastal Commission voted on 13 November 2013 to postpone a vote on the application.

Agbar subsidiary submits EIS for Chile desalination plant

An environmental impact study (EIS) has been submitted for the construction of a 1,000 L/s (86,400 ³/d) seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in the coastal town of Chañaral, near the city of Caldera in Chile's Region III.

Santa Cruz desalination EIR comment deadline in July

The draft environmental impact report (EIR) for the 2.5 MGD (9,500 m³/d) seawater desalination plant for the greater Santa Cruz area in California, USA, which was released on 13 May 2013, will be available for public comment until 15 July 2013.

EDS calls for 2014 Cyprus conference papers

The European Desalination Society has issued a call for papers and opened exhibition booking for its conference on Desalination for the Environment, Clean Water & Energy to be held in Limassol, Cyprus, on 11-15 May 2014.

IDA publishes Academy programme for March 2013

Full details of the courses to be presented in the next session of the International Desalination Association (IDA) Academy in March 2013 have been published on the IDA website.

EDS lists desalination courses for 2013

The European Desalination Society (EDS) has released a complete list of its courses for 2013. EDS has been giving training certificates since 2003 to over 400 participants from all over the world.

IWA schedules nanotechnology symposium for China

The International Water Association is to hold a regional symposium on Nanotechnology And Water Treatment in China in 2013.

NRDC report urges control and reuse of fracking wastewater

The US Environmental Protection Agency and individual states should ban or more strictly regulate the discharge of shale gas wastewater (SGW) from hydraulic fracturing (fracking) to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs). They should also update pollution control standards for centralised waste treatment facilities (CWTs) that accept SGW.

EIB assists Gaza desalination progress

The desalination project for Gaza backed by the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) took a small step forward at a meeting in Barcelona on 4 May 2012.

Groups appeal Huntington Beach desalination permit

Four environmental groups in California have appealed a decision by the Santa Ana Regional Water Quality Control Board (WQCB) to grant a permit for the proposed Huntington Beach desalination plant proposed by Poseidon Resources.

IDE to hold workshop at key UNEP meeting in Kenya

Leading desalination company IDE Technologies will be presenting its Progreen™ reverse-osmosis desalination technology at the 12th Special Session of the Governing Council/Global Ministerial Environment Forum (GC/GMEF) of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in Kenya on 20-22 February 2012.

Agency approves W Australian desalination plant

Western Australia's Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on 13 February 2012 announced conditional approval for Grange Resources Ltd's proposal to construct and operate the Cape Riche Desalination Plant.

Olympic Dam desalination plan approved with conditions

BHP Billiton's proposed 200,000-280,000 m³/d desalination plant in southern Australia's Upper Spencer Gulf will be covered by the 100-plus conditions imposed by national and state government approval of the Olympic Dam uranium mining project announced on 10 October 2011.

New EIA submitted for Antofagasta desalination plant

A revised environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been submitted by Aguas de Antofagasta for the 86,000 m³/d desalination plant for Antofagasta in Chile's Region II, according to Business News America on 21 September 2011.

Ministry reported to have rejected Chile desalination EIS

The Ministerio del Medio Ambiente (Environment Ministry) in Chile has apparently rejected the environmental impact study (EIS) produced by Suez subsidiary Agbar Chile for an 86,000 m³/d desalination plant in Northern Region III.

IDA issues Gulf environmental Blue Paper

Better availability and sharing of environmental data between the Gulf states is among the recommendations contained in a "Blue Paper" released on 18 July 2011 by the International Desalination Association (IDA).

Chilean mine SWRO gets environmental approval

An environmental impact study (EIS) for a 26,000 m³/d desalination plant for a mining operation in northern Chile is reported to have been approved by the regional office of the Ministerio del Medio Ambiente (environment ministry).

Leading desalters to address AWA university meeting

In conjunction with the University of Adelaide, the Australian Water Association is presenting two lectures at the university in the evening of 27 July 2011 from leading desalination figures on Desalination: Future Directions for Australia's World Class Facilities.

Olympic Dam supplementary EIS satisfies opposition leader

South Australia's opposition leader, Isobel Redmond, was quoted on 20 June 2011 in the Australian media as being "satisfied" that the Olympic Dam desalination plant will not cause any damage to the local environment, including the area's giant cuttlefish population.

USEPA chief briefs Senate on dangerous contaminants

Perchlorate, chromium-6 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water were all discussed by the US Environmental Protection Agency's administrator, Lisa P Jackson, in testimony before the Senate Committee on Environment & Public Works on 2 February 2011.

