Energy, Energy, Sweden, Reverse Osmosis, Water Quality
Stockholm water week seeks abstracts and seminars
Abstracts and seminar proposals have been invited for the 2010 World Water Week in Stockholm, Sweden, during 5-11 September 2010.
MD developer seeking US powerplant partners
Swedish membrane distillation (MD) manufacturer Scarab AB is seeking US powerplant operators to allow it to demonstrate the technology's ability to convert waste streams to feedwater using waste heat from turbines and engines.
GE appoints WIBAX as Nordic water tech distributor
GE announced on 27 May 2014 that the Swedish company WIBAX Energy AB, part of the WIBAX Group, would distribute GE's water technologies in the Nordic region.
Norit UF membranes for Swedish water treatment
A surface-water treatment plant that will be used to supply Göteborg, Sweden's second largest city, is to use ultrafiltration (UF) technology supplied by Norit X-Flow of the Netherlands.
Corporate water disclosure guidelines launched by UN
An attempt to build a common approach to water-use disclosure by companies has been launched by the UN Global Compact's CEO Water Mandate.
GE expands HERO licensing agreement
GE Power & Water announced on 1 February 2011 that it has completed a new expanded licensing agreement to allow it to continue offering High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HERO) systems to help more of its industrial customers increase their water usage efficiency and reuse capacity.
Qatar and Sweden plot renewables-fuelled desalination project
A renewables-fuelled desalination project aiming to produce water for $1/m3 is to be jointly developed by Qatar and Sweden, reports The Peninsular.
Modesto water quality project gets Siemens MBR equipment
Equipment for a 12.6 MGD (47,700 m³/d) membrane bioreactor (MBR) system is to be supplied to City of Modesto, California, USA, by Siemens Water Technologies for the Jennings Road Water Quality Control Facility.
MF/RO plant may be Santa Clarita salt solution
A microfiltration/reverse-osmosis (MF/RO) advanced wastewater treatment plant is one of several options being considered by the Santa Clarita Valley Sanitation District (SCVSD) in California, USA, to deal with excessive chloride levels in the wastewater it discharges to the Santa Clara River from its two treatment plants.
Finance agreed for Camarillo regional desalter studies
Two water districts and two - possibly three - cities in southern California have agree to finance studies for a regional brackish-water desalination plant to be located near Camarillo.
Bundamba wastewater reuse plant passes second quality test
The second Water Quality Report for the Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant in Queensland, Australia, has confirmed the excellent quality of the purified water it produces and proved that the water is safe to add to the drinking supply, says government agency WaterSecure
MD desalination pilot successfully used with waste heat
Results from an Australian trial to demonstrate the potential for a membrane distillation (MD) process to use waste heat from heavy industry to desalinate saline effluent have shown the system can produce high-quality water at temperatures as low as 30°C without an increase in greenhouse-gas emissions.
West Basin desalination demo could begin next year
Construction could begin in 2010 on the Ocean-Water Desalination Demonstration Project at Redondo Beach near Los Angeles, California, the West Basin Municipal Water District announced on 30 July 2009.
Parsons selected for California water-reuse expansion
California's West Basin Water District has awarded its largest ever water-reuse contract to Pasadena-based Parsons Corporation on a design-build basis.
Desalitech closed-circuit technology set for BWRO project
Israel-based Desalitech Ltd announced on 7 April 2011 that it had been awarded a contract to design and build a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system for Environmental Protection Technologies (EPT), a global company that leads the industrial wastewater treatment market in Israel.
Veolia to build Saudi Arabia's largest UF/RO plant
The largest ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant in Saudi Arabia is to be built for Marafiq, the country's leading water and electricity services operator, by Veolia Water.
Haverstraw RO pilot plant starts operations
Operation of United Water's Haverstraw Water Supply Project desalination pilot study located in West Haverstraw, New York, began on 23 November 2010.
Metito lands Bechtel SWRO desalination in Australia
Dubai-based Metito has landed two new seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants in Australia and is currently nearing completion of one in Qatar.
