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Oxnard AWPF currently under construction

Finance agreed for Camarillo regional desalter studies

Two water districts and two - possibly three - cities in southern California have agree to finance studies for a regional brackish-water desalination plant to be located near Camarillo.

Kuwait launches its largest desalination management project

Kuwait University's faculty of engineering has launched the Gulf state's largest ever water desalination and management project.

Corporate water disclosure guidelines launched by UN

An attempt to build a common approach to water-use disclosure by companies has been launched by the UN Global Compact's CEO Water Mandate.

South Florida embraces desalination and water reuse for the future

The days of limitless and cheap water in South Florida are gone. Planning, investments in alternative water sources such as desalination and reuse, and conservation are required to secure reliability and sustainability of current and future water supplies. The South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) is the oldest and largest of the five districts in Florida. The district's mission is to oversee the water resources in the southern half of the state by balancing and improving water quality, flood control, natural systems and water supply within a 16-county region. A key initiative is restoration of the Everglades, a vast wetlands and US national park. By augmenting supplies through alternative sources - including desalination of brackish and seawater, reclaimed water and reducing demand through year-round water conservation, the SFWMD hopes to continue quenching the thirst for a renewed environment and an ever-growing population. Realizing that water desalination using reverse osmosis is energy-intensive, the district also supports studies and projects that use renewable energy to reduce the carbon footprint, operate more efficiently to reduce water use, and manage concentrate to protect the environment. To encourage diversification of water resources, public utilities that use reclaimed water for outdoor irrigation are exempt from water-shortage restrictions. This article appeared in the February/March 2009 issue of D&WR magazine.

Abu Dhabi rejects more desalination despite growing water stress

Environment Policy and Planning at Environment Agency - Abu Dhabi (EAD) has rejected upping desalination as a means to counter growing water scarcity in the emirate, opting instead for conservation and reuse.

Indian desalination conference set for February

The Indian Desalination Society (InDA) has published a brochure for its National Conference on Water Purification Technologies & Management (InDACON 2012).

World Bank to help energy/water development link

The World Bank is to help developing countries to better plan and scale-up their energy demand in tandem with water resource management.

CH2M Hill reports to USEPA on industrial water use

Water reuse is one of a number of trends for water usage in American industry identified in a report just published by engineering company CH2M Hill for the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA).

IDA president to hold WEX desalination workshop

The president of the International Desalination Association (IDA), Dr Corrado Sommariva, who is managing director generation, ILF Consulting Engineers, Middle East, will be giving a workshop on Economics and Management of Desalination on 30-31 January 2012 at the 2012 Water and Energy Exchange (WEX) international summit in Lisbon, Portugal.

Sanz and Awerbuch to lead IDA WEX sessions

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has released details of the two desalination sessions it is organizing as a Support Partner for WEX Global - the Water and Energy Exchange in Madrid.

Reuse highlighted in WSAA urban water roadmap

The volume of water being recycled by the largest water utilities in Australia has increased by 117% since 1999/2000. In addition, it is estimated that, by 2013, 460 million m³/year will be supplied to Australia's growing cities by desalination plants.

Tuas planning area in the west of Singapore will host the new water reclamation plant

PUB picks CH2M Hill to develop detailed designs for Tuas project

Singapore's PUB has appointed CH2M Hill Singapore as detailed design consultant for the Tuas Water Reclamation Plant, after a pre-qualification exercise.

'I see great opportunities in the water utility and building services segment in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan.' Hideo Shirakawa, East Asia managing director, Grundfos

Five Minutes With: Hideo Shirakawa, East Asia managing director, Grundfos

The 2016 Summer Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro and 2014 Winter Olympic Games in Sochi are among the Grundfos projects to inspire newly-appointed East Asia managing director Hideo Shirakawa

Desalination part of new Algeria-Morocco cooperation

A meeting on issues related to water management and purification and seawater desalination is to be held in Algiers on 18 April 2011 between officials from the relevant ministries in Algeria and Morocco.

Water in Mining: Efficiency, Reuse, Water Management Strategies & Technologies will be hosted on 9 to 10 April 2019, in Toronto, Canada

Water in Mining 2019 unveils full speaker line-up

Water in Mining 2019 has unveiled its full conference programme packed with debate, knowledge sharing, networking, case studies, round tables and panel discussions on the latest in water management for mining companies.