California district probes impact of possible giant desalination plant

California's West Basin Municipal Water District board of directors has voted to begin an environmental impact report as part of its research towards the construction of a seawater desalination facility in the South Bay.

Scientists to probe outlet brine risks to sealife

Scientists have been commissioned to investigate whether brine waste from two proposed 150 Ml/d seawater reverse osmosis desalination plants could damage or alter the marine environment along the KwaZulu-Natal coastline in South Africa.

Pilot desalination plant to start up soon on Hudson river

United Water is finalizing construction of a pilot desalination plant at Haverstraw on the Hudson river in New York state. If constructed, the full size reverse-osmosis plant would be 7.5 MGD (28,300 m³/d).

IDA publishes program for Gulf desalination and environment seminar

The International Desalination Association has published details of program sessions and topics for its seminar on Desalination and the Gulf: The Relationship between the Environment and Meeting the Region's Water Needs, which will take place in Bahrain on 6-7 December 2010.

IDA announces nine new Gulf task force members

The importance now being accorded to the environment by the desalination industry was emphasized on 22 April 2010 when the International Desalination Association (IDA) announced the addition of nine distinguished scientists to its Gulf regional task force and an environmental symposium in Bahrain in December 2010.

Desalination health and environment book to be published in June

A book on the health and environmental impacts of desalination is to be published by CRC Press in collaboration with the World Health Organization on 25 June 2010.

Gulf should look to solar to power desalination expert says

The Abu Dhabi Environment Agency has called on Arab Gulf states to shift their focus to solar and other renewable energy when considering power for desalination.

Papers called for WateReuse Symposium

Abstracts have been invited for the 25th Annual WateReuse Symposium to be held on 12-15 September 2010.

IDA to form Gulf desalination environmental task force

The International Desalination Association (IDA) plans to form a task force to explore the environmental effects of desalination on the Arabian Gulf and recommend strategies to mitigate potential impacts.

S Australia government questions Billiton desalination EIS

Desalination discharge led the list of concerns raised by the South Australia government in its submission on 24 April 2009 to BHP Billiton's environmental impact statement (EIS) related to its proposed expansion of its Olympic Dam mining operations.

BHP Billiton asked to rethink desalination plant site

The Parliament of South Australia's Environment, Resources & Development Committee has recommended mining company BHP Billiton reconsider its proposed site for a 250,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant at Port Bonython in the upper Spencer Gulf.

Second Perth desalination plant gets government approval

The Australian government has given conditional approval to the Southern Seawater Desalination Project at Binningup, Western Australia, but has imposed "strict" conditions to minimise impacts on nationally threatened and migratory species.

The Perth desalination plant

Perth desalination plant's impact "still uncertain"

The West Australia government's Environmental Protection Authority has concluded that the significance of impacts to the marine environment from the discharge of brine by the Perth Metropolitan Desalination Plant is still uncertain and that the marine environment of Cockburn Sound continues to be under stress.

Olympic Dam desalination threatens cuttlefish, say researchers

Brine discharge from the proposed Olympic Dam seawater desalination plant in South Australia poses a potential threat to the unique spawning aggregation of the giant Australian cuttlefish, in the upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia, according to two researchers.

IDA president calls for environmental consideration

The historical symbiotic relationship between money, water and environment is now out of balance, the president of the International Desalination Association (IDA) told a conference in Zurich on 27 April 2009.

Environment approval for W. Australia desalination project

Western Australia's water minister, Dr Graham Jacobs, said on 22 April 2009 that he was confident that conditions under which the Water Corporation had been given state government environmental approval to build and operate the Southern Seawater Desalination Project will ensure the plant will meet all environmental objectives.

Nanoparticles for water and desalination - how safe are they?

The potential dangers from the use of engineered nanoparticles, such as nanotubes, metal oxides or nanodots, some of which form the basis of new solutions for desalination and water treatment, are outlined in a new European Union publication.

US powerplant environment ruling could affect desalination

In a ruling that could effect desalination plants in the USA, the US Supreme Court on 1 April 2009 overruled an appeals court decision and permitted the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to use cost/benefit criteria to determine the technology for powerplant water-cooling structures.

Australian govt conditionally approves Melbourne desalination plant

The seawater desalination plant which will supply up to 150 million m³/year of drinking water for Melbourne was given conditional approval by Australia's environment minister Peter Garrett on 20 March 2009.