Preconstruction for Carlsbad desalination can go ahead
Site demolition and preparation for the Carlsbad Desalination Project can now take place following the issue to Poseidon Resources on 3 November 2009 of its Coastal Development Permit (CDP) from the California Coastal Commission (CCC).
FEDCO wins Ras Az Zawr energy-recovery contract
The energy-recovery device (ERD) contract for the reverse-osmosis (RO) section of the giant Ras Az Zawr (Ras Azzour) desalination project in Saudi Arabia has been awarded to Fluid Equipment Development Co (FEDCO).
Osmoflo sending desalination units to Gorgon gas field
Australian supplier Osmoflo has begun despatching desalination equipment to the Gorgon gas field project located 130-200km off the north-west coast of Western Australia.
Saudis launch national solar desalination initiative
The King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology announced on 24 January 2010 the launch of the National Initiative for Solar Water Desalination (NISWD) under the patronage of the King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud.
Arizona RO plant opens solar-energy system
A 459 kW photovoltaic (PV) solar power system has been completed at the Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Facility for the Town of Gila Bend, Arizona, by Solon Corporation, the company announced on 13 February 2013.
Texas state funding wind-powered desalination pilots
The Texas Department of Rural Affairs (TDRA) is offering US$ 1.5 million to smaller local governments in the US state for brackish-water desalination demonstration projects using wind energy. Deadline for applications for the 2010 Desalination Fund is 29 January 2010.
Membrane technology added to Polish power plant
A third demineralization line using membrane and ion-exchange technology is to be added to the extension of the water treatment plant for the Patnów II power station in Poland.
Abengoa to build power-plant RO project in Chile
Spanish contractor Abengoa has been selected by Chilean energy company AES Gener to develop a reverse-osmosis desalination plant for the Angamos power plant.
ABB to power giant Magtaa RO desalination plant
ABB has been awared a US$ 28 million contract to provide power for the Magtaa desalination plant in Algeria, which, at 500,000 m³/d will be the largest reverse-osmosis plant in the world.
Aquatech wins SWRO desalination contract in Gujarat
Tata Power has awarded Aquatech International Corporation an EPC contract for a 25,200 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant for India's first Ultra Mega Power Project (UMPP) at Mundra in coastal Gujarat.
Cambria desalination will bring environmental benefit
The US Army Corps of Engineers announced on 28 April 2009 that it will receive US$ 2.5 million in funding through the new American Recovery & Reinvestment Act to develop the Cambria desalination project north-west of San Luis Obispo in California.
Queensland gas desalination project halted
Dalby Regional Council in Queensland, Australia, has decided not to proceed with a previously announced joint venture with Arrow Energy that would have seen an Aus$ 16 million desalination plant begin operations near Dalby before the end of 2009.
Dublin desalination is one option of ten
Dublin City Council invited views on 21 November 2008 on 10 options for augmenting existing water sources for the Dublin region, including desalination of water from the Irish Sea.
Bahrain MoU signed for wind-powered desalination technology
Wind-powered desalination technology is to be promoted in Bahrain under a memorandum of understanding (MoU) signed on 31 January 2011 between Jade Consultancy of Bahrain and Synlift Systems GmbH of Germany.
Scottish company wins order for North Sea RO units
Aberdeen-based Monitor Systems Scotland has won a contract to supply six 50 m³/d reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination units for three North Sea offshore platforms operated by TAQA Bratani, owned by Abu Dhabi National Energy Company PSJC.
Hauge and Isobarix cleared of contempt of court
The US District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia* on 20 March 2014 cleared Leif Hauge and his energy-recovery device company Isobarix of contempt of court in a case brought by Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).
Nirosoft selects ERI PXs for Limassol desalination
The 50,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant currently under construction in Limassol, Cyprus, will use PX-260 pressure-exchangers from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).
RO included in Czech powerplant water treatment upgrade
Wabag Brno has begun modernisation of the water treatment plant at the Prunéřov power station in the Czech Republic, involving clarification, filtration, reverse osmosis, softening and demineralisation.
Desalination affected by California powerplant ruling
The powerplant with which California's new 189,000 m³/d Carlsbad seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant is co-located has been ordered to cease once-through cooling by 2017. The Huntington beach powerplant, site of another proposed desalination plant, has been given until 2020.