Water in Mining 2019 will address tailing pond issues among other big water challenges for global mining companies

Water in Mining 2019 to target global mining's water issues

Water in Mining is introducing its first global conference to address water management challenges within the mining sector.

Desalination help published with WHO drinking water standards

The World Health Organization launched the 4th edition of its Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (ISBN: 978 92 4 154815 1) at the Singapore Water Week on 4 July 2011 - and also launched a separate guide for desalination.

Japanese giants buy Metito stake

Japanese companies Mitsubishi Corporation (MC), and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, (MHI), have acquired a joint 38.4% stake in United Arab Emirates-based water management company Metito for an undisclosed sum.

Speakers announced for IDA conference in Banff

Speakers and sessions for the May conference on Water Recycling and Desalination for the Oil & Gas Industry have been announced by the organizers, the International Desalination Association (IDA).

Contamination security white papers released in USA

New security technologies for detecting and monitoring water supplies could be developed as a result of a contamination warning system (CWS) demonstration pilot project in the USA undertaken by CH2M Hill and the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD).

1,100 US counties face water supply crisis by 2050, says report

A new analysis for the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), examining the effects of global warming on water supply and demand in the contiguous United States, has found that more than 1,100 counties will face higher risks of water shortages by mid-century as the result of global warming.

IDA president calls for new thinking on sustainability

The president of the International Desalination Association (IDA), Dr Abdullah Al-Alshaikh, described the transition to sustainability as "one of the most important paradigm shifts of the modern era," when he addressed the International Water Summit (IWS) in Abu Dhabi on 21 January 2013.

MD desalination pilot successfully used with waste heat

Results from an Australian trial to demonstrate the potential for a membrane distillation (MD) process to use waste heat from heavy industry to desalinate saline effluent have shown the system can produce high-quality water at temperatures as low as 30°C without an increase in greenhouse-gas emissions.

NSF publishes commercial/residential water-reuse standard

The first US national standard for commercial and residential onsite water-reuse treatment systems was published on 15 November 2011 by NSF International, the US-based public health and environmental organization.

Registration open for WateReuse research conference

Registration is open for the 18th Annual Water Reuse & Desalination Research Conference to be held by the WateReuse Research Foundation in Las Vegas on 19-20 May 2014.

IX system improves Alabama MF plant's performance

The City of Oneonta in Alabama, USA, commissioned a 3 MGD (10,500 m³/d) MIEX® ion-exchange system in August 2012 to provide dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal prior to coagulation and microfiltration of Oneonta Utilities' Little Warrior river water source.

Webcast to present industrial water-reuse successes

A webcast taking a look at three industrial water-reuse success stories demonstrating why recycled water is a viable, sustainable, and necessary option is to be presented by the WateReuse Association (WRA) on 14 November 2012.

Direct potable reuse to be debated at WRA symposium

The WateReuse Association has announced the program for its annual symposium, including a closing panel discussion entitled Direct Potable Reuse: Not a Pipe Dream Anymore?

2015 World Water Forum will be held in South Korea

The World Water Council has announced that the next World Water Forum will be held in Daegu - Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea.

Desalination health and environment book to be published in June

A book on the health and environmental impacts of desalination is to be published by CRC Press in collaboration with the World Health Organization on 25 June 2010.

The new partnerships reflect the theme of SIWW 2017, ‘Forging Alliances Amongst Global Water Utility Leaders’

PUB partners with SWCC and Water Corporation on shared challenges

Singapore's national water agency, PUB, has formed two new knowledge sharing partnerships with key international water utilities through memorandums of understanding (MOUs) signed at Singapore International Water Week, 8 to 12 July 2017.

WateReuse has white paper for Obama and US Congress

The WateReuse Association prepared a white paper in December for the US Congress and President-elect Obama's transition team on Providing Safe, Secure and Sustainable Solutions for America's Water Needs.

