Energy, Jordan, United Nations, Kenya


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IDE to hold workshop at key UNEP meeting in Kenya

Leading desalination company IDE Technologies will be presenting its Progreen™ reverse-osmosis desalination technology at the 12th Special Session of the Governing Council/Global Ministerial Environment Forum (GC/GMEF) of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in Kenya on 20-22 February 2012.

Nuclear energy to supply Jordan desalination plants

Four nuclear power plants in the southern region of Jordan will provide almost 750 MW of energy for desalination and water pumping, according to a report in the Jordan Times.

Russians to cooperate on Jordan desalination

Desalination plants were included in a nuclear cooperation agreement signed on 22 May 2009 by Russia and Jordan, which also included power stations, research facilities and personnel training centres to be built in Jordan.

Indians providing MBR wastewater treatment in Africa

Indian water technology provider Shivsu Canadian Clear International Ltd has won orders worth US$ 6 million from private organizations and governments in Africa to set up membrane-based industrial wastewater treatment plants in Kenya, Tanzania and Ethiopia.

Israel and Jordan seal water-swap deal

Israel and Jordan have signed a bilateral agreement to exchange water and pipe Red Sea desalination brines to the shrinking Dead Sea.



AECOM wins USAID water reuse work in Jordan

AECOM Technology Corporation announced on 30 November 2010 that it won a US$ 28 million task order from the US Agency for International Development (USAID) under its Global Architecture Engineering Infrastructure Indefinite Quantity Contract.

Food for thought for delegates at EDS conference

The continuously queuing water tankers in the road servicing the King Hussein Bin Talal Convention Centre and its four adjacent hotels leave visitors in no doubt that Jordan is one of the most water-scarce countries in the world.

Desalination "unavoidable" for Jordan

Desalination is "an unavoidable option" for Jordan, said Prof Mousa Mohsen from The Hashemite University, when he addressed the opening ceremony of the EuroMed Conference on the shores of the Dead Sea on 10 November 2008.

Studies start for Jordan's first desalination plant

Jordan's first desalination plant is expected to be operational by 2010, supplying the port city of Aqaba with 10 million m³/year, Aqaba Water Company (AWC) announced in August. The AWC has signed an agreement with Bank Muscat to study siting a plant on Aqaba's southern coast to desalinate Red Sea water.

Historic Israel-Jordan water deal scuppered by planners

Less than a week after ministers from Jordan and Israel launched pre qualification for an US$ 900 million desalination and water transfer project, local planning in Israel reject the proposed scheme.

Tri-national desalination course held in Tel Aviv

A five-day desalination course jointly organized by the Jordan, Israel and Palestinian water authorities, in partnership with the Middle East Desalination Research Center, was held in Tel Aviv, Israel, on 30 October - 4 November 2011.

IDE desalination seminar trains Jordanians and Palestinians

Thirty participants from Palestine and Jordan completed a week-long desalination seminar in Israel in early November 2010.

Red-Dead project progress for discussion in November

Stakeholders in the Red Sea-Dead Sea Water Conveyance Study Programme will discuss the progress of five feasibility studies at a meeting in November 2010.

Jordan Red Sea project developer 'will be announced in May'

Following evaluation of 30 letters of interest in the massive Red-Dead water transfer and desalination project, Jordan's Ministry of Water & Irrigation will announce the qualified bidder to serve as the master developer this month, according to the Jordan Times on 11 May 2010.

Kenya signs MoU for Mombasa desalination study

The government of Kenya has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) for Toyota Tsusho Corporation to carry out a feasibility study for a 100,000 m³/d desalination plant in the Mombasa district.

The Innova 100 m³/d automatic RO system

Automatic Italian RO bought by Kenyan resort

A means of getting reverse-osmosis (RO) into sub-Saharan Africa has been provided by Italy's Innova Ltd, which recently delivered its first automatic seawater RO desalination plant with 100 m³/d capacity to a tourist resort in Kenya.

The hyper-saline Dead Sea would receive brine from the proposed Red Sea-Dead Sea desalination scheme

Jordan and Saudi join forces for atomic-fuelled desalination

Saudi Arabia and Jordan have signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) for a feasibility study on two nuclear reactors in Jordan, to generate electricity and for desalination, reports Zawya.

