Energy, China, Recovery, Desalination, Wastewater Treatment, Recovery, Cyprus, Oil & Gas, Hawaii
China's Tri-Tech acquires Wisconsin desalination provider
Desalination and wastewater treatment provider J&Y International Inc, based in Wisconsin, USA, was acquired by subsidiaries of Tri-Tech Holding Inc of China on 9 June 2011.
Oasys forward osmosis concentrates in China
Massachusetts-based Oasys Water has claimed its recent contract to supply a forward osmosis brine concentrator to a fossil-fuelled power plant in China to be a world first.
Nirosoft selects ERI PXs for Limassol desalination
The 50,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant currently under construction in Limassol, Cyprus, will use PX-260 pressure-exchangers from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).
IDA issues call for Tianjin World Congress papers
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has issued a call for papers for its World Congress 2013 - Desalination: A Promise for the Future which will take place in China.
Study starts on salinity reclamation of W Australian river
Mitigation measures such as desalination and diversion could be proposed for the Collie river basin in Western Australia as a result of an independent review of possible strategies for salinity recovery, which has just been started by consultants KPMG and Worley Parsons.
Oasys furthers advance in China
US-based forward osmosis specialist, Oasys Water, has unveiled its latest advance in its bid to expand in China with its partner in the region, Beijing Woteer.
X-Flow commissions Chinese produced-water projects
Three water-reuse projects for oilfields in China that use Pentair X-Flow ultrafiltration (UF) membrane technology have been commissioned recently.
Befesa chooses ERI again for Qingdao seawater desalination
The 100,000 m³/d Qingdao seawater desalination plant in China is to become the seventh Befesa- built reverse-osmosis plant to use PX isobaric energy-recovery devices from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).
Aqualyng begins first phase of Chinese SWRO plant
Norwegian desalination company Aqualyng on 15 March 2010 began the construction phase of the 50,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis plant to serve the water needs of the Caofeidian Industrial Zone 220km east of Beijing in China.
LACSD signs up Desalitech for chloride‑removal test
Desalination system developer Desalitech is to support a pilot project with the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (LACSD) to upgrade two Santa Clarita Valley wastewater treatment plants in order to meet state‑mandated chloride limits, the company announced on 2 October 2013.
Flowserve wins pumps and ERDs for Larnaca desalination
DWEER energy-recovery units and Flowserve DMX high-pressure pumps are to be supplied for the 60,000 m³/d Larnaca seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant currently being rebuilt in Cyprus.
Energy Recovery bags deal for giant Chinese desalination plant
Energy Recovery has won a US$ 2.3 million to supply its pressure exchange technology for a 100,000 m³/d desalination plant in China.
Desalitech ties up with Toyo for international market
Innovative reverse-osmosis (RO) developer Desalitech and Japan's Toyo Engineering Corporation announced on 11 December 2013 the formation of a strategic partnership to introduce water and wastewater treatment solutions to Japanese, East Asian and international markets.
Speakers announced for IDA conference in Banff
Speakers and sessions for the May conference on Water Recycling and Desalination for the Oil & Gas Industry have been announced by the organizers, the International Desalination Association (IDA).
US$ 6.25 million equity investment for Desalitech
Reverse-osmosis (RO) innovator Desalitech Inc has secured an equity investment of U$$ 6.25 million led by Liberation Capital LLC, which will be used for business expansion and working capital.
Ozwater '12 abstracts required before 1 September
The Australian Water Association (AWA) has issued a call for papers for Ozwater '12 to be held on 8-10 May 2012 in Sydney.
Another oil-sands evaporation contract for GE in Alberta
GE has won its fifth contract in the Alberta oil sands of Canada for use of its evaporation technologies for recycling the blowdown from once-through steam generators (OSTGs).
Timeline established for IDA desalination energy guide
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has established a timeline for producing its guidelines for reducing energy consumption in desalination ending at its 2015 World Congress.
Papers invited for 2013 AWWA/AMTA event
With the 2012 AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference under way this week in Phoenix, Arizona, a call for papers has been issued for next year's event in Texas.
