Electrodialysis, Massachusetts, Recovery, Russia, Wastewater Treatment, Recovery, Cyprus, Hawaii
Agnihotri elected to board of ThermoEnergy Corp
Dr Dileep Agnihotri, the CEO and president of Advanced Hydro Inc, a company set up to commercialise a novel antifouling membrane coating technology at the University of Texas - Austin, has joined the board of ThermoEnergy Corp, a Massachusetts-based company engaged in development and sales of municipal and industrial wastewater-recovery and clean power-generation technologies.
Multi-technology GE upgrade for Russian refinery treatment
Membrane bioreactor (MBR), electrodialysis reversal (EDR) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology will all feature in a major upgrade for the wastewater treatment at one of Russia's biggest oil refineries.
Desalitech wins US golf-course desalination contract
Reverse-osmosis (RO) developer Desalitech Inc has won a competitive bid to supply a water purification system using its Closed Circuit Desalination (CCD) system to the Kittansett Club golf course in Marion, Massachusetts, USA.
"We're now at more than $100 million revenue." Doug Brown, AquaVenture chairman and CEO
AquaVenture chief executive Doug Brown has a track record of delivering shareholder value. When he joined water technology and engineering firm Ionics as chief executive in 2003, the struggling business was trading at $16 a share.
Oasys forward osmosis concentrates in China
Massachusetts-based Oasys Water has claimed its recent contract to supply a forward osmosis brine concentrator to a fossil-fuelled power plant in China to be a world first.
Study starts on salinity reclamation of W Australian river
Mitigation measures such as desalination and diversion could be proposed for the Collie river basin in Western Australia as a result of an independent review of possible strategies for salinity recovery, which has just been started by consultants KPMG and Worley Parsons.
Researchers claim electrodialysis good for fracking reuse
Researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Saudi Arabia's King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals have claimed to have found an economical way to use electrodialysis for removing salt from water produced in hydraulic fracturing (fracking) for shale gas.
MIT's McGovern wins IDA 2012 scholarship award
The International Desalination Association has awarded its 2012 Channabasappa Memorial Scholarship to Ronan McGovern, a PhD candidate at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the United States.
Veolia buys rights to ZDD desalination technology
Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies has acquired worldwide rights to commercialize a new patented zero discharge desalination (ZDD) technology developed at the University of South Carolina by ZDD Inc.
Waldron takes up Toray Membrane post
Membrane veteran Peter Waldron took up his new position as business development manager for San Diego-based Toray Membrane USA on 28 March 2011, but he told D&WR that he's remaining in Massachusetts for the near future.
Suez and Rosneft to build on 'exploratory agreement'
Suez's new agreement with Russian oil and gas giant Rosneft, signed in May 2018, aims to support improved water treatment across the oil company's vast portfolio.
Russian heavy oil recovery enhanced by water reuse
OPERATED BY Russia's second largest oil producer, a heavy oil field in northwest Russia has been increasing the volume of crude processing with technology that supports enhanced recovery rates and reduced environmental impact. In 2008, they took the first steps to develop a less water-intensive way of processing produced water by conducting a feasibility study comparing different water reuse strategies. By replacing traditional treatment methods with thermal evaporator technology for produced water, this will be the first entity in Russia to use recycled water from enhanced oil recovery in the treatment of heavy oil produced water. This article first appeared in the issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Desalitech and Veolia tie up Mexican MoU
Desalitech Inc has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies to bring advanced cost‑effective high‑recovery water solutions to Mexico and additional countries worldwide.
Desalitech ties up with Toyo for international market
Innovative reverse-osmosis (RO) developer Desalitech and Japan's Toyo Engineering Corporation announced on 11 December 2013 the formation of a strategic partnership to introduce water and wastewater treatment solutions to Japanese, East Asian and international markets.
LACSD signs up Desalitech for chloride‑removal test
Desalination system developer Desalitech is to support a pilot project with the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (LACSD) to upgrade two Santa Clarita Valley wastewater treatment plants in order to meet state‑mandated chloride limits, the company announced on 2 October 2013.
Flowserve wins pumps and ERDs for Larnaca desalination
DWEER energy-recovery units and Flowserve DMX high-pressure pumps are to be supplied for the 60,000 m³/d Larnaca seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant currently being rebuilt in Cyprus.
Aquatech wins ZLD job in Turkmenistan
Aquatech has been awarded a contract to design and supply a zero‑liquid discharge ZLD wastewater-reuse system in a gas‑field development project in Turkmenistan.
US$ 6.25 million equity investment for Desalitech
Reverse-osmosis (RO) innovator Desalitech Inc has secured an equity investment of U$$ 6.25 million led by Liberation Capital LLC, which will be used for business expansion and working capital.
Papers invited for 2013 AWWA/AMTA event
With the 2012 AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference under way this week in Phoenix, Arizona, a call for papers has been issued for next year's event in Texas.
Ozwater '12 abstracts required before 1 September
The Australian Water Association (AWA) has issued a call for papers for Ozwater '12 to be held on 8-10 May 2012 in Sydney.
China's Tri-Tech acquires Wisconsin desalination provider
Desalination and wastewater treatment provider J&Y International Inc, based in Wisconsin, USA, was acquired by subsidiaries of Tri-Tech Holding Inc of China on 9 June 2011.