Three desalination workshops follow IDA World Congress
Three different aspects of desalination will be covered in workshops announced on 10 September 2009 by the International Desalination Association (IDA), which will follow its upcoming World Congress in Dubai.
Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination: Innovative Intake Designs
The search for additional reductions in the cost of seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination needs new leads now energy recovery has gone about as far as it can go. The authors believe this can be done by improving raw-water quality using innovative intake designs. The use of "filtration" type intakes can have a significant effect on reducing the life-cycle cost of a SWRO plant. This article first appeared in the November/December 2010 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
How we delivered Az Zour North phase one
"With hindsight we were very lucky to get everything through on time and that our construction partner Hyundai Heavy Industries was on time. Fortunately we escaped a lot of those little wrinkles that need sorting out during construction, and can drag on and on, and so we kept to time," says Andy Biffen, chief executive of project delivery vehicle Az Zour Shamal.
The Long Read: Do we have the technology for potable water reuse?
Water reuse for drinking purposes is racing up the agenda in the US and elsewhere. Work to draw up new rules for potable reuse is advancing in states including California and Arizona, as well as in Canada and the European Union. Technologies are being piloted, and plants permitted.
"We're now at more than $100 million revenue." Doug Brown, AquaVenture chairman and CEO
AquaVenture chief executive Doug Brown has a track record of delivering shareholder value. When he joined water technology and engineering firm Ionics as chief executive in 2003, the struggling business was trading at $16 a share.
Consolidated Water lines up Mexican mega-project
The Playas de Rosarito seawater RO desalination mega-plant project has been six years in the making. It began as a twinkle in Consolidated Water's eye even before Mexico had introduced its new public-private partnerships law, but the act's introduction in 2012 gave the project a clear structure for moving ahead.
AquaSure's Victorian Desalination Plant secures its first water order
The Victorian Desalination Project (VDP) is a mega-size seawater RO facility, able to produce up to 150 billion litres of water a year when running at full capacity. Located at the southerly most tip of Australia on the Bass Coast, it was procured by the Victorian State government from AquaSure, a joint venture of Degrémont (now Suez), Macquarie Capital, and Thiess (now Ventia), in 2009, for a capital cost of $3.5 billion.
Membrane 'summit' will precede AMTA conference
The 2nd Osmosis Membrane Summit will precede this year's annual conference of the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) in San Diego.
Dow UF is sole pretreatment for Chinese cogen plant
China's ShanXi DaTong Co-gen has selected Dow ultrafiltration (UF) membranes for its 300MW heat/electricity cogeneration plant in DaTong in ShanXi province.
Maltese desalination test-bed shows SalTec energy-recovery advantages
Throughout the desalination industry, plant operators are looking for long-term solutions with lower lifecycle cost because of the link between water costs and energy costs. In order to meet operators' demands and requirements, equipment manufacturers are investing considerable resources in the development of new technologies that will reduce energy costs. The Water Services Corporation in Malta is one example of a forward-looking operator of a seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant seeking to ensure the production of high-quality drinking water at an affordable price. Established in 1993 to produce and distribute potable water on the islands of Malta and Gozo, WSC has an annual production target of 35 million m to satisfy the needs of its 400,000 residents and in excess of one million tourists. With the drive to produce greater efficiencies and water quality WSC has taken an opportunity to investigate and monitor the potential of a new technology from KSB, the SalTec pressure boosting and energy recovery system. The SalTec DT pressure exchanger in combination with KSB's HGM RO high-pressure pump creates a highly attractive proposition for RO plant designers and operators. The SalTec DT system provides a nominal capacity of 250 m /h, giving it the capability to operate in plants with train sizes ranging between 4,400 m /d and 5,000 m /d of permeate at common recovery rates.