Desalitech and Veolia tie up Mexican MoU
Desalitech Inc has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies to bring advanced cost‑effective high‑recovery water solutions to Mexico and additional countries worldwide.
Adsorption pilot phase two will focus on ZLD
MEDAD Technologies, a specialist in adsorption, has worked to commercialise a multi-effect distillation adsorption desalination (MED-AD) system since spinning off from the National University of Singapore (NUS) in 2012.
UF membranes tackle silica at Indian powerplants
Pentair X-Flow HFS 60 Silica ultrafiltration (UF) membranes are to be used in two projects in India for the removal of colloidal silica from surface water.
Queensland legislates for centralised CSG brine disposal
The Queensland state government in Australia is introducing legislation to bring about centralised treatment and disposal of water and brine produced from the coal-seam gas (CSG) industry.
Chinese steel manufacturer chooses KMS UF membranes
Koch Membrane Systems Inc (KMS) announced on 12 December 2011 that it had been selected to supply ultrafiltration (UF) membranes for a large-scale wastewater recycling system for Yingkou Medium Plate Co Ltd in Yingkou City, Liaoning Province, China.
Desalitech wins zero liquid deal in China
Desalitech has won a deal to supply a high-efficiency, ultrapure water treatment system for Novelis' aluminium production facility in Changzhou, China to help comply with a regulatory requirement for zero-liquid discharge (ZLD) in applicable process wastewaters.
Agnihotri elected to board of ThermoEnergy Corp
Dr Dileep Agnihotri, the CEO and president of Advanced Hydro Inc, a company set up to commercialise a novel antifouling membrane coating technology at the University of Texas - Austin, has joined the board of ThermoEnergy Corp, a Massachusetts-based company engaged in development and sales of municipal and industrial wastewater-recovery and clean power-generation technologies.
Gradiant China to target industrial ZLD and wastewater market
Gradiant Corporation has established Gradiant China to provide industrial wastewater solutions and zero liquid discharge (ZLD) technology to the Chinese market.
Aquatech increases Pennsylvania oil & gas resources
Aquatech has increased its oil & gas water management services in the Marcellus and Utica Shale regions of Pennsylvania with the acquisition of Fluid Recovery Services (FRS), based in Creekside.
Fibroc pump owner bought by CECO Environmental
Air-pollution control specialist CECO Environmental Corp announced on 22 April 2013 that it was to acquire Met-Pro Corporation, provider of product recovery, pollution control, fluid handling and filtration solutions, including the Fibroc fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) pumps used in desalination.
Energy Recovery bags US$ 1 million in desalination orders in India and Ghana
Fluid flow energy efficiency firm Energy Recovery has won desalination orders totalling US$ 1 million for original manufacturer projects using its technology in India and Ghana. The company said the deals were among a continuing revenue stream from small-to-medium sized projects.
Energy Recovery chief to quit
Chief executive officer (CEO) of pressure technology specialist Energy Recovery, Thomas Rooney, has resigned as the company increases its focus on the oil and gas sector.
Nirosoft wins large Colombian desalination plant
Nirosoft Industries Ltd has been awarded a contract by Pacific Rubiales Energy Corp (PREC) for design and construction of a produced-water desalination plant in Colombia.
Metito lands Bechtel SWRO desalination in Australia
Dubai-based Metito has landed two new seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants in Australia and is currently nearing completion of one in Qatar.
Biwater completes Virgin Islands desalination plant
Water technology company, Biwater, has started full commercial operation of a new 10,400 m³/day reverse osmosis seawater desalination plant constructed by the firm on the island of Tortola in the British Virgin Islands.
China opens laboratory to drive forward osmosis development
A pairing of leading players in China's water and petrochemicals industries have launched a venture to develop forward osmosis in seawater desalination that they claim will: "open up a new way for zero liquid discharge (ZLD) in seawater desalination of seawater resources with low energy consumption."
Energy Recovery announces deal duo
Industrial fluid pressure technology company, Energy Recovery, has announced its second US$ 1.8 million deal in recent weeks at sites in the Middle East and North Africa region. The latest win to supply its PX Pressure Exchanger system was for a 68 Ml/d desalination plant at an undisclosed site in the Middle East. It closed an earlier, similar deal in Morocco.
