Energy, Produced Water
Oil and gas player commissions produced water treatment plant
Encana Oil and Gas has designed and commissioned a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant to treat produced water from its oil sand wells in the Moneta Divide, Wyoming. It has since sold the plant along with all its Moneta Divide assets to Aethon Energy.
Veolia gains Colombian produced-water clean-up contract
Ecopetrol America Inc, the US subsidiary of the Colombian national oil company, has awarded a contract to Veolia to provide equipment and services that will be used to treat the produced water from the Castilla oilfields in the Llanos Basin, southeast of Bogota.
Aquatech sells produced-water evaporators in Alberta
Aquatech is to design, engineer, supply and supervise installation and commissioning of a produced-water evaporator system for Pengrowth Energy Corporation's Lindbergh 12,500 bpd Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) enhanced oil-recovery facility.
Water Planet wins produced water contracts
￼Water treatment technology firm, Water Planet, has won a contact to provide industrial wastewater treatment and reuse systems for two recycling centres in California, USA that could recycle oil and gas industry produced water at nearly 20 Ml/d.
Solar/MED design aims to desalinate CSG water
A three-way partnership in Australia has entered a solar-powered desalination system for the coal‑seam gas (CSG) industry into the Australian Innovation Challenge being run by Shell and The Australian newspaper.
MOF membranes will slash energy use, harvest lithium, say researchers
The authors of a new study on metal-organic framework (MOF) membranes have claimed that the material can desalinate water with far higher energy efficiency compared to traditional desalination membranes.
Chile project envisions multiple mining clients for solar-powered SWRO
Energias y Aguas del Pacifico (ENAPAC), a proposed solar-powered seawater desalination plant and water transport project aims to support expansion of mining operations in Chile's Atacama region.
How we delivered Az Zour North phase one
"With hindsight we were very lucky to get everything through on time and that our construction partner Hyundai Heavy Industries was on time. Fortunately we escaped a lot of those little wrinkles that need sorting out during construction, and can drag on and on, and so we kept to time," says Andy Biffen, chief executive of project delivery vehicle Az Zour Shamal.
Analyst forecasts near doubling of water reuse in fracking industry by 2020
Only 2% the US fracking industry's US$ 6 billion plus outlay on water management in 2014 was spent on treatment of the 70,000 Ml of contaminated water the industry produced according to a report by market analyst Bluefield Research. But the volume of reuse will almost double by 2020.
MIT spinout cracks fracking water waste
A Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) spinout, Gradiant Corporation, is working toward making hydraulic fracturing (fracking) a water-neutral process, by making water reuse more economical. Fracking produces millions of litres of wastewater and much of it is discarded into deep injection wells, and clean water has to be purchased.
Q&A: De Nora group CEO Paolo Dellacha on the acquisition of MIOX
Electrochemical tech company De Nora has acquired water purification firm MIOX. De Nora group chief executive Paolo Dellacha explains the thinking behind the deal and what the future holds
Adionics launches liquid-to-liquid desalination system
France-based Adionics has launched a smart desalination solution that is able to remove specific salts to address the growing demand coming from oil and gas, food and beverages as well as mining.
Metito backs low-temperature distillation to challenge lead desalination technologies
Dubai-based water technology firm, Metito, is set to make a "significant investment" in clean-tech company Thermal Purification Technologies (TPTec), to develop TPTec's patented low-temperature distillation (LTD) technology. Metito claims LTD could displace existing membrane and thermal desalination technologies.
ConocoPhillips becomes 3rd Saltworks Technologies investor
Canadian desalination and brine treatment company Saltworks Technologies announced on 23 May 2014 that it had received investment funding from ConocoPhillips Company, Saltworks' third industrial shareholder.
US EPA white paper 're-visioning' oil and gas produced water
The US Environmental Protection Agency and the state of New Mexico has issued a draft white paper on oil and gas wastewater, recycling, and reuse.
GE to supply evaporator/ZLD technology for Italian oilfield
GE's advanced evaporator and zero liquid discharge (ZLD) technology is to be used to recycle up to 98% of produced water at six Total E&P Italia SpA oilwells in the Tempa Rossa field in the Basilicata region of southern Italy.