Final go-ahead for Adelaide desalination plant

Adelaide's 150,000 m³/d desalination plant was given the final go-ahead on 26 February 2009 by the South Australia state government.

Carlsbad seawater desalination project

State budget cuts delay Carlsbad desalination approval

Cuts to the California state budget prevented officials of the San Diego County Regional Water Quality Control Board preparing recommendations regarding the proposed Carlsbad desalination plant for the board to vote on at a meeting on 11 February 2009.

Environment review released for West Australia's 2nd desalination plant

Western Australia's Water Corporation released an environmental review of its proposed Southern Seawater Desalination Plant at Binningup on 3 February 2009 following approval by the Department of Environment, Water, Heritage & the Arts.

Minister agrees Melbourne inquiry recommendations

The Aus$ 3.1 billion (US$2.2 billion) seawater desalination plant for Melbourne, Australia, passed a significant hurdle on 9 January 2009 when Victoria state's planning minister, Justin Madden, accepted all but one of the 42 recommendations of an independent inquiry into the project.

Dublin desalination is one option of ten

Dublin City Council invited views on 21 November 2008 on 10 options for augmenting existing water sources for the Dublin region, including desalination of water from the Irish Sea.

UN gives EIA guidance for desalination

In September 2008, the United Nations Environment Programme released a new guidance document entitled Desalination - Resource and Guidance Manual for Environmental Impact Assessments.

Research gives green light to proposed desalination plant

Studies by a company proposing to construct a "unique" combination of desalination plant and data centre have shown it will cause only limited negative impact to the environment according to the researchers.

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversation Corp has procured the desal units with a view to moving them around the country's coastline

SWCC procures three floating desalination units

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation has procured three desalination units to provide floating capacity of 150,000 m3/d of drinking water over 20 years.

Tunisia has a programme of water projects designed to reduce reliance on groundwater sources

KfW finances Euro 82 million Tunisian desalination project

KfW Development Bank is to loan €82 million ($95 million) to Tunisia for a desalination plant in Zarat, Gabes Governorate, reports Tunis Afrique Presse.

Oceana is installing its own independent desalinated water supply to support its fish canning operations, in readiness for the day when Cape Town municipal supplies run dry

Western Cape food producer adopts desalination

Oceana, a canned fish producer based in Western Cape, South Africa, is installing two desalination plants in readiness for 'day zero,' in April 2018, when the region is expected to run out of water.

Mobile desalination units are replacing trucked-in water at the oil refinery

Bahrain oil refinery installs GE Water mobile technologies

Bahrain Petroleum Company has installed mobile technology from GE Water at Awali refinery to produce high-purity boiler feedwater.

Agadir city, on Morocco's southern Atlantic coast, is well known for its tourism and golf courses

Abengoa's project in Agadir, Morocco, expands in size and scope

Abengoa is to expand capacity of a desalination plant project in development, and to construct additional capacity for irrigation purposes, in Agadir, Morocco.

New digital business practices will change desal and reuse project development and operations

The Long Read: How digital is transforming desal and reuse

The digital economy is transforming water utilities and industrial players, and bringing potentially profound changes for desalination and reuse specialists. The common thread is data.

Doosan Babcock wins maintenance and support deal at giant Taweelah plant

Energy engineering company, Doosan Babcock, has won a contract with Taweelah Asia Power Company (Tapco) to provide essential maintenance and technical support services for Tapco's desalination plant in Abu Dhabi.

Fort forges ahead with reuse project

The first water reuse project in Oklahoma state is reported to be making headway at the US army's post at Fort Sill.

STW finishes brine concentrator project at Horizon, Texas

Water management firm, STW Resources, has completed a US$ 2.2 million contract for the design, engineering and construction of a reverse osmosis (RO) concentrator for the Texas city, Horizon.

Oman trial plant eases water scarcity

Trial operation of a new desalination plant near the Oman capital, Muscat, is already alleviating water scarcity there according to the Oman's Public Authority for Electricity and Water.

Mitsubishi unit bags sludge system order

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Mechatronics Systems (MHI-MS), has picked up an order for wastewater treatment facilities using its two-phase, activated sludge system, for installation at sister company Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation's Yokkaichi Plant in Mie prefecture.

Japan funds Cape Verde desalination scheme

Japan's International Cooperation Agency (JICA) is to provide US$ 150 million towards the funding of a US$ 200 million desalination plant for the Cape Verde republic off the coast of West Africa.

Offshore desalination prototype wins funding

Renewable sector engineering company 4NRg has won funding for its development of a prototype mechanical offshore desalination unit.