Desalitech closed-circuit technology set for BWRO project
Israel-based Desalitech Ltd announced on 7 April 2011 that it had been awarded a contract to design and build a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system for Environmental Protection Technologies (EPT), a global company that leads the industrial wastewater treatment market in Israel.
Three key personnel join ROPV
Desalination membrane pressure-vessel manufacturer ROPV has added three key personnel to support and meet its international customer needs.
Electrochemical desalination MoU signed in Singapore
A memorandum of understanding (MoU) between Singapore's national water agency, PUB, and Evoqua Water Technologies to further develop electrochemical desalination technology was one of five MoUs signed during Singapore International Water Week, which ended on 5 June 2014.
Jersey contracts ACWA to upgrade desalination plant
Utility, Jersey Water, has contracted international water and wastewater treatment firm, ACWA Services, to carry a out a £6 million (US$ 9 million) upgrade of the Channel Island's La Rosière desalination plant in a bid to cut operating costs and meet rising demand.
Adionics launches liquid-to-liquid desalination system
France-based Adionics has launched a smart desalination solution that is able to remove specific salts to address the growing demand coming from oil and gas, food and beverages as well as mining.
ERI to supply Hyflux project in Algeria
The Souk Tleta seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Tlemcen in north-western Algeria, is to be supplied by Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) with 269 PX-220 energy recovery devices.
STW joins HFEIS developer to target power/desalination
STW Resources Holding Corp of Texas, USA, announced on 18 September 2013 a mutual strategic relationship with Colorado‑based Tat‑Tech Inc to remediate oil-sands waste, brackish groundwater and seawater via the construction and operation of proprietary systems developed by Tat‑Tech.
Pentair to buy CPT division from Norit
Pentair Inc is to acquire the Netherlands-based Clean Process Technologies (CPT) division of Norit Holding BV in the second quarter of this year for € 503 million (US$ 705 million), plus net debt at closing.
GE expands HERO licensing agreement
GE Power & Water announced on 1 February 2011 that it has completed a new expanded licensing agreement to allow it to continue offering High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HERO) systems to help more of its industrial customers increase their water usage efficiency and reuse capacity.
"We're now at more than $100 million revenue." Doug Brown, AquaVenture chairman and CEO
AquaVenture chief executive Doug Brown has a track record of delivering shareholder value. When he joined water technology and engineering firm Ionics as chief executive in 2003, the struggling business was trading at $16 a share.
Energy Recovery trials its pump-guarding fracking system
Liberty Oilfield Services is to conduct trials of Energy Recovery's Vor Teq hydraulic pumping system for hydraulic fracturing (fracking) at US well sites. The system is based on Energy Recovery's PX Pressure Exchanger technology which is deployed in more than 15,000 desalination installations worldwide according to Energy Recovery.
Oil and gas player commissions produced water treatment plant
Encana Oil and Gas has designed and commissioned a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant to treat produced water from its oil sand wells in the Moneta Divide, Wyoming. It has since sold the plant along with all its Moneta Divide assets to Aethon Energy.
Desalitech's Rick Stover: "The world's experts on desal and reuse are coming to Miami"
Desalitech executive vice president Rick Stover says that delegates can expect stimulating open forum discussions, papers and research at the IDA Energy and Environment Conference in Miami, USA, December 2016
Energy Recovery unveils $5.4 million contract for Middle East 'mega projects'
US supplier Energy Recovery has won $5.4 million of contracts to supply desalination "mega projects" in the Middle East.