GE evaporators chosen for Alberta bitumen project
MEG Energy Corp has selected GE evaporation technology for reusing steam generator water for boiler feed in a bitumen extraction project in Alberta, Canada.
US DOE to harness 'power of competition' in Water Security Grand Challenge
The US Department of Energy has set out ambitions to harness the "power of competition" to drive innovation in water technology through a new programme of activity.
MD+VC succeeds at produced-water disposal site
A new desalination technique of membrane distillation (MD) combined with vapour compression (VC) has been pronounced a success in an effort to reduce produced water disposal costs at a Texas disposal well.
IDE/Clean Harbours tie-up aims at oil sands clean-up
Desalination designer and constructor IDE Technologies Ltd and US waste and wastewater specialist Clean Harbors today announced a joint research and development (R&D) program to increase the availability and reliability of mechanical vapor compression (MVC) evaporators for treating oil sands produced water in Alberta, Canada.
IDA Conference Report
Banff gathering charts oil & gas territory
Nanobubble specialist Moleaer raises capital, seeks people
Moleaer, the California, US-based water technology firm that developed the XTB Nanobubble Generator has raised $6 million to support overseas expansion.
BEL pressure vessels set for Colombian desalination
Pressure vessels for the 79,500 m³/d produced-water desalination plant being designed and built for Pacific Rubiales Energy Corp (PREC) in Columbia are to be supplied by BEL Composite Industries.
Nirosoft wins large Colombian desalination plant
Nirosoft Industries Ltd has been awarded a contract by Pacific Rubiales Energy Corp (PREC) for design and construction of a produced-water desalination plant in Colombia.
Oasys deal to treat Texas produced water with FO
Oasys Water has struck an agreement with Houston-based Select Energy Services, LLC (SES), a leading provider of engineered water solutions to the oil and gas industry, for exclusive use of its forward osmosis (FO) technology in the Permian Basin in West Texas and New Mexico, USA.
Another oil-sands evaporation contract for GE in Alberta
GE has won its fifth contract in the Alberta oil sands of Canada for use of its evaporation technologies for recycling the blowdown from once-through steam generators (OSTGs).
Pilot vapour-recompression plant tackles oil and gas water
A pilot project to treat produced water from oil and gas operations in southern Saskatchewan, Canada, has been initiated by Purestream Technology of Salt Lake City, USA, using its advanced vapour recompression (AVARA) system.
US to develop natural-gas wastewater standards
Over the coming months, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to begin the process of developing a proposed standard for wastewater discharges produced by natural-gas extraction from underground coalbed and shale formations.
Joint venture aims to treat Texas frac water
A joint venture to treat brackish/produced water sources has been set up in Texas by STW Resources Holding Corp and CK Investments Energy Company (CKI).
Bitumen producer using GE evaporation technology
GE's produced-water evaporation technology has been chosen for Phase 1 of the Algar Lake Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) project near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, which will produce 5,000-6,000 barrels/d of bitumen.
RO, IX and ceramic membranes in Veolia oilfield reuse contract
A 45,000 bpd (7,154 m³/d) produced-water reclamation facility is to be installed at the Arroya Grande oilfield in California by Veolia Water through a design-build-operate contract.
Hitachi and Toray target 20 per cent RO energy reduction in Saudi demo
Hitachi and Toray are to demonstrate a low energy seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) system in Saudi Arabia, in a project that will draw lessons from the Mega-ton Water System.
Sri Lanka issues RfP for desalination PPP at Hambantota
Sri Lanka Ministry of Development Strategies and International Trade has issued a request for proposals (RfP) on a seawater desalination plant at Hambantota, in its Southern Province.
FCC Aqualia bags E3million contract against 'reckless' competitors
FCC Aqualia has won the contract to operate Burgos wastewater treatment plant in northwestern Spain against other "recklessly low" financial tenders.
Abengoa to develop Shoaiba III, its largest desal project yet
ACWA Power has signed Abengoa in consortium with Fisia Italimpianti to develop a large scale reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant at Shoaiba III power and desalination complex on Saudi Arabia's Red Sea coast.