Innovative Flow Analysis Method for High Loading Rate DAF

Dissolved air flotation (DAF) is a well established method for removing suspended solids from wastewater that is gaining ground in the pretreatment of seawater for desalination. The authors describe a method for analyzing the flow of water in DAF to inform better design of DAF tanks. This article first appeared in the August 2014 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

H2O Innovation lands three water/wastewater contracts

H2O Innovation Inc announced on 14 January 2014 recent contracts totalling Can$ 6.5 million (UA$ 5.93 million) in Western Canada's energy sector.

Dr Abdullah Al-Alshaikh, new IDA president

SWCC deputy governor elected as IDA president 2013-15

Dr Abdullah Al-Alshaikh, deputy governor for planning and development of Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) will become president of the International Desalination Association (IDA) on 24 October 2013 serving for the 2013‑15 term.

Ovivo to supply largest US MBR to Canton, Ohio

The City of Canton, Ohio, is to use Ovivo membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology to upgrade its water reclamation facility from 39 MGD (147,600 m³/d) to 88 MGD (333,000 m³/d).

Multi-technology GE upgrade for Russian refinery treatment

Membrane bioreactor (MBR), electrodialysis reversal (EDR) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology will all feature in a major upgrade for the wastewater treatment at one of Russia's biggest oil refineries.

June start for Clearwater RO plant in Florida

Construction is due to start in June 2013 on the second reverse-osmosis water treatment plant for City of Clearwater, Florida, following a groundbreaking ceremony on 6 May 2013.

South Australian town to get new desalination plant

South Australia's water minister, Ian Hunter, announced on 1 May 2013 that a brackish-water desalination plant to deliver improved water quality to the town of Hawker, in the Flinders Ranges 100km north of Port Augusta, had been approved for construction.

New Zealand city commissions MBR wastewater upgrade

The city of Rotorua on New Zealand's North Island has become the first city in the country to use a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for wastewater treatment on a major scale.

Pentair X-Flow wins UF order for Ghallilah desalination

Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes and skids are to be supplied to the 15 MIGD (68,000 m³/d) seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant at Ghallilah, Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates, by Pentair X-Flow.

Australia and NZ ferry RO units to Tuvalu

Australia and New Zealand are leading an urgent response to the drought currently afflicting the South Pacific islands of Tuvalu and Tokelau by transporting reverse-osmosis (RO) units to provide a water supply.

BEL hooks up with Strand for RO pressure-vessels in US

Desalination pressure-vessel manufacturer BEL Group Ltd, through BEL Composite America Inc, announced a strategic partnership on 30 July 2011 with Strand Composite Engineering & Construction LLC of Harrison, Arkansas, USA.

The solar panels at Beckton desalination plant, UK.

Solar panels commissioned at UK desalination plant

Thames Water in the UK at the end of July commissioned a 450 kW array of solar panels at its 150,000 m³/d Beckton brackish-water desalination plant as part of a bid to become Britain's biggest on-site solar power producer and industrial user.

Canada's largest MBR plant will have GE membranes

A 36,000 m³/d expanded membrane bioreactor will be at the heart of an upgraded wastewater treatment plant for the city of Brandon in Manitoba, Canada.

X-raying goods vehicles at Kerem Shalom commercial crossing between Israel and Palestine

Gaza desalination plant delayed by goods blockade

Construction of a desalination plant in Gaza City, Palestine, has stalled after Israel halted the passage of goods into the State, reports Relief Web.

Protesa wins two Cyprus desalination pipe contracts

Contracts for glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) pipes and fittings for two desalination plants in Cyprus were announced on 21 March 2011 by Spanish manufacturer Protesa.

McLaughlin takes over at CST Industries

Liquid-storage tankmaker CST Industries of Lenexa, USA, has a new president and CEO following the departure of Brian Bauerbach, who is leaving the company to lead another venture.

ABS turbocompressors selected for Jurong MBR plant

Aeration for the membrane bioreactor (MBR) and the biological treatment tanks at Jurong Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore's largest MBR plant, is to be provided by ABS Turbocompressors HST.

New Zealand district to install Zeeweed MBR system

Rotorua District Council, New Zealand, is to install advanced bacteria-removing membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for the upgrade to its wastewater treatment plant using GE's Zeeweed 500d ultrafiltration technology.

San Francisco's Golden Gate Park

San Francisco plans wastewater reuse plant in city park

San Francisco's Public Utilities (SFPUC) unveiled plans on 7 September 2010 for its proposed Westside Recycled Water Project, part of its Water System Improvement Program.