Possibilities for energy optimisation in design and operation of SWRO plants
Seawater desalination with reverse osmosis (SWRO) has taken a noteworthy upturn during recent years. One of the reasons for the success of the membrane process is its lower energy consumption in comparison with thermal desalination processes. The high-pressure RO desalination stage is undoubtedly the dominating energy consumer of an SWRO plant. Energy consumption of SWRO, despite its energy-recovery aspects, is also influenced by a huge number of additional factors. These are both of an external nature (eg, environmental conditions and stipulations), but are also determined by design and configuration of the plant. On the basis of an SWRO plant model, which covers the different pre-treatment and RO configurations and also the design with energy consumption of potabilisation and additional wastewater treatment and sludge dewatering facilities, the specific energy consumption of an SWRO and its subsystems has been determined in this article. Considering the various aspects to be taken into account for optimization of energy consumption in seawater reverse osmosis plants and the fact that in most cases these measures are offset by increases in capital costs for equipment or possibly also in chemical consumption, optimisation of the energy consumption of SWRO plants during planning and operation is a quite extensive and complicated matter and a demanding engineering task. This article is an expanded and updated version of the article published in the August/September issue of D&WR magazine.
Interview: Juan Miguel Pinto, ALADYR president
The new president of ALADYR, the Latin America desalination and water reuse association, sees his organisation as a window onto the region for international companies. His big aim is to step up events during 2018, taking knowledge of desalination and reuse out to the market.
Mega-ton project symposium set for Tokyo in November
A symposium is to be held in Japan in November 2013 centred on the Mega-Ton Water System, a national research program to develop sustainable water treatment technologies, including large-scale desalination, that have a low environmental load and are energy-saving and low in cost.
ERI hires oil expert from Schlumberger
Energy Recovery Inc has hired seasoned oil and gas expert Ismail Nawaz as its vice president, oil and gas product development.
The Long Read: Where's the innovation in brine treatment?
As water scarcity bites and the drive to recycle water grows, the focus on recovering clean water and other resources from brine is sharpening. The challenge is particularly pertinent for industrial operators.
Papermaker ups water performance with Desalitech reverse osmosis
Arizona-based papermaker, Doubletree Paper Mills, said it has increased its purified water recovery by 20% at its Gila Bend plant since replacing its reverse osmosis water treatment system in 2014 with Desalitech's ReFlex RO system. The modification has also cut wastewater output by almost two thirds and lopped 25 % off energy consumption said Doubletree.
IDA announces May 2013 oil and gas conference
The International Desalination Association (IDA) is to organize its first technical conference focused on water treatment strategies for the oil & gas industry.
Pilot vapour-recompression plant tackles oil and gas water
A pilot project to treat produced water from oil and gas operations in southern Saskatchewan, Canada, has been initiated by Purestream Technology of Salt Lake City, USA, using its advanced vapour recompression (AVARA) system.
Veolia in mineral recovery partnership at inland desalination plant
Texas-based company, Enviro Water Minerals (EWM), is to deploy its novel mineral recovery technology in a partnership with water and waste giant, Veolia, to produce potable water from brackish water desalination effluent.
Aquatech sells produced-water evaporators in Alberta
Aquatech is to design, engineer, supply and supervise installation and commissioning of a produced-water evaporator system for Pengrowth Energy Corporation's Lindbergh 12,500 bpd Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) enhanced oil-recovery facility.
EDS and SPE host joint oil/gas desalination workshop
The European Desalination Society is joining the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) to present a joint workshop on Desalination in the Oil and Gas Industry.
North Sea gas RO package supplied by UK company
A containerised reverse‑osmosis (RO) desalination package is to be supplied for an unmanned gas platform in the North Sea by Salt Separation Services of Rochdale, UK.
GE signs Saudi Arabian wastewater-reuse MOU
GE has signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) on wastewater reuse with Miahona, a subsidiary of the Arabian Company for Water & Power Development Ltd.
Water Standard finds its shipbuilder in Samsung
Texas-based Water Standard and Korea's Samsung Heavy Industries announced an agreement on 28 June 2011 to collaborate on the design and development of vessels to deliver water treatment solutions to the offshore oil and gas sector.
ACWA wins two membrane-based projects in Saudi
Two separate contracts for membrane-based water and wastewater projects in Saudi Arabia have been awarded to ACWA Emirates LLC of Dubai.
Severn-Trent wins Chilean mining desalination contract
US water and wastewater treatment company Severn Trent Services has been awarded a contract to provide a seawater desalination plant that will serve the potable and process water needs of the Minera Esperanza copper and gold mine in Antofagasta, Chile.