South Florida embraces desalination and water reuse for the future
The days of limitless and cheap water in South Florida are gone. Planning, investments in alternative water sources such as desalination and reuse, and conservation are required to secure reliability and sustainability of current and future water supplies. The South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) is the oldest and largest of the five districts in Florida. The district's mission is to oversee the water resources in the southern half of the state by balancing and improving water quality, flood control, natural systems and water supply within a 16-county region. A key initiative is restoration of the Everglades, a vast wetlands and US national park. By augmenting supplies through alternative sources - including desalination of brackish and seawater, reclaimed water and reducing demand through year-round water conservation, the SFWMD hopes to continue quenching the thirst for a renewed environment and an ever-growing population. Realizing that water desalination using reverse osmosis is energy-intensive, the district also supports studies and projects that use renewable energy to reduce the carbon footprint, operate more efficiently to reduce water use, and manage concentrate to protect the environment. To encourage diversification of water resources, public utilities that use reclaimed water for outdoor irrigation are exempt from water-shortage restrictions. This article appeared in the February/March 2009 issue of D&WR magazine.
Global membrane market growth nears 11%
The global membrane separation market is heading to top US$ 39 billion in 2019, at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.8% over the period according to a recent report published by market analyst, Persistence Market Research.
Water reuse: a growing market of opportunity and challenge
Survey findings suggest a market with the technical expertise, innovative ideas, and will to service customers' water needs, while a lack of money, reluctance to take chances on new technology, and instances of poor governance present challenges.
IDE Technologies wins desal project at Mai-Liao Power Plant, Taiwan
IDE Technologies is to build and operate a seawater reverse osmosis desalination facility at Mai-Liao Power Plant in Yunlin County, west Taiwan.
Siemens membranes to pretreat Perth II plant
Siemens is to provide a 95 MGD (360,000 m³/d) pressurized membrane treatment system for Water Corporation's Southern Seawater desalination plant in Binningup, south of Perth, Australia.
Q&A: AMTA president Brent Alspach on why the need for membranes has never been more acute
In the week of the AMTA/AWWA Membrane Technology Conference 2018, in Florida, US, Brent Alspach, president of AMTA and director of applied research at Arcadis, outlines the water challenges and how current and in-development membrane-based treatments are addressing them.
IChemE forecasts more UK municipal desalination by 2050
By 2050, at least four municipal desalination plants and up to 800 smaller units could be providing water to UK households and industry.
US researchers develop lean energy membrane-based system
Researchers at Humboldt State University, USA are developing a portable prototype pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) seawater desalination (SWRO) system that exploits the osmotic pressure differential between brine waste from SWRO and wastewater. In turn the system deploys the PRO energy in the SWRO.
Stover becomes Oasys vice-president of engineering
Rick Stover, whose exit from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) was announced last week, joined Oasys, the developer of Engineered Osmosis systems for desalination, energy and resource recovery, as vice- president of engineering, on 19 January 2010.
URS to assist El Paso desalination solar project
The Public Services Board in El Paso, Texas, on 10 November 2010 voted to hire URS Corporation as a consultant to assist with the choice of a solar energy system to power part of the Kay Bailey Hutchison desalination plant.
Queensland can use geothermal desalination says study
Queensland, Australia, has ample geothermal energy resources to power thermal desalination plants and provide clean water for small towns suffering from water shortages, according to The University of Queensland's Queensland Geothermal Energy Centre of Excellence.
ERI to cooperate with Koreans on PRO for energy
Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) announced on 15 October 2013 that it has signed a mutual cooperation agreement with Seoul-based global company GS Engineering & Construction Corporation (GS E&C Corp), part of Korean conglomerate GS Group, to significantly advance osmotic power generation using ERI's PX Pressure Exchanger® technology.
IDA finalises Huntington Beach desalination energy conference topics
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has finalised the speakers and topics for its new-style conference Desalination: An Energy Solution, which is being held on 2-3 November 2010 in Huntington Beach, California, the city likely to host the USA's next large desalination plant after Carlsbad.
Pumps-as-a-service: the future beckons
On 1 May 2017, Fredrik Ostbye, a Swedish entrepreneur with a track record of digital product development, joined the 72-year old Danish pumps manufacturer Grundfos in the newly created role of group vice president and head of digital transformation.
Call for innovations in water, women and agriculture
The US, Netherlands, South Africa, and Sweden have again joined forces to offer millions of dollars to innovators who enhance food productivity by improving water efficiency in agriculture.