'We all, as a global community, cannot afford to use water once and dispose of it.' Peter Nichol, CH2M global market director

Q&A: Peter Nicol, CH2M global market director, on Brazil's reuse policy

Peter Nicol, global market director for CH2M, outlines how the firm is helping to develop Brazil's action plan for a national water reuse policy

IDA releases more detail of Portofino conference

Abstracts of four "notable" papers for the the International Desalination Association's (IDA) Desalination Industry Action For Good conference in Portofino, Italy, in May were sent out by the association on 18 February 2011.

IDA announces nine new Gulf task force members

The importance now being accorded to the environment by the desalination industry was emphasized on 22 April 2010 when the International Desalination Association (IDA) announced the addition of nine distinguished scientists to its Gulf regional task force and an environmental symposium in Bahrain in December 2010.

Clockwise from top left: Stan Williams, Jonathan Loveland and Chris Costello.

Poseidon signs two VPs and construction director

Three experienced US water industry personnel have joined Poseidon Resources, following the departure of Nikolay Voutchkov earlier this year, the company announced on 20 July 2009.

Understanding microbes could increase MBR efficiency, conference told

A thorough understanding of the physiology of micro-organisms found in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) used in advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse would greatly improve the overall efficiency of these systems, a conference in Singapore was told on 23 January 2009.

The Membrane Technology Conference 2017 in Long Beach, California, overlooks the Pacific Ocean

View from the Membrane Technology Conference 2017

The Membrane Technology Conference (MTC) 2017 is in full swing in Long Beach, California, and talk on the show floor reflects a mix of aspirations and concerns.

CH2M reuse promotion drive picks up Stockholm prize

Colorado-based service and engineering company, CH2M, has won the 2015 Stockholm International Water Institute's (SIWI's) Stockholm Industry Water Award, for developing and advancing methods to clean water and increasing public acceptance of recycled water.

RFP to follow UAE renewable-energy desalination launch

A pilot program to test and develop advanced energy-efficient seawater desalination technologies that could be powered by renewable energy sources was launched on 17 January 2013 by Masdar, the UAE renewable energy company.

Solar still v RO comparison for S Australia desalination

A full solar distillation plant was compared with reverse osmosis (RO) for a small groundwater desalination project in South Australia and RO was chosen as the preferred option.

Tianjin Dagang Desalination Plant

IDA issues call for Tianjin World Congress papers

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has issued a call for papers for its World Congress 2013 - Desalination: A Promise for the Future which will take place in China.

The QWE laboratory at Texas A&M at Qatar university.

Qatar initiative seeks sustainable water and energy

An initiative to help bring sustainability to Qatar's water and energy, which will include improved technologies for desalination, efficient reuse and zero-liquid discharge systems, was launched by Texas A&M University at Qatar on 1 February 2010.

Australian government to fund stormwater reuse

The government of Australia has invited funding applications by 7 December 2011 for support of stormwater harvesting and reuse projects.

Arizona centre opens to address water scarcity

The University of Arizona's Water and Energy Sustainable Technology (WEST) Centre has opened with a brief to "help enable researchers, public officials, and industry leaders to work together in developing new technologies and more energy sustainable solutions to address water scarcity," according to founding member and sponsor, Dow Water and Process Solutions.

EDS calls for 2014 Cyprus conference papers

The European Desalination Society has issued a call for papers and opened exhibition booking for its conference on Desalination for the Environment, Clean Water & Energy to be held in Limassol, Cyprus, on 11-15 May 2014.

Sembcorp takes on ZLD water management plant in China

A total water management plant to support a coal-to-diesel project in Wangqiao Industrial Park, located in Changzhi city in China's Shanxi province, is to be provided by Sembcorp Industries of Singapore, the company announced on 18 October 2013.

Desalitech launches US base and hires new staff

Desalitech Ltd, developer of the Closed Circuit Desalination (CCD) sytem, announced on 18 December 2013 that it will be establishing its US headquarters in Massachusetts. It has also hired four new staff in the US.

Mazen A Alami

Black & Veatch creates Gulf states regional manager

Mazen A Alami has been appointed Black & Veatch's regional manager in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states.

Stover becomes Oasys vice-president of engineering

Rick Stover, whose exit from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) was announced last week, joined Oasys, the developer of Engineered Osmosis™ systems for desalination, energy and resource recovery, as vice- president of engineering, on 19 January 2010.