Osmoflo to supply two ship-mounted ROs to gas field
Potable and process water is to be supplied to a gas field north of Australia by ship-mounted seawater reverse-osmosis (RO) plants supplied by Adelaide-based desalination specialist Osmosflo.
Siemens MBR contracted for Chinese industry park
An underground membrane bioreactor (MBR) system worth several million US dollars is to be provided by Siemens (Tianjin) Water Technology Engineering Co Ltd to Shenzhen Zhongying Precious Metal Co Ltd.
Biwater to supply UF and RO systems to California replenishment project
Biwater, UK, has won a contract to design, supply and supervise ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis systems for Southern California's Groundwater Reliability Improvement Program.
Hauge and Isobarix cleared of contempt of court
The US District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia* on 20 March 2014 cleared Leif Hauge and his energy-recovery device company Isobarix of contempt of court in a case brought by Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).
Treatment of process effluent water for reuse in food production
Effluent water reuse in the food industry raises inevitable questions about the risk and reliability of wastewater treatment and recovery processes in meeting the required standards. The author looks at how two food processing facilities adopted process water recovery and reuse shows how the benefits can be a maximized and how the challenges live among the detail. This article first appeared in the November/ December 2014 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
IDA finalises Huntington Beach desalination energy conference topics
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has finalised the speakers and topics for its new-style conference Desalination: An Energy Solution, which is being held on 2-3 November 2010 in Huntington Beach, California, the city likely to host the USA's next large desalination plant after Carlsbad.
MD desalination pilot successfully used with waste heat
Results from an Australian trial to demonstrate the potential for a membrane distillation (MD) process to use waste heat from heavy industry to desalinate saline effluent have shown the system can produce high-quality water at temperatures as low as 30°C without an increase in greenhouse-gas emissions.
GE wins oilsands evaporator contract in Alberta
GE's water evaporation technology will treat de-oiled produced water, boiler and heat-recovery steam-generator blowdown and brackish makeup water for Sunshine Oilsands at its West Ells project in Ft McMurray, Alberta, Canada.
Stover becomes Oasys vice-president of engineering
Rick Stover, whose exit from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) was announced last week, joined Oasys, the developer of Engineered Osmosis systems for desalination, energy and resource recovery, as vice- president of engineering, on 19 January 2010.
Xylem supplies wastewater denitrification systems in China
Water technology company, Xylem, has supplied denitrification systems to three wastewater treatment plants in eastern China as part of a national strategy to improve wastewater treatment by 90% over five years.
memsys and Horizon combine to reduce ZLD costs
A pilot trial is due to start in May 2014 of a method to reduce the costs of zero liquid discharge (ZLD) technology at a coal to chemical (CTX) project in northern China.
Registration open for AMTA/AWWA membrane conference
Registration has been opened and new sessions added to the programme for the 2013 Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition in San Antonio, Texas, on 25-28 February 2013.
Sembcorp to build Chinese chemical wastewater plant
Sembcorp announced on 19 December 2013 that it would be developing a new industrial wastewater treatment plant in the Caofeidian Chemical Industrial Park in Hebei province, China.
Chinese visitors for West Basin water-reuse plant
California's West Basin Municipal Water district announced on 26 April 2013 that earlier in the month it had received a visit from a group of public and private administrators from China interested to learn about water recycling facilities and the management experiences of US enterprises in wastewater treatment.
Chinese membrane wastewater firm gets big investment
Global investor KKR has entered into an agreement with United Envirotech Limited (UEL), a water treatment and recycling company in China, for a US$ 40 million common equity investment. KKR subscribed US$ 113.8 million convertible bonds issued by UEL in October 2011 to support the company's business expansion.
Cambria desalination will bring environmental benefit
The US Army Corps of Engineers announced on 28 April 2009 that it will receive US$ 2.5 million in funding through the new American Recovery & Reinvestment Act to develop the Cambria desalination project north-west of San Luis Obispo in California.
FEDCO wins Ras Az Zawr energy-recovery contract
The energy-recovery device (ERD) contract for the reverse-osmosis (RO) section of the giant Ras Az Zawr (Ras Azzour) desalination project in Saudi Arabia has been awarded to Fluid Equipment Development Co (FEDCO).