Software checks produced water treatment for farm use
Artificial intelligence-based software developed by Water Planet is being used to evaluate the performance and economics of treating produced water for agricultural reuse in a pilot project in Wasco, California.
DeepWater Desal drives to overturn Monterey County ownership rule
Desalination project developer DeepWater Desal, in California, US, is seeking to overturn the rules of Monterey County that all desalination plants must be publicly owned, reports Monterey Herald.
Wind damage prompts Sydney desalination critics to renew calls for closure
Winds topping 200km/h have ripped roofs off Sydney's dormant Kurnell desalination plant. Critics of the plant have called for it to be closed completely but New South Wales' water minister, Niall Blair, said abandonment would break the state's contract obligations.
Venezuelan oil firm ups desalination to offset drought
Amid a persistent severe drought, Venezuelan state oil company PDVSA's Paraguaná refinery has upgraded its desalination facility to increase output by a third following investment in plant of some US$ 250 million.
IDE supplies evaporators to groundbreaking Chinese project
Bomo Environmental Engineering has purchased two evaporators from IDE Technologies as part of China's first produced water treatment plant. The facility in Karamay, Xinjian will be the first in China to operate under a Build Operate Own (BOO) model. The win marks IDE's bid to raise its profile in the oil and gas sector, the company said.
Experts slam economics of seabed intake for giant US desalination project
A 250 Ml/d seawater desalination (SWRO) plant planned for Huntington Beach, California using sub seafloor intake pipes was "not economically viable at the Huntington Beach location within a reasonable time frame" according to a recent expert report. The findings could jeopardise the Huntingdon project because sub seafloor technology was pivotal to regulatory approval.
STW puts zero liquid system on show
STW Water Process and Technologies, this week will hold demonstrations in the Texas state capital, Austin, of a zero liquid discharge (ZLD) thermal water processing technology it licences from Salttech under an exclusive agreement.
Aquarion acquires Germany's MFT
Swiss oil and gas industry water systems company, Aquarion Group, has acquired Membran- Filtrations-Technik (MFT) of Germany for an undisclosed sum.
AMTA NEWS Novel sub-nanofiltration ceramic membrane production uses DNA
A novel method for creating ceramic reverse osmosis membranes with sub-nanometre pores by using the genetic material, DNA, as a template former, overcomes the poor reproducibility encountered in conventional methods according to the developer of the technology, Cerahelix.
Desalination with distinction
IDE Technologies (IDE) designed and operates three of the largest seawater reverse osmosis desalination plants in the world each with a cost per cubic metre of produced water among the lowest globally. This it accomplished despite a fourfold variability in the electricity price and demanding regulatory limits on boron, chloride and sodium concentrations. The key to their performance is demonstrated in the extraordinary aspects of the design, operation and personnel at the Hadera plant. This article first appeared in the February 2015 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
New Mexico mulls new rules to allow water reuse for oilfield drilling
State environmental regulators in New Mexico are considering a proposed rule that would allow the reuse of produced water in oilfield drilling operations.
Researchers claim electrodialysis good for fracking reuse
Researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Saudi Arabia's King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals have claimed to have found an economical way to use electrodialysis for removing salt from water produced in hydraulic fracturing (fracking) for shale gas.
Russian heavy oil recovery enhanced by water reuse
OPERATED BY Russia's second largest oil producer, a heavy oil field in northwest Russia has been increasing the volume of crude processing with technology that supports enhanced recovery rates and reduced environmental impact. In 2008, they took the first steps to develop a less water-intensive way of processing produced water by conducting a feasibility study comparing different water reuse strategies. By replacing traditional treatment methods with thermal evaporator technology for produced water, this will be the first entity in Russia to use recycled water from enhanced oil recovery in the treatment of heavy oil produced water. This article first appeared in the issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
New Texas desalination plant could reuse fracking water
A new desalination test facility in Loving County, Texas could be deployed in treating water used in hydraulic fracturing - tracking- for shale gas for reuse in the oil industry.
Reclamation grant for Sweetwater desalination expansion
The US Bureau of Reclamation is to provide the Sweetwater Authority in California with a US$ 1.5 million grant towards the expansion of the Richard A Reynolds desalination plant.