UN gives EIA guidance for desalination

In September 2008, the United Nations Environment Programme released a new guidance document entitled Desalination - Resource and Guidance Manual for Environmental Impact Assessments.

MEDRC to stage World Water Forum event

The Middle East Desalination Research Center (MEDRC) is to stage a side event at the 6th World Water Forum, which takes place in Marseille, France, on 12-17 March 2012.

Abstracts for EDS EuroMed 2010 needed by 15 February

A call for papers was issued on 3 January 2010 by the European Desalination Society (EDS) for its EuroMed 2010 conference and exhibition in Tel Aviv, Israel, on 3-7 October 2010.

IDA-GWI conference to be held in Paris in 2010

The annual conference held jointly by the International Desalination Association and Global Water Intelligence is to be held next year in Paris on 26-27 April 2010.

Red Sea to Dead Sea investors pledge $450 million

The ambitious Red Sea to Dead Sea (RSDS) desalination project that aims to provide water to Israel, Jordan, and Palestine, has agreed investments of $450 million.

The development is situated to the north of Aqaba, Jordan's only coastal city

Jordan's $2.82 billion development to include desalination

Jordan has unveiled a project to develop a zone north of Aqaba of 109 kilometres squared, to include desalination capacity of 329,000 m3/d.

Desalination capacity increasing by 50% in 2013 says IDA

Desalination plants with a total capacity of 6 million m³/d are expected to come on line during 2013, a 50% increase on 2012, according to new data from the International Desalination Association and GWI DesalData.

The Resource Watch platform from the World Resources Institute used global horizontal irradiance (GHI), a proxy for the strength and concentration of star energy hitting a PV panel, to create the ranking

Top 20 water-stressed countries with solar potential

The World Resources Institute (WRI) has named the world's top 20 most water-stressed countries which have the most solar energy potential.

Israel/Canada pact to promote wastewater reuse

Israel and Canada are to work together on wastewater reuse following a ministerial meeting on 9 December 2012 in Jerusalem.

EIB assists Gaza desalination progress

The desalination project for Gaza backed by the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) took a small step forward at a meeting in Barcelona on 4 May 2012.

Dr Ritschel wants people who write tenders to consider supporting solar powered technology

Masdar's Dr Ritschel: "We identified a problem - tenders"

We launched The Global Clean Water Desalination Alliance at COP21, the United Nations' climate change conference in Paris, December 2015. In the first week of existence we already had 100 members. So many industry partners, governments, and stakeholders immediately wanted to join, it was unbelievable.

UN presentation for ERI chiefs

HP Michelet and GG Pique, respectively chairman and president/CEO of Energy Recovery Inc, will deliver a presentation at the United Nations on 14 October 2009 entitled Affordable Desalination As The Sustainable Solution.

GE and Saudi Aramco launch $200k technology competition

General Electric and Saudi Aramco have launched a $200,000 challenge to improve the energy efficiency of seawater desalination.

UK/Saudi initiative targets low-cost carbon neutral desalination using solar dome

NEOM has signed an agreement with UK-based Solar Water Plc to build the first ever "solar dome" desalination plants in NEOM, northwest Saudi Arabia. The pilot project claims it will revolutionise the water desalination process.

Red Sea Dead Sea project's overarching objectives are to desalinate water and generate energy at affordable prices for Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian Authority; to save the Dead Sea from environmental degradation; and to create a symbol of peace and cooperation in the Middle East

Suez and Mitsubishi on shortlist for Red Sea Dead Sea project

Jordan's Water and Irrigation Ministry has shortlisted five consortia to submit definitive bids for phase one of the Red Sea Dead Sea project.

Salt formations in the Dead Sea

Israel mulls Red Sea Dead Sea alternative amid water price concerns

A string of consortia have entered pre-qualification bids for Jordan's Red Sea Dead Sea (RSDS) project, as Israel mulls an alternative idea amid concerns over the economics of the scheme.

EDS urges knowledge sharing at Rome conference

The European Desalination Society (EDS) conference opened on Monday (23 May) with calls for greater collaboration among desalination professionals to address the rising gap between water supply and demand worldwide.

