Environment, Carbon Footprint, Environment, Gulf, Gulf, Chemicals, Germany, Bahrain, Tanks
IDA issues Gulf environmental Blue Paper
Better availability and sharing of environmental data between the Gulf states is among the recommendations contained in a "Blue Paper" released on 18 July 2011 by the International Desalination Association (IDA).
IDA announces nine new Gulf task force members
The importance now being accorded to the environment by the desalination industry was emphasized on 22 April 2010 when the International Desalination Association (IDA) announced the addition of nine distinguished scientists to its Gulf regional task force and an environmental symposium in Bahrain in December 2010.
IDA to form Gulf desalination environmental task force
The International Desalination Association (IDA) plans to form a task force to explore the environmental effects of desalination on the Arabian Gulf and recommend strategies to mitigate potential impacts.
Gulf should look to solar to power desalination expert says
The Abu Dhabi Environment Agency has called on Arab Gulf states to shift their focus to solar and other renewable energy when considering power for desalination.
Experts urge Gulf investment in desalination energy efficiency
Two prominent water experts have urged Gulf Cooperation Council utility providers and businesses to invest in energy efficient desalination to reduce the technology's carbon footprint and high power costs.
Minister launches IDA environmental symposium in Bahrain
The desalination industry must better understand its role in changes currently occurring in the Arabian Gulf, Bahrain's minister of electricity and water affairs, Eng Fahmi bin Ali Al Jowder, told an environmental symposium in Manama on 6 December 2010 organised by the International Desalination Association.
IDA publishes program for Gulf desalination and environment seminar
The International Desalination Association has published details of program sessions and topics for its seminar on Desalination and the Gulf: The Relationship between the Environment and Meeting the Region's Water Needs, which will take place in Bahrain on 6-7 December 2010.
Olympic Dam desalination threatens cuttlefish, say researchers
Brine discharge from the proposed Olympic Dam seawater desalination plant in South Australia poses a potential threat to the unique spawning aggregation of the giant Australian cuttlefish, in the upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia, according to two researchers.
Bahrain MoU signed for wind-powered desalination technology
Wind-powered desalination technology is to be promoted in Bahrain under a memorandum of understanding (MoU) signed on 31 January 2011 between Jade Consultancy of Bahrain and Synlift Systems GmbH of Germany.
UF/RO desalination pilot project for Dow/SWCC
The Dow Chemical Company and the Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) of Saudi Arabia announced on 17 September 2012 a commercial agreement for research collaboration in desalination technologies.
Gulf red-tide early-warning system funding 'soon'
A new early-warning system in the Gulf for harmful algal blooms (HABs), also known as red tides, using satellite imagery, remote sensing, and modeling could be one result of a conference on HABs held on 16‑17 April 2014 by the Middle East Desalination Research Center (MEDRC).
S Australia government questions Billiton desalination EIS
Desalination discharge led the list of concerns raised by the South Australia government in its submission on 24 April 2009 to BHP Billiton's environmental impact statement (EIS) related to its proposed expansion of its Olympic Dam mining operations.
Olympic Dam supplementary EIS satisfies opposition leader
South Australia's opposition leader, Isobel Redmond, was quoted on 20 June 2011 in the Australian media as being "satisfied" that the Olympic Dam desalination plant will not cause any damage to the local environment, including the area's giant cuttlefish population.
BHP Billiton asked to rethink desalination plant site
The Parliament of South Australia's Environment, Resources & Development Committee has recommended mining company BHP Billiton reconsider its proposed site for a 250,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant at Port Bonython in the upper Spencer Gulf.
Olympic Dam desalination plan approved with conditions
BHP Billiton's proposed 200,000-280,000 m³/d desalination plant in southern Australia's Upper Spencer Gulf will be covered by the 100-plus conditions imposed by national and state government approval of the Olympic Dam uranium mining project announced on 10 October 2011.
Final go-ahead for Adelaide desalination plant
Adelaide's 150,000 m³/d desalination plant was given the final go-ahead on 26 February 2009 by the South Australia state government.
IDA announces four new desalination events
The International Desalination Association (IDA) announced four new events on 22 February 2010, including its next World Congress in Perth, Australia, which will be held during 4-9 September 2011.