IDE sells two MVC evaporators to Alberta oil-sands site
IDE Technologies Ltd announced on 10 March 2014 that it had sold two IDE horizontal mechanical vapor compression (MVC) evaporators to increase the produced water treatment capacity of a steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) production site in Northern Alberta.
August Rocky Mountain reuse workshop set for Golden
This year's Rocky Mountain Water Reuse Workshop is to be held at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, Colorado, on 14 August 2014.
Oasys announces sales hook-up with oil & gas servicer
Forward-osmosis specialist Oasys Water announced on 12 December 2013 that it had recently signed an exclusive sales agreement with National Oilwell Varco LP (NOV), a leading global provider of equipment and services used in the oil and gas market.
Recycling Flowback and Produced Water in Tight-Oil Development
One of the most lively presentations at the recent International Desalination Association conference in Banff, Canada, came from local consultant Roberta Wasylishen, who described what is was like for a water engineer to get access to oil & gas projects in order to do a water treatment assessment. This article is based on her investigation and includes information on frac, flowback and produced water. This article first appeared in the August/September 2013 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Texas treatment company spins off frac water firm
A company called Green Hydro LLC has been spun off by Texas-based Advanced Hydro Inc to use desalination to address increasing demand for water use in hydraulic fracturing.
Commercialization moves nearer for memsys MD system
In what memsys CEO, Götz Lange, calls "a clear step towards commercialization of the company's membrane distillation (MD) technology", the Germany/Singapore based company has announced the formation of a Business Development Unit.
Nuverra/Haliburton accord on produced-water treatment
Nuverra Environmental Solutions Inc, which until mid-May 2013 was known as Heckmann Corporation, announced on 15 July 2013 that it has entered into an agreement with Halliburton to advance the treatment and recycling of produced water to be reused in the hydraulic fracturing process.
GE wins oilsands evaporator contract in Alberta
GE's water evaporation technology will treat de-oiled produced water, boiler and heat-recovery steam-generator blowdown and brackish makeup water for Sunshine Oilsands at its West Ells project in Ft McMurray, Alberta, Canada.
LiqTech ties up oil & gas agreement with FMC
Denmark's LiqTech International Inc announced on 25 March 2013 that it had entered into an agreement with US oilfield equipment and services company FMC Technologies Inc for the use of LiqTech's silicon-carbide membrane technology for oil & gas applications.
Four workshops to precede AMTA / AWWA conference
There are now four preconference workshops prior to the Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition being held by the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the American Water Works Association (AWWA) in San Antonio, Texas, at the end of February 2013.
Speakers announced for IDA conference in Banff
Speakers and sessions for the May conference on Water Recycling and Desalination for the Oil & Gas Industry have been announced by the organizers, the International Desalination Association (IDA).
Registration open for AMTA/AWWA membrane conference
Registration has been opened and new sessions added to the programme for the 2013 Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition in San Antonio, Texas, on 25-28 February 2013.
X-Flow commissions Chinese produced-water projects
Three water-reuse projects for oilfields in China that use Pentair X-Flow ultrafiltration (UF) membrane technology have been commissioned recently.
Nearly 200 abstracts received for AMTA/AWWA conference
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) says that 193 abstracts have been received for its joint conference next year with the American Water Works Association (AWWA) in San Antonio, Texas.
Aquatech to supply Oman oilfield water softener
Aquatech announced on 4 April 2012 that it had been awarded a contract to construct a 237 m³/h produced-water softening plant for the Amal Steam Facilities Phase 1B in Oman.
Veolia installing evaporator in Alberta oil sands
Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies is currently installing an evaporator/crystallizer system at Southern Pacific Resource Corp's STP-McKay project currently under way in northern Alberta, Canada.
Water Standard finds its shipbuilder in Samsung
Texas-based Water Standard and Korea's Samsung Heavy Industries announced an agreement on 28 June 2011 to collaborate on the design and development of vessels to deliver water treatment solutions to the offshore oil and gas sector.