Red Sea-Dead Sea secures EIB backing

The landmark Red Sea-Dead Sea Water Conveyance Project has come a step closer to reality with Jordan signing a technical cooperation agreement with the European Investment Bank (EIB) and the Agence Française de Développement.

Qatar backs Palestinian water projects

The Qatar Development Fund has signed up to back Middle East Desalination Research Center (MERDC) projects in Palestine and Jordan.

US gives cash support to Jordan water sector

The US has committed some US$ 125 million over the next five years to support projects in water conservation and efficiency in Jordan according to newspaper reports.

The EU grant will support expansion of capacity at As Samra in the context of the Syrian refugee crisis

EU gives $34 million to expand capacity and grow reuse at As Samra, Jordan

The European Union (EU) has granted €30 million ($34 million) to expand capacity and increase water reuse at As Samra wastewater treatment plant in Jordan.

Israel to join top ten water stressed by 2040

The US-based World Resources Institute has forecast that Israel will be among the world's ten most water stressed regions by 2040. Almost half of those regions will be in the Middle East according to recent report by the institute.

Israel needs no more desalination this decade

Despite a record level of drought in 2014, Israel will not need to build more major desalination capacity this decade according to a new report by the country's Water Authority.

AMTA/NWMOA Utah workshop program published

The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has published the program for its joint technology transfer workshop with the Northwest Membrane Operator Association (NWMOA) in December.

Cautious thumbs-up for Red-Dead project feasibility

The large-scale conveyance of seawater from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea is technically possible and could deliver large amounts of desalinated water using conventional processes.

Egypt is building desalination capacity in Sinai to support economic development

Egypt finalises finance for south Sinai desal plants

The Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development (KFAED) is to loan $100 million to the government of Egypt, completing the finance for five desalination plans in south Sinai.

Seprotech appoints new CEO and president

Ottawa-based Seprotech Systems Inc, developer of CrystalBlue™ membrane-based water recycling systems, announced a new chairman and CEO on 27 January 2011,

Permit sought for RO discharge to Great Salt Lake

A proposal from the Jordan Valley Water Conservancy District (JCWCD) in Utah, USA, to discharge reject brine from a 7-14 MGD (26,000-53,000 m³/d) reverse-osmosis desalination (RO) plant into the Great Salt Lake is out for public comment from 1 December 2010 as part of the permit process.

The Red Sea-Dead Sea project is intended to increase supplies of potable water to Israel, Jordan, and Palestine, and to replenish the Dead Sea

Red Sea-Dead Sea tender held up by diplomatic row

The Red Sea-Dead Sea project has hit a block after Israel's embassy in Jordan was closed in response to a shooting in July 2017.

A slew of special awards were awarded at the close of IDA World Congress 2017

IDA World Congress 2017 award winners in full

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has recognised the best technical papers and other contributions at IDA World Congress 2017 with a roster of special awards.

'Honoured to serve.' Shannon McCarthy, IDA secretary general

McCarthy in as new IDA secretary general

Shannon McCarthy has been appointed secretary general of the International Desalination Association (IDA) at IDA World Congress 2017 in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Desalination Concentrate Disposal: Salt Production For Zero-Discharge System

Since large-scale desalination started, the question of how to dispose of the reject material produced by the process has occupied the minds of engineers and economists. The quantity of brine discharged from desalination plants is increasing, and this trend will be maintained for the near future. The minerals extracted must have a value, but how can this best be realised? This summation of the current state-of-the-art in brine disposal is an update of a paper originally presented at the European Desalination Society's EuroMed conference in Jordan in November 2008. The methods outlined provide both the production of a byproduct and environmental protection by processing the outfall brine from desalination plants. The process is the first step towards the "zero discharge system", and therefore the method should be considered as a novel approach rather than a competitive one to the traditional thermal, chemical and membrane processes. This article appeared in D&WR magazine's February/March 2009 issue. *Corrado Sommeriva has recently moved to ILF Consulting Engineers.

A generation of knowledge and experience in water is being lost as baby boomers retire

Is water in the grip of a skills crisis?