Jebel Ali project is a new direction for DEWA and Besix
The $237 million contract awarded by Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) for a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant represents a big step for the client, and for Besix Concessions & Assets, which won the work in partnership with Acciona Agua.
Gulf nations poised for 40% boost to desalination output by 2020
The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region is poised to up its seawater desalination capacity by nearly 40% by 2020 to meet the growing demand for drinking water, according to a recent report.
Wastewater drive to boost membrane use in GCC region says analyst
Government identification of wastewater treatment in the municipal sector as a priority area in water production will be a key revenue generation source for membrane elements in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries according to market analyst Frost & Sullivan. And the demand for water in the region was set to double within twenty years the analyst forecast.
Portofino location for next IDA Academy session
The next session of the IDA Desalination Academy will be held in Santa Margherita, close to the resort of Portofino, Italy from 30 March to 2 April 2014.
Xylem provides DAF pretreatment for Fujairah 1
Xylem Inc has won a contract to provide a dissolved air flotation (DAF) pretreatment system for the Fujairah 1 Independent Water & Power Plant (IWPP) in the UAE to help ensure an uninterrupted potable water supply from the desalination plant to Abu Dhabi emirate and the east coast.
Black & Veatch creates Gulf states regional manager
Mazen A Alami has been appointed Black & Veatch's regional manager in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states.
FEDCO wins Ras Az Zawr energy-recovery contract
The energy-recovery device (ERD) contract for the reverse-osmosis (RO) section of the giant Ras Az Zawr (Ras Azzour) desalination project in Saudi Arabia has been awarded to Fluid Equipment Development Co (FEDCO).
IDA releases more Congress details
More details have been released about the program for the 2009 World Congress of the International Desalination Association (IDA), which will take place during 7-12 November 2009 in Dubai.
West Basin demonstrating desalination intake and outfall technologies
One of the first seawater desalination demonstration facilities to employ ocean-protection technology at the source of intake and discharge has begun construction in Southern California, USA.
Masdar desal pilot: the results so far
Masdar Clean Energy set a target for its pilot projects of one cubic metre of water for every 3.6 kilowatt hours of energy used. This is a particularly challenging target in the Persian Gulf, where salinity is very high, the water temperature is high, it's very shallow, and there's high organic matter.
Jordan's first SWRO opens for business
The opening of the first seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant in Jordan marks a jumping off point for the country from which it can continue to develop a desalination programme, including the much-anticipated Red Sea-Dead Sea project.
Qatari research aims to
The Qatar Electricity and Water Company (QEWC) and Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI) have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to develop two pilot projects that could 'radically reduce the cost and energy use' of desalination.
Toray wins Gulf quartet
Toray Industries Inc announced in September that its reverse-osmosis (RO) membrane business had won orders from four seawater desalination plants with a total capacity of 332,000 m³/d in the Gulf.
Kuwait launches its largest desalination management project
Kuwait University's faculty of engineering has launched the Gulf state's largest ever water desalination and management project.
Sanz and Awerbuch to lead IDA WEX sessions
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has released details of the two desalination sessions it is organizing as a Support Partner for WEX Global - the Water and Energy Exchange in Madrid.
2014 Oman conference to look at HABs and desalination
An international conference on Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) & Desalination is to be held in Muscat, Oman, in April 2014.
RFP to follow UAE renewable-energy desalination launch
A pilot program to test and develop advanced energy-efficient seawater desalination technologies that could be powered by renewable energy sources was launched on 17 January 2013 by Masdar, the UAE renewable energy company.
Major water-sector contractor formed in Dubai
The Leighton Group, which has been involved in the construction of three of Australia's large seawater desalination plants, has brought two group companies together in Dubai, UAE, to create a strong water and environment contracting company.
GDF Suez kicks off giant Mirfa desalination project
Paris-based GDF Suez has begun work on the desalination component of its Mirfa gas-fired power and water project, the French firm said.
Germany's Lahmeyer acquires GKW Consult
Two long-standing German consulting engineering firms have been combined, hard on the heels of the Dutch DHV-Haskoning merger.