New Mexico city seeking 4 MGD desalination plant

The city of Alamogordo, New Mexico, USA, is looking to use a 4 MGD (15,000 m³/d) desalination plant to provide a safe dependable supply from brackish water wells.

MemPulse MBR equipment with air scouring technology significantly reduces energy consumption.

Modesto water quality project gets Siemens MBR equipment

Equipment for a 12.6 MGD (47,700 m³/d) membrane bioreactor (MBR) system is to be supplied to City of Modesto, California, USA, by Siemens Water Technologies for the Jennings Road Water Quality Control Facility.

Arlington Desalter

Desalination plant's nitrate removal has hidden benefits

A water district in California has found a novel way to remove multiple contaminants from groundwater currently feeding a desalination plant without creating waste that requires costly treatment and disposal.

Construction starts on Durrat Al Bahrain desalination plant

Bahrain-based utility Energy Central Co (ECC)announced on 4 March 2009 that a groundbreaking ceremony has taken place at the Durrat Al Bahrain development, where the company is building a seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant with an ultimate capacity of 32,000 m³/d.

Aerial view of the Sydney construction site.

Sydney desalter construction reaches halfway point

Construction of Sydney's 250,000 m³/d Kurnell seawater desalination plant is just over 50% complete, D&WR has been told by Sydney Water. The intake and outlet tunnels were completed in December 2008.

Metito to supply RO plant for UAE oil base

Supply of a 2,700 m³/d reverse osmosis desalination plant and a 360 m³/d demineralization plant for an oil and gas installation on Das Island, UAE, has been awarded to UAE-based Metito by Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Company.

One of the 10,000 m³ tanks under construction at Tordera.

Tordera SWRO storage tanks built within 16 weeks

The challenge of upgrading and nearly doubling the potable water storage capacity as part of an upgrade of the Tordera seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Blanes (Girona) near Barcelona, Spain, within a rigorous timeframe, was awarded to CST Vulcan, a division of CST Industries Inc. Using a specialised jacking system, allowing the tanks to be built from the ground up, construction was completed in August 2009, in less than 16 weeks total, allowing the overall project to continue on time and as planned.

Construction completed on Australia's largest recycled water project

Wastewater reuse is a hot topic in Australia, with the "toilet-to-tap" label being trotted out on many occasions. In the state of Queensland, it has a lot more relevance because, as well as a brand new desalination plant at Gold Coast, the state now has a giant new municipal water reuse scheme. This article discusses completion of the Western Corridor Recycled Water Project, the southern hemisphere's largest recycled water project, and provides a technical overview of the international award-winning Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant. Producing up to 232,000 m /d of water, the WCRWP is the largest in the southern hemisphere and the third largest in the world. It provides purified recycled water, a climate- and rainfall-resilient source of pure water, to three power stations located in South East Queensland. In the future, the project will supply water to industry and potentially agricultural users, and, should the region's drinking water supplies fall below 40%, the Wivenhoe Dam. The project includes a network of more than 200 km of large-diameter underground pipes, three advanced water treatment plants, nine storage tanks and 12 pumping stations. It also provides significant environmental benefits by removing up to 50% of nutrients that would previously have been released to waterways feeding environmentally sensitive Moreton Bay. This article appeared in the May/June issue of D&WR magazine.

Veolia venture finishes Spain's Campo Dalias desalination

A joint venture led by Veolia Water Technologies' Spanish operation has completed the 97.2 Ml/d Campo Dalías reverse osmosis desalination plant in the south of Spain.

Dry Australian state mulls starting up desalination plant

A A$ 4 billion (US$ 2.93 billion) desalination plant in Australia's Victoria state could make its debut as parts of the state are suffering their driest period on record.

IDA 2015 World Congress draws 1,700 delegates

More than 1,700 delegates from 63 countries attended the International Desalination Association's (IDA's) 2015 World Congress held in San Diego recently according to the association's key metrics published this week. Awards for papers and presentations topped US$ 30,000.

Home desalination market to top US$ 24 billion by 2020

The market for domestic countertop water treatment devices and other point-of-use treatment systems is estimated to reach US$ 24.5 billion by 2020. And the compound annual growth rate for the market is forecast at 9.86%, from 2015 to 2020 according to a report by market analyst, MarketsandMarkets.

Singapore to build fourth desalination plant

Singapore's national water agency, PUB, has tendered for the provision of consultancy services for a desalination plant in Marina East - the country's fourth.


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