Sembcorp reuse closes Chinese port-zone's water loop
Singapore company Sembcorp today opens its first industrial water reclamation plant in China on 13 December 2011.
United Envirotech buys Xinmin wastewater concession
Membrane treatment specialist United Envirotech Ltd (UEL) announced on 3 October 2011 that the group has exercised a call option to acquire the entire equity interest of Tongji Environmental (China) Pte Ltd, the holding company for Aton Environmental (Shenyang) Co Ltd, for RMB 34.03 million (US$ 5.34 million).
STS wins Tianjin denitrification contract
Pennsylvania-based Severn Trent Services has received a contract to provide its Tetra® Denite® denitrification system for the Zhang Gui Zhuang Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Tianjin, China.
MBR plant at heart of United Environtech contract in China
A 50,000 m³/d membrane-based wastewater treatment plant is to be built in Jiangsu Province, China, by United Envirotech of Singapore under a contract worth RMB 220 million (US$ 34.5 million).
New CEO appointed at ERI as 'GG' retires
Almost the last recognizable face of the original team at Energy Recovery Inc (ERI), provider of energy-recovery devices for desalination, will now disappear with the retirement of its CEO, GG Pique.
Chinese industrial wastewater job won by United Envirotech
Singapore-based United Envirotech Ltd, a membrane-based water and wastewater treatment company, announced on 8 February 2011 that it had signed a transfer-operate-transfer agreement with the management committee of the Nanpu Economic Development Zone in China to provide a 80,000 m³/d wastewater treatment plant and a 40,000 m³/d wastewater recycling plant.
IDE in talks with Hawaii desalination plant proposer
Desalination designer and builder IDE Technologies has confirmed to D&WR that it has been talking with billionaire Larry Ellison, who is proposing to build a 2.5 MGD (9,500 m³/d) seawater desalination plant on the island of Lanai.
IDE to design PRO power-generation pilot in Norway
The Norwegian renewable-energy company Statkraft has made an agreement for IDE Technologies to design and later purchase and construct a 2 MW osmotic power-generation pilot plant in close cooperation with Statkraft.
New clarifier solves Virginia UF membrane problems
Funds from the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) have enabled completion of a new pretreatment system for an ultrafiltration membrane system at the Fairmont Water Filtration Plant in West Virginia.
Masdar steps up ties with China
Abu Dhabi's Masdar Institute of Science and Technology is stepping up its research collaborations, knowledge exchange and industrial partnerships, with China.
Escondido hires consultants for potable water reuse
The City of Escondido in southern California approved on 27 June 2012 spending of US$ 1.14 million to hire a team led by Black & Veatch and including Brown & Caldwell for services towards its Indirect Potable Reuse Program.
Mitsui acquires minority stake in Water Standard
Houston-based Water Standard Management (US) Inc, which focuses on water treatment for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), announced on 30 May 2012 that Japan's Mitsui & Co Ltd has acquired a minority interest in the company.
World Bank publishes report on Arab water reuse
Total water reuse in the Arab world is estimated at 2,170 million m³ per year, according to a report just published by the World Bank summarising the findings of the Expert Consultation Meeting on Wastewater Management in the Arab World, convened in Dubai in May 2011.
Doosan picks up prize for zero liquid system
Doosan Hydro Technology was among the winners of the 2015 David W York Water Reuse Project of Year Award for its part in the city of Palm Coast's zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plant at Citation Boulevard, Florida.
MBR/RO at heart of PepsiCo reuse plant in Chile
A membrane bioreactor (MBR), reverse osmosis (RO) and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection are all part of a wastewater treatment and reuse plant upgrade being completed by Siemens Industry Automation Division for PepsiCo in Chile.
Ethanol production water warning from US researchers
Desalination practitioners struggling to reduce the energy consumption of their plants and water engineers fighting shortages might be interested in the following table showing how much water is consumed producing various forms of energy in the USA.
Aquarion buys Hager + Elsaesser
Water treatment firm Aquarion Group has acquired German water technology company Hager + Elsaesser (H+E) for an undisclosed sum.