Spain's Inexa to build Arab shipyard desalination plant
Bahrain's Arab Shipbuilding and Repair Yard company (Asry) has awarded a US$ 8.6 million contract to Gulf Marketing House for the completion and upgrading of a reverse osmosis seawater desalination plant at Asry's yard in the Bahrain capital, Manama. Under the build-operate-transfer deal Spanish engineering firm, Inexa, will construct the plant.
memsys and Horizon combine to reduce ZLD costs
A pilot trial is due to start in May 2014 of a method to reduce the costs of zero liquid discharge (ZLD) technology at a coal to chemical (CTX) project in northern China.
Al Dur desalination financing tied up
Gulf Investment Corporation (GIC) and GDF Suez announced on 26 July 2009 completion of the limited recourse financing of the US$ 2.1 billion Al-Dur Independent Water & Power Producer (IWPP) project , which includes a 218,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant as well as a 1,240 MW combined-cycle gas-turbine power plant.
Chile project envisions multiple mining clients for solar-powered SWRO
Energias y Aguas del Pacifico (ENAPAC), a proposed solar-powered seawater desalination plant and water transport project aims to support expansion of mining operations in Chile's Atacama region.
EPA issues second list of endocrine disruptors
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published on 17 November 2010 a second list of chemicals for which it intends to issue test orders under the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP).
USEPA chief briefs Senate on dangerous contaminants
Perchlorate, chromium-6 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water were all discussed by the US Environmental Protection Agency's administrator, Lisa P Jackson, in testimony before the Senate Committee on Environment & Public Works on 2 February 2011.
IDE to hold workshop at key UNEP meeting in Kenya
Leading desalination company IDE Technologies will be presenting its Progreen reverse-osmosis desalination technology at the 12th Special Session of the Governing Council/Global Ministerial Environment Forum (GC/GMEF) of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in Kenya on 20-22 February 2012.
WEF seeking new executive director
The Water Environment Federation (WEF®) in the USA is seeking a new executive director. The announcement was made by recruitment consultants Korn/Ferry on 5 August 2010.
NRDC report urges control and reuse of fracking wastewater
The US Environmental Protection Agency and individual states should ban or more strictly regulate the discharge of shale gas wastewater (SGW) from hydraulic fracturing (fracking) to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs). They should also update pollution control standards for centralised waste treatment facilities (CWTs) that accept SGW.
Desalination health and environment book to be published in June
A book on the health and environmental impacts of desalination is to be published by CRC Press in collaboration with the World Health Organization on 25 June 2010.
EIB assists Gaza desalination progress
The desalination project for Gaza backed by the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) took a small step forward at a meeting in Barcelona on 4 May 2012.
Groups appeal Huntington Beach desalination permit
Four environmental groups in California have appealed a decision by the Santa Ana Regional Water Quality Control Board (WQCB) to grant a permit for the proposed Huntington Beach desalination plant proposed by Poseidon Resources.
Papers called for WateReuse Symposium
Abstracts have been invited for the 25th Annual WateReuse Symposium to be held on 12-15 September 2010.
Scientists to probe outlet brine risks to sealife
Scientists have been commissioned to investigate whether brine waste from two proposed 150 Ml/d seawater reverse osmosis desalination plants could damage or alter the marine environment along the KwaZulu-Natal coastline in South Africa.
Agbar subsidiary submits EIS for Chile desalination plant
An environmental impact study (EIS) has been submitted for the construction of a 1,000 L/s (86,400 ³/d) seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in the coastal town of Chañaral, near the city of Caldera in Chile's Region III.
Agency approves W Australian desalination plant
Western Australia's Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on 13 February 2012 announced conditional approval for Grange Resources Ltd's proposal to construct and operate the Cape Riche Desalination Plant.
Santa Cruz desalination EIR comment deadline in July
The draft environmental impact report (EIR) for the 2.5 MGD (9,500 m³/d) seawater desalination plant for the greater Santa Cruz area in California, USA, which was released on 13 May 2013, will be available for public comment until 15 July 2013.