ConocoPhillips becomes 3rd Saltworks Technologies investor

Canadian desalination and brine treatment company Saltworks Technologies announced on 23 May 2014 that it had received investment funding from ConocoPhillips Company, Saltworks' third industrial shareholder.

IDA leads Energy-Water Nexus Roundtable at Singapore week

The International Desalination Association (IDA) will support the Water Leaders Summit when it opens on 5 July 2011 at Singapore International Water Week.

Nirosoft owner makes European acquisition

RWL Water LLC, which owns Israeli desalination and water treatment company Nirosoft, announced on 16 November 2011 that it had acquired a controlling interest in Eurotec WTT, a leading European manufacturer of wastewater treatment systems.

IDA Fellowship winners from Iran and Japan

This year's winners of the International Desalination Association's Fellowship awards come from Iran and Japan, IDA announced on 27 April 2009.

Chinese lead water-reuse positivity in GE survey

GE announced on 5 June 2013 the final part of the results from its three-country 3,000-sample consumer water-reuse survey.

New digital business practices will change desal and reuse project development and operations

The Long Read: How digital is transforming desal and reuse

The digital economy is transforming water utilities and industrial players, and bringing potentially profound changes for desalination and reuse specialists. The common thread is data.

The schedule of tenders on Tuas Nexus was unveiled at Singapore International Water Week 2018 at Marina Bay Sands, Singapore

Singapore to tender S$5 billion of water and waste works

Singapore's PUB and National Environment Agency (NEA) are to tender more than S$5 billion ($3.7 billion) of works covering civil, mechanical and electrical engineering for Tuas Nexus, an integrated wastewater and waste treatment facility.

Asia-Pacific water-recycling conference calls for papers

The Australian Water Association (AWA), an affiliate of the International Desalination Association has collaborated with the Water Services Association of Australia and WateReuse Australia to present the Asia Pacific Water Recycling Conference 2013.

Escondido moves towards indirect potable reuse

The City of Escondido in southern California, USA, could be about to follow neighbour San Diego in setting up an indirect potable water-reuse (IPR) scheme as part of a wastewater facility upgrade costing about US$ 200 million.

GE expands HERO licensing agreement

GE Power & Water announced on 1 February 2011 that it has completed a new expanded licensing agreement to allow it to continue offering High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HERO™) systems to help more of its industrial customers increase their water usage efficiency and reuse capacity.

EDS posts desalination courses for early 2011

The European Desalination Society has posted a half-year series of courses on its website for 2011 related to water desalination and membrane technology. All the courses will take place in Pegli, close to Genoa, Italy, at the Hotel Mediterranée.

Experts list focus areas for world water

Low-energy seawater desalination, network asset management, and energy efficiency in wastewater treatment were among global focus areas in technology identified by more than 300 water technology experts at a recent international summit.

IDA backs Abu Dhabi water summit

The International Desalination Association (IDA) announced on 12 November 2012 that it would be supporting the 2013 International Water Summit in Abu Dhabi as a Knowledge Partner and would lead sessions on water and energy.

IDA on road to Morocco in March 2012

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has announced the first event of its kind in the North Africa region, a conference on desalination and sustainability in partnership with the Societé Marocaine des Membranes et de Dessalement (SMMD).

Innovations in IDA Congress technical program

Round-table sessions and touch-screen availability of poster presentations will be used for the first time in the International Desalination Association's World Congress in Dubai on 7-12 November 2009, IDA announced on 19 October 2009.

Perth seawater desalination plant

Australia wins bid to host 2011 IDA World Congress

Perth in western Australia is to be the next host city for the International Desalination Association's World Congress on Desalination & Water Reuse in 2011. This is the first time the industry's premier event has visited Australia.

New hybrid membranes chosen for Victor Valley MBRs

The Victor Valley Wastewater Reclamation Authority (VVWRA), on the edge of the Mojave desert in California, has selected FibrePlate™ hybrid-membrane™ technology manufactured by Fibracast Inc for two sub-regional membrane bioreactor (MBR) facilities.

IDA announces scholarship program winners

Students from Brazil and Singapore are this year's winners of the Channabasappa Memorial Scholarship awarded by the International Desalination Association (IDA).