In an engineering-heavy sector such as water, it's a truism that well qualified people are thin on the ground. But is it more accurate to say that the global water industry in the grip of a skills crisis?

The solar-powered WaterKiosk units are suitable for decentralised and off-grid locations

German firm constructs solar plants in Kenya

German technology company Boreal Light is to construct 19 solar-powered desalination plants across Kenya, reports energysiren.

Mombasa is hoping to become the first African city to host the IDA World Congress

Kenya's a contender for IDA 2021 World Congress

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has shortlisted Mombasa, Kenya, among four finalists to host its 2021 World Congress, reports The Star.

The new desalination plant will serve residents of Kenya's Mombasa County

Kenya awards Almar and Aqua Swiss with desalination contracts

Kenya has awarded Almar Water Solutions a 100,000 m3/d desalination plant project in Mombasa and AquaSwiss a 30,000 m3/d project in Likoni.

The city of Mombasa on the Indian Ocean has an estimated population of 1.2 million

Reports: Mombasa awards desalination contract

Mombasa County, Keyna, has awarded a design, build and operate contract for new desalination capacity, reports Daily Nation.

Kwale County, Kenya, is looking to capacitive desalination to produce fresh water and energy

Kenya considers plans for capacitive desalination plant

A 25-year project to transform the Kwale County region of Kenya is to include a capacitive desalination project, reports Citizen News.

Lamu old town, Kenya, is a UNESCO World Heritage site

Kenya authorities signal desalination project in Lamu County

The LAPSSET Authority is to build a desalination facility in Lamu County, Kenya, reports Kenya News Agency.

Wellthy has tested its system on waters from Yangon river, whose turbidity is rising due to lengthening rainy seasons in Myanmar

Tokyo's Wellthy Corp forms joint venture in Myanmar

Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation subsidiary Wellthy Corp has formed a joint venue with Myanmar Water Engineering & Products (MWEP) to provide EPC and water quality analysis services in Myanmar.

Mombasa City on the coast of Kenya is the country's second largest city behind capital Nairobi

Kenya's Mombasa County poised to issue RFP for desalination project

Mombasa County, Kenya, is to issue a request for proposals for new desalination capacity to five shortlisted companies in May 2017.

GWI's Global Water Summit 2017 in Madrid brought together water industry leaders from across the globe

View From: GWI Global Water Summit 2017, Madrid

The annual get-together of water business executives and municipal leaders from around the globe was suffused with conversation about change in Madrid 2017.

Mombasa County in Keyna is looking to seawater desalination to make up a 73 per cent water supply shortfall

Kenya's Mombasa County seeks bids for desalination project

Mombasa County, Kenya, is inviting sealed bids and expressions of interest for a contract to manage procurement of a major desalination project.

The new SWRO was opened by Jordan’s prime minister, Hani Al-Mulki (centre, left), with (from left), Tarek Dehays, AquaTreat chief executive; Hazim el Nasser, minister of water and irrigation; and (centre, right) Rateb Adwan, assistant director general for quality and desalination

Jordan's first SWRO opens for business

The opening of the first seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant in Jordan marks a jumping off point for the country from which it can continue to develop a desalination programme, including the much-anticipated Red Sea-Dead Sea project.

One of the project's goals is to regenerate the Dead Sea

Israel poised to approve Red Sea-Dead Sea project

Approval for the Red Sea-Dead Sea desalination project could be given by the Israeli government before national elections scheduled for 9 April 2019, reports AL-Monitor.

Methane to power Queensland CSG desalination plant

A desalination plant in southwest Queensland for the burgeoning coal-seam gas (CSG) industry is to be built by a consortium of GE and Laing O'Rourke for leading Australian gas explorer and producer QGC.

Desalination plants part of Palestine agreement

Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu issued a statement on 4 February 2011 agreeing to improvements in water, sewerage and electricity in Palestinian areas, following a meeting with Tony Blair, representative of the "Quartet" (USA, the United Nations, Russia and the European Union).

Desalination plant needed for Mexican mine

Denver-based Vista Gold Corp is planning to build a desalination plant to meet the needs of its planned Concordia mine in Baja California Sur, Mexico.