Second Perth desalination plant gets government approval
The Australian government has given conditional approval to the Southern Seawater Desalination Project at Binningup, Western Australia, but has imposed "strict" conditions to minimise impacts on nationally threatened and migratory species.
Perth desalination plant's impact "still uncertain"
The West Australia government's Environmental Protection Authority has concluded that the significance of impacts to the marine environment from the discharge of brine by the Perth Metropolitan Desalination Plant is still uncertain and that the marine environment of Cockburn Sound continues to be under stress.
New EIA submitted for Antofagasta desalination plant
A revised environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been submitted by Aguas de Antofagasta for the 86,000 m³/d desalination plant for Antofagasta in Chile's Region II, according to Business News America on 21 September 2011.
IDA president calls for environmental consideration
The historical symbiotic relationship between money, water and environment is now out of balance, the president of the International Desalination Association (IDA) told a conference in Zurich on 27 April 2009.
Environment approval for W. Australia desalination project
Western Australia's water minister, Dr Graham Jacobs, said on 22 April 2009 that he was confident that conditions under which the Water Corporation had been given state government environmental approval to build and operate the Southern Seawater Desalination Project will ensure the plant will meet all environmental objectives.
Nanoparticles for water and desalination - how safe are they?
The potential dangers from the use of engineered nanoparticles, such as nanotubes, metal oxides or nanodots, some of which form the basis of new solutions for desalination and water treatment, are outlined in a new European Union publication.
US powerplant environment ruling could affect desalination
In a ruling that could effect desalination plants in the USA, the US Supreme Court on 1 April 2009 overruled an appeals court decision and permitted the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to use cost/benefit criteria to determine the technology for powerplant water-cooling structures.
Australian govt conditionally approves Melbourne desalination plant
The seawater desalination plant which will supply up to 150 million m³/year of drinking water for Melbourne was given conditional approval by Australia's environment minister Peter Garrett on 20 March 2009.
Ministry reported to have rejected Chile desalination EIS
The Ministerio del Medio Ambiente (Environment Ministry) in Chile has apparently rejected the environmental impact study (EIS) produced by Suez subsidiary Agbar Chile for an 86,000 m³/d desalination plant in Northern Region III.
State budget cuts delay Carlsbad desalination approval
Cuts to the California state budget prevented officials of the San Diego County Regional Water Quality Control Board preparing recommendations regarding the proposed Carlsbad desalination plant for the board to vote on at a meeting on 11 February 2009.
Environment review released for West Australia's 2nd desalination plant
Western Australia's Water Corporation released an environmental review of its proposed Southern Seawater Desalination Plant at Binningup on 3 February 2009 following approval by the Department of Environment, Water, Heritage & the Arts.
Minister agrees Melbourne inquiry recommendations
The Aus$ 3.1 billion (US$2.2 billion) seawater desalination plant for Melbourne, Australia, passed a significant hurdle on 9 January 2009 when Victoria state's planning minister, Justin Madden, accepted all but one of the 42 recommendations of an independent inquiry into the project.
Dublin desalination is one option of ten
Dublin City Council invited views on 21 November 2008 on 10 options for augmenting existing water sources for the Dublin region, including desalination of water from the Irish Sea.
UN gives EIA guidance for desalination
In September 2008, the United Nations Environment Programme released a new guidance document entitled Desalination - Resource and Guidance Manual for Environmental Impact Assessments.
EDS calls for 2014 Cyprus conference papers
The European Desalination Society has issued a call for papers and opened exhibition booking for its conference on Desalination for the Environment, Clean Water & Energy to be held in Limassol, Cyprus, on 11-15 May 2014.
Chilean mine SWRO gets environmental approval
An environmental impact study (EIS) for a 26,000 m³/d desalination plant for a mining operation in northern Chile is reported to have been approved by the regional office of the Ministerio del Medio Ambiente (environment ministry).
Leading desalters to address AWA university meeting
In conjunction with the University of Adelaide, the Australian Water Association is presenting two lectures at the university in the evening of 27 July 2011 from leading desalination figures on Desalination: Future Directions for Australia's World Class Facilities.
IDA publishes Academy programme for March 2013
Full details of the courses to be presented in the next session of the International Desalination Association (IDA) Academy in March 2013 have been published on the IDA website.