South Africa looks to the sea
South Africa's Department of Water and Sanitation is considering desalinating seawater to help ease the country's water problems as it struggles amid its worst drought in more than 20 years.
IDA awards 2015 fellowship to environmental researcher
The IDA has awarded its prestigious 2014-15 Fellowship to Dr Raed AI Bashitialshaaer, of Lund University, Sweden.
Solar/MED design aims to desalinate CSG water
A three-way partnership in Australia has entered a solar-powered desalination system for the coal‑seam gas (CSG) industry into the Australian Innovation Challenge being run by Shell and The Australian newspaper.
Xylem to distribute GE membrane filtration products
Xylem Inc, the ITT water technology spin-off officially launched on 1 November 2011, has signed up to be GE's distribution partner into the public utilities market for its advanced membrane filtration products.
Desalitech lands US$ 11 million in venture capital funding
US desalination firm Desalitech has landed US$ 11 million in venture capital from existing investor, Liberation Capital, along with AquAgro Fund. The money will help Desalitech expand sales of its water purification products, the company said.
Arizona RO plant gets solar energy boost
The Arizona town of Gila Bend is to build a 460 kW photovoltaic solar‑energy system to power its 1 MGD (3,785 m³/d) reverse‑osmosis (RO) water treatment system.
CH2M Hill hires UK engineer as water operations chief
CH2M Hill announced on 4 August 2009 that British civil engineer Neil Reynolds has joined the Denver-based firm as international operations director for the Water Business Group.
Swedish pumps for Adelaide desalination plant
The Wastewater Technology Solutions division of Swedish company Cardo AB has signed a contract to supply and install pumps for the Adelaide seawater desalination plant in Australia.
B&V find ceramic membranes help water recycling
Ceramic membranes used in conjunction with ozone produce significant benefits for water recycling. Jonathan Clement of Black & Veatch, revealed this research result to the Australian Water Association's (AWA) third specialty conference on membranes and desalination held in Sydney, Australia, on 11-13 February 2009.
Second Perth desalination plant starts in three weeks
Less than a week after getting federal government clearance, the contract for the Southern Seawater Desalination Plant was signed on 30 June 2009.
Wave energy for Perth southern desalination plant?
Australian wave-energy developer Carnegie Wave Energy Ltd (CWE) announced on 5 July 2012 that it had been advised by West Australia's Water Corporation that it wished to move forward on discussions for up to 2MW of renewable energy supply for the Southern Seawater Desalination Plant on an exclusive basis.
Saudi solar desalination push nears end of Phase 1
The first of three phases of the King Abdullah Initiative for Solar Water Desalination is expected to be operational by the end of this year, according to reports from Saudi Arabia.
Contamination security white papers released in USA
New security technologies for detecting and monitoring water supplies could be developed as a result of a contamination warning system (CWS) demonstration pilot project in the USA undertaken by CH2M Hill and the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD).
ASTM to develop standard for fracking water quality
The US standards body ASTM International is to develop standards to be used by contract laboratories, water utilities and other requiring or developing methods for hydraulic fracturing in the oil & gas industry.
Desalination help published with WHO drinking water standards
The World Health Organization launched the 4th edition of its Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (ISBN: 978 92 4 154815 1) at the Singapore Water Week on 4 July 2011 - and also launched a separate guide for desalination.
Spanish water investment to hit € 1.2 billion this year
Desalination and water reuse projects are likely to be among the new water infrastructure projects worth € 700 million due to be tendered by Spain's Ministry for Environment & Rural & Marine Affairs (MARM) in the second half of 2011.
Visalia wastewater upgrade will be largest MBR in California
The City of Visalia, USA, is upgrading its wastewater treatment plant with membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology and will be the largest MBR plant in California when it enters service in 2013.
National Water Co 'to take over 15 Saudi cities by 2014'
The Saudi Arabian company set up to take over privatised water services, including desalination, will have 15 cities on its books by 2014, a senior official told media at the Wastewater Treatment and Reuse 2009 conference organised by MEED.