The new research paper synthesises data to create a world map of brine production

UN urges desalination industry to improve on brine

The United Nations has called on the desalination industry to clean up its act on brine as the number of desalination plants worldwide continues to climb.

By 2050, the world will require 50 per cent more food production

IDA joins with UN's FAO to address water scarcity in agriculture

The International Desalination Association (IDA) is to partner with the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the United Nations (UN), and its Water Scarcity in Agriculture (WASAG) initiative.

Opportunities await at IDA World Congress 2017 in Brazil

Latin America, and particularly Brazil, is a big user of desalination and water reuse technology, and there is huge potential for the growth of these technologies in the region, writes Emilio Gabbrielli, president of the International Desalination Association (IDA).

Tajikistan's capital city of Dushanbe is poised to host an international water symposium

Tajikistan to host symposium on best practice in water management

The Republic of Tajikistan and the United Nations department of economic and social affairs are running a symposium on sustainable water management on 9 August, in Tajik's capital city, Dushanbe, reports Tehran Times.

First stage of Gaza desalination project completed

The European Union and UNICEF have marked the completion of the first component of their joint project with Palestine's water utilities to construct a Euro 10 million (US$ 11.2 million) desalination plant which will provide over 75,000 Palestinians with drinking water in Gaza.

Corporate water disclosure guidelines launched by UN

An attempt to build a common approach to water-use disclosure by companies has been launched by the UN Global Compact's CEO Water Mandate.

Renewable-energy desalination community seeks to start association

The renewable-energy (RE) desalination community should organize itself into a body that will represent the sector and lobby for its interests, says a new report.

IDA finalises Huntington Beach desalination energy conference topics

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has finalised the speakers and topics for its new-style conference Desalination: An Energy Solution, which is being held on 2-3 November 2010 in Huntington Beach, California, the city likely to host the USA's next large desalination plant after Carlsbad.

Twelve projects announced at Australian desalination centre opening

A project to apply wave energy to seawater desalination was one of 12 projects to receive awards from Australia's National Centre of Excellence in Desalination (NCED) and announced at the centre's opening on 23 July 2010.

Revised dates for IDA desalination energy conference

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has rescheduled its conference on Desalination: An Energy Solution, which was to have taken place in California in September, to 2-3 November 2010 at the same venue, the Hyatt Regency Resort & Spa, Huntington Beach.

Hauge and Isobarix cleared of contempt of court

The US District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia* on 20 March 2014 cleared Leif Hauge and his energy-recovery device company Isobarix of contempt of court in a case brought by Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).

Siemens working on MBR system and low-energy desalination

Siemens may launch a new membrane bioreactor (MBR) based wastewater treatment and reuse system in 2011. It will also be delivering a demonstration low-energy desalination unit to Singapore's Environment & Water Industry Development Council (EWI) by the end of the year.

RO included in Czech powerplant water treatment upgrade

Wabag Brno has begun modernisation of the water treatment plant at the Prunéřov power station in the Czech Republic, involving clarification, filtration, reverse osmosis, softening and demineralisation.

IDA confirms speakers for Huntington Beach

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has confirmed speakers for its first conference devoted exclusively to energy-efficiency in seawater desalination - Desalination: An Energy Solution, on 8-9 September 2010 at the Hyatt Regency Resort & Spa, Huntington Beach, California, USA.

The Encina power station (bottom left) with the site for the Carlsbad desalination plant ringed.

Desalination affected by California powerplant ruling

The powerplant with which California's new 189,000 m³/d Carlsbad seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant is co-located has been ordered to cease once-through cooling by 2017. The Huntington beach powerplant, site of another proposed desalination plant, has been given until 2020.

Saltworks test rig with evaporation pond surrounded by windbreak.

Canadian low-energy desalination gets government boost

Saltworks Techologies Inc's low-energy desalination project is to receive up to Can$ 580,000 (US$ 577,000) from the Canadian government via Sustainable Development Technology Canada (SDTC).

Low-temperature distillation technology licensed to Sterling Water

The low-temperature distillation method of desalination developed by the New Mexico State University (NMSU) in the USA has been licensed to Sterling Water LLC of Qatar.