The IDA has extended the deadline for abstracts for IDA World Congress to 30 January 2019

Final call for papers for IDA World Congress 2019

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has issued a final call for papers for its IDA World Congress 2019 in Dubai, 20 to 24 October 2019.

Arizona panel makes water-reuse recommendations

More than 60 recommendations including many on wastewater reuse have been forwarded to the governor of the US state of Arizona by a "Blue Ribbon" panel formed by the governor, Jan Brewer, in 2009.

VA Tech bags Indian power water treatment contract

VA Tech Wabag Limited, based in Chennai, India, has received an order for total water management of the Kakatiya and Rayalaseema thermal power projects under a balance of plants package as part of a consortium with APGENCO. The Wabag portion involves around INR 2900 million (€ 47 million).

Topics and presenters announced for IDA Academy course

The next International Desalination Association (IDA) Academy course, to be held at the International Water Summit in Abu Dhabi on 21‑22 January 2014 will feature Integration of Hybrid Technologies with Renewable Energy to Improve the Sustainability of Water Desalination and Sustainable Operation with Advanced Membrane Filtration.

EDS sets Barcelona papers deadline

The European Desalination Society has issued a call for papers for its next conference in the Desalination For The Environment which it is holding in Barcelona on 23-26 April 2012 in association with Asociación Española de Desalación y Reutilización.

Burke and Birkett get special awards at IDA congress

The International Desalination Association (IDA) presented seven Presidential Awards at the end of its World Congress in Tianjin, China on 24 October 2013.

MemPulse MBR equipment with air scouring technology significantly reduces energy consumption.

Modesto water quality project gets Siemens MBR equipment

Equipment for a 12.6 MGD (47,700 m³/d) membrane bioreactor (MBR) system is to be supplied to City of Modesto, California, USA, by Siemens Water Technologies for the Jennings Road Water Quality Control Facility.

Flygt Concertor is 'the world's first wastewater pumping system with integrated intelligence,' says Xylem

Xylem and DC Water team up on smart water R&D

Xylem and the District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority (DC Water), Maryland, US, have signed an MoU on research and development in smart water infrastructure and advanced data analytics.

Ciarán Ó Cuinn

New MEDRC director looks at Middle East cooperation

Ciarán Ó Cuinn, currently executive director for external and strategic affairs at Dublin City University, Ireland, is to become director of the Middle East Desalination Research Center in Oman.

Coquina Coast plumps for land-based desalination

An interesting comparison between land- and ship-based desalination systems has been revealed in the Final Recommended Project Report submitted by consultants Malcolm Pirnie for the Coquina Coast Seawater Desalination Alternative Water Supply Project.

'We need to remove the constraints that prevent us from delivering sustainable solutions,' Rod Naylor, GHD market leader for water, Australia

Five Minutes With: Rod Naylor, GHD market leader for water, Australia

Rod Naylor is to join GHD as market leader for water in Australia, where the firm has worked on all the big six desalination plants

UN presentation for ERI chiefs

HP Michelet and GG Pique, respectively chairman and president/CEO of Energy Recovery Inc, will deliver a presentation at the United Nations on 14 October 2009 entitled Affordable Desalination As The Sustainable Solution.

Tunisia and Malta to share desalination expertise

Tunisia has signed an agreement with the Mediterranean island of Malta involving sharing of expertise on desalination plants.

Desalination "part of Reclamation's toolkit", AMTA told

Commissioner of the US Bureau of Reclamation Mike Connor believes "desalination has to be part of the toolkit" that the bureau uses to address the issue of shrinking water resources in the western United States.

Lamberts Bay seawater desalination goes to Veolia

A 1,700 m³/d seawater desalination plant, upgradeable to 5,000 m³/d, is to be built in Lamberts Bay in South Africa for the Cederberg Municipality by Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies South Africa.

Top 10 most read stories of 2016

It was a big year for desalination and water reuse, with two major businesses up for sale, and mega plants grabbing the headlines. We present our top 10 most read stories of 2016.

Engineers check the systems at Dow's research and development centre in Tarragona, Spain

Dow to pilot petrochemical wastewater treatment at its ethylene cracker facility

Dow Water & Process Solutions is planning to demonstrate a new treatment solution for petrochemical wastewater at its site in Tarragona, Spain, from next year.