EDS lists desalination courses for 2013
The European Desalination Society (EDS) has released a complete list of its courses for 2013. EDS has been giving training certificates since 2003 to over 400 participants from all over the world.
California district probes impact of possible giant desalination plant
California's West Basin Municipal Water District board of directors has voted to begin an environmental impact report as part of its research towards the construction of a seawater desalination facility in the South Bay.
Research gives green light to proposed desalination plant
Studies by a company proposing to construct a "unique" combination of desalination plant and data centre have shown it will cause only limited negative impact to the environment according to the researchers.
Commission vote halts Huntington Beach application
Poseidon Water withdrew its application for a coastal development permit (CDP) for its proposed Huntington Beach seawater desalination plant after the California Coastal Commission voted on 13 November 2013 to postpone a vote on the application.
Pilot desalination plant to start up soon on Hudson river
United Water is finalizing construction of a pilot desalination plant at Haverstraw on the Hudson river in New York state. If constructed, the full size reverse-osmosis plant would be 7.5 MGD (28,300 m³/d).
IWA schedules nanotechnology symposium for China
The International Water Association is to hold a regional symposium on Nanotechnology And Water Treatment in China in 2013.
EDS urges knowledge sharing at Rome conference
The European Desalination Society (EDS) conference opened on Monday (23 May) with calls for greater collaboration among desalination professionals to address the rising gap between water supply and demand worldwide.
Experience helps boost production and stability at Ras Abu Jarjur
Improving production with reduced expenditure could be the main targets of any desalination facility around the world. Such feats are being methodically achieved at Ras Abu Jarjur reverse-osmosis (RO) plant in Bahrain as a result of a series of improvements. Of the many available desalination techniques, RO was seen from the earliest days as a reliable and cost-effective technology and was therefore employed at Ras Abu Jarjur. From the huge quantity of groundwater (40 million m /year) extracted from borewells, potable water totalling 29 million m /year is produced. The other 30% of water is being rejected to the Arabian Gulf, which has a similar salinity level and higher temperatures. Trials are being carried out to extend the brine staging by one more stage from two to three for the ninth and tenth trains and from three to four for the first to eighth trains, as the reject water from the trains is already filtered, acidified, dosed with antiscalant and most importantly possessing the required pressure energy (minimum of 38 bar) to be used. This strategy would increase the overall water recovery by another 4.5%. By closely following the guidelines of the scaling indices, solubility product limits of potential scale-forming constituents in the water and various performance-monitoring tools, it would be possible to recover another 2% of the water. The full article first appeared in the November/December 2008 issue of D&WR magazine. The paper on which it was based was awarded the prize for Best Oral Presentation at the International Desalination Association World Congress in Maspalomas in 2007.
ACWA Emirates delivers MBR reuse plant for Saudi Aramco
ACWA Emirates has completed a water reuse plant at Shaybah Oilfield, Saudi Arabia, for crude and natural gas exporter Saudi Aramco.
West Basin district dedicates desalination demo facility
California's West Basin Municipal Water District is nearing completion of its new desalination demonstration facility, following formal dedication of the plant on 12 November 2010.
Singapore to tender S$5 billion of water and waste works
Singapore's PUB and National Environment Agency (NEA) are to tender more than S$5 billion ($3.7 billion) of works covering civil, mechanical and electrical engineering for Tuas Nexus, an integrated wastewater and waste treatment facility.
Parkson breaks new ground with Saudi MBR plant
A 2,000 m³/d wastewater-reuse plant based on membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has just been commissioned in Rabigh, Saudi Arabia, by Florida-based Parkson.