Carlsbad desalination greenhouse-gas plan reaffirmed by CARB

The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has reiterated its support for the energy minimization and greenhouse-gas reduction plan proposed by Poseidon Resources for the Carlsbad desalination project.

The QWE laboratory at Texas A&M at Qatar university.

Qatar initiative seeks sustainable water and energy

An initiative to help bring sustainability to Qatar's water and energy, which will include improved technologies for desalination, efficient reuse and zero-liquid discharge systems, was launched by Texas A&M University at Qatar on 1 February 2010.

Osmoflo sending desalination units to Gorgon gas field

Australian supplier Osmoflo has begun despatching desalination equipment to the Gorgon gas field project located 130-200km off the north-west coast of Western Australia.

Saudis launch national solar desalination initiative

The King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology announced on 24 January 2010 the launch of the National Initiative for Solar Water Desalination (NISWD) under the patronage of the King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud.

Stover becomes Oasys vice-president of engineering

Rick Stover, whose exit from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) was announced last week, joined Oasys, the developer of Engineered Osmosis™ systems for desalination, energy and resource recovery, as vice- president of engineering, on 19 January 2010.

Acuamed desalination plants to use renewable energy

All the desalination plants owned by Acuamed, the Spanish water supplier, as well as distribution networks and company offices, will be run on renewable energy, the company announced on 22 December 2009.

Carlsbad legal challenge loses Surfrider Foundation.

One of the two groups staging a last-ditch challenge to the Carlsbad desalination plant, Surfrider Foundation, has abandoned its legal challenge to the California State Lands Commission's approval of the project.

Sanz and Awerbuch to lead IDA WEX sessions

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has released details of the two desalination sessions it is organizing as a Support Partner for WEX Global - the Water and Energy Exchange in Madrid.

Queensland can use geothermal desalination says study

Queensland, Australia, has ample geothermal energy resources to power thermal desalination plants and provide clean water for small towns suffering from water shortages, according to The University of Queensland's Queensland Geothermal Energy Centre of Excellence.

Osmotic powerplant prototype opened

The world's first prototype osmotic powerplant was opened on 24 November 2009 in Norway by Crown Princess Mette-Marit.

Location of the Carlsbad desalination plant by the Encina power station.

Preconstruction for Carlsbad desalination can go ahead

Site demolition and preparation for the Carlsbad Desalination Project can now take place following the issue to Poseidon Resources on 3 November 2009 of its Coastal Development Permit (CDP) from the California Coastal Commission (CCC).

World Bank to help energy/water development link

The World Bank is to help developing countries to better plan and scale-up their energy demand in tandem with water resource management.

Texas state funding wind-powered desalination pilots

The Texas Department of Rural Affairs (TDRA) is offering US$ 1.5 million to smaller local governments in the US state for brackish-water desalination demonstration projects using wind energy. Deadline for applications for the 2010 Desalination Fund is 29 January 2010.

Wave-powered desalination plant to produce bottled water

The Texas General Land Office has granted the first-ever state offshore wave-energy lease to Texas-based Renew Blue Inc (RBI), who will use ocean water and waves to produce 3,000 gal/day (11,350 L/d) of bottled desalinated water.

Veolia wins Az Zour MED desalination plant in Kuwait

Veolia Environnement announced on 13 January 2014 that its Sidem subsidiary had won the contract to build the seawater desalination plant at the Az Zour North complex in Kuwait for € 320 million.

MD developer seeking US powerplant partners

Swedish membrane distillation (MD) manufacturer Scarab AB is seeking US powerplant operators to allow it to demonstrate the technology's ability to convert waste streams to feedwater using waste heat from turbines and engines.

JPL and CalTech to aid LA's water/energy efficiency

The City of Los Angeles, the Los Angeles Department of Water & Power (DWP) and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with its managing institution, the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) are combining forces to establish Los Angeles as a powerhouse for demonstrated energy and water innovation.

US export finance boost for water and energy projects

US exports for renewable-energy, water and nuclear-power projects approved after 1 July 2009 are eligible for a maximum repayment term of up to 18 years under export financing provided by the Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank).


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