Membranes reclaim aggressive produced water from California oilfield
Increasingly, membrane technologies are finding a place in the oil and gas industry, in the USA and Australia in particular, for dealing with the difficult wastewaters that arise from the extraction process. This article describes how, in a Californian oilfield, a reverse-osmosis process has operated for two years at high pH for the removal of dissolved salts and organics - including sodium, silica, boron and TOC. The treated water is then reused for environmental augmentation purposes. This article first appeared in the February/March 2011 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Commission warns Australia about gas-production wastewater
Handling the wastewater resulting from coal-seam gas (CSG) production in Australia is likely to require a precautionary approach that will demand innovation from water managers and planners, and significantly greater coordination with existing project approval processes, the National Water Commission warned in December 2010.
IDA energy task force to run WWF6 session
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has organized a session titled Desalination: The Sustainable Solution And Hope For Future Generations at the 6th World Water Forum in Marseille, France, during 12-17 March 2012.
IDA president to hold WEX desalination workshop
The president of the International Desalination Association (IDA), Dr Corrado Sommariva, who is managing director generation, ILF Consulting Engineers, Middle East, will be giving a workshop on Economics and Management of Desalination on 30-31 January 2012 at the 2012 Water and Energy Exchange (WEX) international summit in Lisbon, Portugal.
Sidem to build Kuwait's Az-Zour MED desalination plant
A consortium of Hyundai Heavy Industries (HHI) of South Korea and Sidem, a subsidiary of Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies, has announced the signing on 12 December 2013 of a US$ 1.4 billion engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contract with Shamal Az-Zour Al-Oula to build the first phase of the Az-Zour North Independent Water & Power Project (IWPP) in Kuwait.
Abengoa to build power-plant RO project in Chile
Spanish contractor Abengoa has been selected by Chilean energy company AES Gener to develop a reverse-osmosis desalination plant for the Angamos power plant.
US energy company get rights to Chinese membranes
L & L Energy Inc, a US-based company with coal operations in China, announced on 31 October 2013 that it has secured rights to advanced membrane-osmosis technologies from the R&D Center for Membrane Technology (CMT) at Chung Yuan Christian University (CYCU) to support its clean energy initiatives in China.
Solar panels commissioned at UK desalination plant
Thames Water in the UK at the end of July commissioned a 450 kW array of solar panels at its 150,000 m³/d Beckton brackish-water desalination plant as part of a bid to become Britain's biggest on-site solar power producer and industrial user.
GDF Suez looking to sell Al Hidd power/desalination stake
French energy group GDF Suez was reported by Reuters on 28 July 2011 to be planning to sell its 30% stake in Bahrain's Al Hidd power and desalination plant and has mandated HSBC as an adviser.
FEDCO wins Ras Az Zawr energy-recovery contract
The energy-recovery device (ERD) contract for the reverse-osmosis (RO) section of the giant Ras Az Zawr (Ras Azzour) desalination project in Saudi Arabia has been awarded to Fluid Equipment Development Co (FEDCO).
IDA leads Energy-Water Nexus Roundtable at Singapore week
The International Desalination Association (IDA) will support the Water Leaders Summit when it opens on 5 July 2011 at Singapore International Water Week.
Leading desalters to address AWA university meeting
In conjunction with the University of Adelaide, the Australian Water Association is presenting two lectures at the university in the evening of 27 July 2011 from leading desalination figures on Desalination: Future Directions for Australia's World Class Facilities.
Acciona to supply renewable energy to Acuamed desalination plants
Spanish company Acciona has received a contract to supply power to all the desalination and water treatment plants and other installations in Spain managed by the government agency Aguas de las Cuencas Mediterraneas (Acuamed).
Oil sands UF water treatment won by H2O Innovation
A Can$ 9.4 million (US$ 9.6 million) contract for a membrane-based water treatment package has been awarded to H2O Innovation Inc by Fort Hills Energy LP for the Fort Hills Oil Sands Project in Alberta, Canada.
Oil company invests US$ 2.5 million in Saltworks desalination
Canadian oil company Cenovus Energy Inc is investing Can$ 2.5 million (US$ 2.56 million) in Vancouver-based desalination startup company Saltworks Technologies Inc.
Bids for Hassyan IPW project expected by October
Bids have been invited from a shortlist of 18 developers for the Hassyan I Independent Power & Water Project in Dubai, which will include a 120 MGD (454,000 m³/d) seawater desalination plant.