USEPA to enforce Clean Water Act better
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administrator Lisa P. Jackson announced on 15 October 2009 at a House of Representatives Transportation & Infrastructure Committee hearing that the agency is stepping up its efforts on Clean Water Act enforcement.
'Challenges are shared across the border', Mitch Thompson, Otay
Water from NSC Agua's desalination plant in Rosarito, Baja California, is a critical component of Otay's diversification efforts.
Financing and legal hurdles still ahead for Carlsbad desalination
The labyrinthine complexities of the desalination permitting process in California were further illustrated this week with the latest twists in the Carlsbad seawater desalination plant saga.
Redondo Beach go-ahead for desalination demonstration plant
The California Coastal Commission approved on 9 April 2009 a seawater desalination project to be undertaken by the West Basin Municipal Water District (WBMWD) at Redondo Beach.
AQWATEC opens onsite MBR wastewater reuse plant
The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) Advanced Water Treatment Center (AQWATEC) has opened a pilot-scale wastewater reuse facility in February 2009 on the US school's campus in Golden.
WateReuse has white paper for Obama and US Congress
The WateReuse Association prepared a white paper in December for the US Congress and President-elect Obama's transition team on Providing Safe, Secure and Sustainable Solutions for America's Water Needs.
IDA Conference Report
Banff gathering charts oil & gas territory
GE commissions MBR plant for Spanish poultry firm
GE has commissioned its first LEAPmbr installation in Spain at a wastewater treatment plant owned by the Spanish poultry processing firm, Procavi SL.
Chilean solar desalination demo precurses pilot project
A demonstration solar-powered desalination plant was installed in mid‑March 2013 in Arica, Chile, by Fundación Chile, in advance of a pilot project for irrigation purposes.
'Challenges are shared across the border', Mitch Thompson, Otay
Water from NSC Agua's desalination plant in Rosarito, Baja California, is a critical component of Otay's diversification efforts.
Best of World Water Day 2017
Water. desalination + reuse rounds up the social projects, scientific discoveries, prize launches, and other initiatives from the desal and reuse community on World Water Day, 22 March 2017.
IX system improves Alabama MF plant's performance
The City of Oneonta in Alabama, USA, commissioned a 3 MGD (10,500 m³/d) MIEX® ion-exchange system in August 2012 to provide dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal prior to coagulation and microfiltration of Oneonta Utilities' Little Warrior river water source.
CCC to rule on Cambria desalination plant studies
California Coastal Commission (CCC) staff have advised the commission at its meeting this week to agree to a US Army Corps of Engineers proposal to test a beach in the Cambria region, near San Luis Obispo, for use as beach wells for a desalination plant.
Desalination health and environment book to be published in June
A book on the health and environmental impacts of desalination is to be published by CRC Press in collaboration with the World Health Organization on 25 June 2010.
Small FO desalination plant commissioned in Oman
A 200 m³/d forward-osmosis (FO) desalination plant has been commissioned by Modern Water at Al Najdah in the Al Wusta region of Oman.
PUB partners with SWCC and Water Corporation on shared challenges
Singapore's national water agency, PUB, has formed two new knowledge sharing partnerships with key international water utilities through memorandums of understanding (MOUs) signed at Singapore International Water Week, 8 to 12 July 2017.
Registration open for WateReuse research conference
Registration is open for the 18th Annual Water Reuse & Desalination Research Conference to be held by the WateReuse Research Foundation in Las Vegas on 19-20 May 2014.
IDA reuse conference calls for abstracts
The International Desalination Association (IDA) on 1 February will open its call for extended abstract submissions to be considered for presentation at its International Conference on Water Reuse and Recycling: Turning Vision into Reality. The conference will be held on 25-27 September, 2016 in Nice, France.
Investment and credit success for NanoH2O
Innovative membrane-maker NanoH2O Inc announced on 30 April 2012 that it has closed a US$ 40 million equity round and US$ 20.5 million in credit facilities.
Abu Dhabi rejects more desalination despite growing water stress
Environment Policy and Planning at Environment Agency - Abu Dhabi (EAD) has rejected upping desalination as a means to counter growing water scarcity in the emirate, opting instead for conservation and reuse.