Ng Joo Hee, chief executive of PUB, Singapore's national water agency, addresses Singapore International Water Week (2015).

Singapore pledges S$200 million for water research

Singapore's National Research Foundation is pledging S$200 million ($148 million) for the water industry through its research, innovation and enterprise (RIE) 2020 plan.

The IDA is inviting submissions for papers to be given at IDA World Congress 2019

Call for papers for IDA World Congress 2019

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has issued a request for papers for inclusion in the IDA World Congress 2019 technical programme.

Sydney's SWRO desalination project - working towards sustainability

Sydney's desalination project will produce 250,000 m /d of drinking water, which equates to approximately 15% of Sydney's supply. Sydney is currently solely reliant on surrounding dams for water. Seawater desalination will form a supplementary water source with water from the plant directly injected into Sydney's drinking water network. In planning for the plant, Sydney Water came under much scrutiny from the public regarding the environmental impact of the plant, including the amount of energy required (and resulting greenhouse gases) and the effect of the seawater concentrate on the marine environment. In response to this, Sydney Water has worked to improve a number of areas to make desalination a more sustainable water supply alternative. An array of measures has been incorporated into the desalination plant to improve efficiency, maximise reuse of waste and complement the natural environment. Various specialist studies have been undertaken to improve the performance of the plant in these respects and also to quantify any impact of desalination on the surrounding environment. Research projects to further improve aspects of the desalination process with the potential for significant environmental and economic benefit have been undertaken and will continue. Combined, these measures contribute to making desalination a sustainable solution to supplement Sydney's water supply during continuing drought, with population growth and climate change. This article appeared in D&WR magazine's February/March 2009 issue.

UK/Saudi initiative targets low-cost carbon neutral desalination using solar dome

NEOM has signed an agreement with UK-based Solar Water Plc to build the first ever "solar dome" desalination plants in NEOM, northwest Saudi Arabia. The pilot project claims it will revolutionise the water desalination process.

BASF industrial water business transfered to Degrémont

German chemical giant BASF announced on 30 September 2013 the successful closing of the transaction to divest its subsidiary Industrial Water Management France SAS, headquartered in Lyon, France, to Degrémont, a subsidiary of Suez Environnement.

Industrial WateReuse conference to be held in Long Beach

The WateReuse Association (WRA) has issued a call for abstracts for its first Industrial Reuse Specialty Conference.

IDA 2015 World Congress draws 1,700 delegates

More than 1,700 delegates from 63 countries attended the International Desalination Association's (IDA's) 2015 World Congress held in San Diego recently according to the association's key metrics published this week. Awards for papers and presentations topped US$ 30,000.

US$ 10.6 million grant for water-reuse schemes

The US Bureau of Reclamation announced on 4 May 2012 the selection of seven projects in the Mid-Pacific Region to receive more than US$ 10.6 million in WaterSMART Title XVI water recycling and reuse funding.

Sembcorp reuse closes Chinese port-zone's water loop

Singapore company Sembcorp today opens its first industrial water reclamation plant in China on 13 December 2011.

Analyst forecasts near doubling of water reuse in fracking industry by 2020

Only 2% the US fracking industry's US$ 6 billion plus outlay on water management in 2014 was spent on treatment of the 70,000 Ml of contaminated water the industry produced according to a report by market analyst Bluefield Research. But the volume of reuse will almost double by 2020.

The tourist destination of Hurghada, Egypt, will benefit from new desalination capacity

Egypt pledges $51 billion for water projects over 20 years

Egypt is stepping up efforts to address water scarcity, pledging EGP 900 billion ($51 billion) for a national water management plan over 20 years.

Italy's De Nora bags Severn Trent's electrochlorination arm

UK-based electrochlorination firm Severn Trent and Italy's Industrie De Nora have agreed the sale of Severn Trent's Water Purification business to De Nora.

Nirosoft wins large Colombian desalination plant

Nirosoft Industries Ltd has been awarded a contract by Pacific Rubiales Energy Corp (PREC) for design and construction of a produced-water desalination plant in Colombia.


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