ERI to cooperate with Koreans on PRO for energy
Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) announced on 15 October 2013 that it has signed a mutual cooperation agreement with Seoul-based global company GS Engineering & Construction Corporation (GS E&C Corp), part of Korean conglomerate GS Group, to significantly advance osmotic power generation using ERI's PX Pressure Exchanger® technology.
New CEO appointed at ERI as 'GG' retires
Almost the last recognizable face of the original team at Energy Recovery Inc (ERI), provider of energy-recovery devices for desalination, will now disappear with the retirement of its CEO, GG Pique.
Bahrain MoU signed for wind-powered desalination technology
Wind-powered desalination technology is to be promoted in Bahrain under a memorandum of understanding (MoU) signed on 31 January 2011 between Jade Consultancy of Bahrain and Synlift Systems GmbH of Germany.
Scottish company wins order for North Sea RO units
Aberdeen-based Monitor Systems Scotland has won a contract to supply six 50 m³/d reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination units for three North Sea offshore platforms operated by TAQA Bratani, owned by Abu Dhabi National Energy Company PSJC.
URS to assist El Paso desalination solar project
The Public Services Board in El Paso, Texas, on 10 November 2010 voted to hire URS Corporation as a consultant to assist with the choice of a solar energy system to power part of the Kay Bailey Hutchison desalination plant.
Nirosoft selects ERI PXs for Limassol desalination
The 50,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant currently under construction in Limassol, Cyprus, will use PX-260 pressure-exchangers from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).
Renewable-energy desalination community seeks to start association
The renewable-energy (RE) desalination community should organize itself into a body that will represent the sector and lobby for its interests, says a new report.
IDA finalises Huntington Beach desalination energy conference topics
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has finalised the speakers and topics for its new-style conference Desalination: An Energy Solution, which is being held on 2-3 November 2010 in Huntington Beach, California, the city likely to host the USA's next large desalination plant after Carlsbad.
Twelve projects announced at Australian desalination centre opening
A project to apply wave energy to seawater desalination was one of 12 projects to receive awards from Australia's National Centre of Excellence in Desalination (NCED) and announced at the centre's opening on 23 July 2010.
Revised dates for IDA desalination energy conference
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has rescheduled its conference on Desalination: An Energy Solution, which was to have taken place in California in September, to 2-3 November 2010 at the same venue, the Hyatt Regency Resort & Spa, Huntington Beach.
Siemens working on MBR system and low-energy desalination
Siemens may launch a new membrane bioreactor (MBR) based wastewater treatment and reuse system in 2011. It will also be delivering a demonstration low-energy desalination unit to Singapore's Environment & Water Industry Development Council (EWI) by the end of the year.
RO included in Czech powerplant water treatment upgrade
Wabag Brno has begun modernisation of the water treatment plant at the Prunéřov power station in the Czech Republic, involving clarification, filtration, reverse osmosis, softening and demineralisation.
IDA confirms speakers for Huntington Beach
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has confirmed speakers for its first conference devoted exclusively to energy-efficiency in seawater desalination - Desalination: An Energy Solution, on 8-9 September 2010 at the Hyatt Regency Resort & Spa, Huntington Beach, California, USA.
Desalination affected by California powerplant ruling
The powerplant with which California's new 189,000 m³/d Carlsbad seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant is co-located has been ordered to cease once-through cooling by 2017. The Huntington beach powerplant, site of another proposed desalination plant, has been given until 2020.
Canadian low-energy desalination gets government boost
Saltworks Techologies Inc's low-energy desalination project is to receive up to Can$ 580,000 (US$ 577,000) from the Canadian government via Sustainable Development Technology Canada (SDTC).
Low-temperature distillation technology licensed to Sterling Water
The low-temperature distillation method of desalination developed by the New Mexico State University (NMSU) in the USA has been licensed to Sterling Water LLC of Qatar.
Carlsbad desalination greenhouse-gas plan reaffirmed by CARB
The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has reiterated its support for the energy minimization and greenhouse-gas reduction plan proposed by Poseidon Resources for the Carlsbad desalination project.