South Florida embraces desalination and water reuse for the future
The days of limitless and cheap water in South Florida are gone. Planning, investments in alternative water sources such as desalination and reuse, and conservation are required to secure reliability and sustainability of current and future water supplies. The South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) is the oldest and largest of the five districts in Florida. The district's mission is to oversee the water resources in the southern half of the state by balancing and improving water quality, flood control, natural systems and water supply within a 16-county region. A key initiative is restoration of the Everglades, a vast wetlands and US national park. By augmenting supplies through alternative sources - including desalination of brackish and seawater, reclaimed water and reducing demand through year-round water conservation, the SFWMD hopes to continue quenching the thirst for a renewed environment and an ever-growing population. Realizing that water desalination using reverse osmosis is energy-intensive, the district also supports studies and projects that use renewable energy to reduce the carbon footprint, operate more efficiently to reduce water use, and manage concentrate to protect the environment. To encourage diversification of water resources, public utilities that use reclaimed water for outdoor irrigation are exempt from water-shortage restrictions. This article appeared in the February/March 2009 issue of D&WR magazine.
Innovations in IDA Congress technical program
Round-table sessions and touch-screen availability of poster presentations will be used for the first time in the International Desalination Association's World Congress in Dubai on 7-12 November 2009, IDA announced on 19 October 2009.
IDA 2015 World Congress draws 1,700 delegates
More than 1,700 delegates from 63 countries attended the International Desalination Association's (IDA's) 2015 World Congress held in San Diego recently according to the association's key metrics published this week. Awards for papers and presentations topped US$ 30,000.
Namibia plans feasibility study to underpin PPP desal project
Namibia is looking to build a new 70,000 m3/d desalination plant in Erongo Region under a public-private partnership (PPP), as the country gets close to finalising PPP legislation, reports New Era.
EDS desalination courses relocate to Genoa
Following the disastrous earthquake which affected the headquarters of the European Desalination Society in L'Aquila, Italy, on 6 April 2009, the EDS has rescheduled and relocated upcoming courses to Genoa in July 2009.
Desalination course just misses quake
Earth tremors felt during the European Desalination Society's fouling and scaling course in L'Aquila, Italy, last week, were obviously precursors of the major earthquake that struck the town at 03:30 on 6 April causing over 190 deaths.
Abu Dhabi rejects more desalination despite growing water stress
Environment Policy and Planning at Environment Agency - Abu Dhabi (EAD) has rejected upping desalination as a means to counter growing water scarcity in the emirate, opting instead for conservation and reuse.
Lahmeyer acquires IDP Consult of Philippines
German consulting group Lahmeyer announced on 15 June 2012 that it had acquired a majority interest in IDP Consult of the Philippines.
Construction starts on Durrat Al Bahrain desalination plant
Bahrain-based utility Energy Central Co (ECC)announced on 4 March 2009 that a groundbreaking ceremony has taken place at the Durrat Al Bahrain development, where the company is building a seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant with an ultimate capacity of 32,000 m³/d.
Go-ahead for 113,500 m³/d Orange County GWRS expansion
Orange County's world-renowned membrane-based Groundwater Replenishment System (GWRS) in California is to be expanded by another 30 MGD (113,500 m³/d) following approval by the board of the Orange County Water District (OCWD) on 30 March 2011.
Port of Corpus Christi, Texas, eyes a deal on part-built desal plant
Commissioners at the Port of Corpus Christi in Texas, US, have voted to bid for a desalination plant that is up for sale following the bankruptcy of plastics manufacturer M&G Chemicals, reports Caller Times.
Jordan and Saudi join forces for atomic-fuelled desalination
Saudi Arabia and Jordan have signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) for a feasibility study on two nuclear reactors in Jordan, to generate electricity and for desalination, reports Zawya.
How we delivered Az Zour North phase one
"With hindsight we were very lucky to get everything through on time and that our construction partner Hyundai Heavy Industries was on time. Fortunately we escaped a lot of those little wrinkles that need sorting out during construction, and can drag on and on, and so we kept to time," says Andy Biffen, chief executive of project delivery vehicle Az Zour Shamal.
Qatar's first big seawater RO plant is nearly complete
The first large scale seawater RO plant in Qatar, Ras Abu Fontas A3, is to complete by the end of March 2017, reports Gulf Times.
Gulf of Aden project inches forward
Three firms have been pre-selected for a reverse osmosis desalination project in Djibouti, East Africa.
Oman awards $483 million power and water PPP to Thai firm
State-owned Oman Oil Company (OOC) has awarded an independent power and water project to Thai energy and water specialist Gulf Energy Development Public Co (Gulf).