Nirosoft selects ERI PXs for Limassol desalination
The 50,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant currently under construction in Limassol, Cyprus, will use PX-260 pressure-exchangers from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).
Mining firm strikes funding deal for desalination plant at planned mine
Mining firm, White Mountain Titanium, has agreed a deal with US private equity company, Nexo Capital Partners, to fund, construct and manage a desalination plant to form part of White Mountain's planned Cerro Blanco mining project in Chile.
MIT membrane start-up completes funding round
The conclusion of an initial round of funding for Clean Membranes Inc, a start-up company based in Lexington, USA, will permit progress on development of a new generation of non-fouling membranes usable for sea and brackish water desalination.
Solar electrodialysis brings water to off-grid villages
A simple set of solar panels and a battery system connected to an electrodialysis desalination unit could provide fresh water for a typical Indian village according to researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the US.
Russia looks to export nuclear power and desalination packages
Russia's nuclear power company, Rosatom, is aiming to sell integrated, large nuclear power and desalination plants overseas through its export arm Rosatom Overseas.
Russian nuclear giant musters experts to lead desalination drive
Russia's nuclear energy corporation, Rosatom, has formed a group of expert desalination advisors as part of its push to win customers for its thermal desalination technologies. The company is targeting world regions where clean water is scarce as a path to becoming "leaders in the global nuclear market," according to Rosatom.
Aquarion sets up in Russia
Swizerland-based water systems company, Aquarion Group, has established a Russian operation, Aquarion Russia, to focus on providing water and wastewater treatment to industrial customers in Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States.
Vapour compression desalination plants for Indian oilfield
Texas-based MECO, which supplies desalination equipment to the offshore, pharmaceutical and military sectors, announced in December 2011 that it would be designing and constructing two vapour compression (VC) desalination plants for an oilfield off the Indian coast.
Vladivostok SWRO project for Aqua-Chem
A custom-built 2.64 MGD (10,000 m³/d) seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant is being installed in eastern Russia, off the coast of Vladivostok, by Aqua-Chem Inc of the USA.
Giant Moscow UF plant gets Norit X-Flow membranes
One of the largest ultrafiltration (UF) plants in the world, the South-West Moscow drinking water plant in Russia, is currently being expanded to a total of 275,000 m³/d using Norit X-Flow membranes.
US$ 8 million contracts boost for H2O Innovation
Quebec-based H2O Innovation Inc announced new contracts for desalination and water treatment systems totaling Can$ 7.8 million (US$ 8 million) on 24 March 2011.
Russia sets up water treatment membrane development project
The Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies (Rusnano) is to finance a project for producing nanostructured membranes and separation modules for water treatment in various industries.
Nuclear energy to supply Jordan desalination plants
Four nuclear power plants in the southern region of Jordan will provide almost 750 MW of energy for desalination and water pumping, according to a report in the Jordan Times.
Russians to cooperate on Jordan desalination
Desalination plants were included in a nuclear cooperation agreement signed on 22 May 2009 by Russia and Jordan, which also included power stations, research facilities and personnel training centres to be built in Jordan.
Desalination plant's nitrate removal has hidden benefits
A water district in California has found a novel way to remove multiple contaminants from groundwater currently feeding a desalination plant without creating waste that requires costly treatment and disposal.
Aquarion buys Hager + Elsaesser
Water treatment firm Aquarion Group has acquired German water technology company Hager + Elsaesser (H+E) for an undisclosed sum.
Electrochemical desalination MoU signed in Singapore
A memorandum of understanding (MoU) between Singapore's national water agency, PUB, and Evoqua Water Technologies to further develop electrochemical desalination technology was one of five MoUs signed during Singapore International Water Week, which ended on 5 June 2014.
AMTA unveils annual gongs for membrane experts
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has conferred its annual roster of awards for membrane specialists, include its Lifetime Service Award, Hall of Fame Awards, and Operator of the Year Award.
Large EDR river desalination plant opens in Spain
GE Water and Aigües Ter-Llobregat (ATLL) of Spain announced on 19 May 2009 the opening of the 220,000 m³/d electrodialysis reversal (EDR) brackish water desalination plant on the Llobregat river.
The Long Read: Where's the innovation in brine treatment?
As water scarcity bites and the drive to recycle water grows, the focus on recovering clean water and other resources from brine is sharpening. The challenge is particularly pertinent for industrial operators.
Aquatech increases Pennsylvania oil & gas resources
Aquatech has increased its oil & gas water management services in the Marcellus and Utica Shale regions of Pennsylvania with the acquisition of Fluid Recovery Services (FRS), based in Creekside.
AMTA's Hall of Fame honours industry pioneers
A raft of industry awards was unveiled at the Membrane Technology Conference 2017, including AMTA's four-strong Hall of Fame 2017, which recognises pioneering careers in membrane technology.
Speakers announced for IDA conference in Banff
Speakers and sessions for the May conference on Water Recycling and Desalination for the Oil & Gas Industry have been announced by the organizers, the International Desalination Association (IDA).
Registration open for AMTA/AWWA membrane conference
Registration has been opened and new sessions added to the programme for the 2013 Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition in San Antonio, Texas, on 25-28 February 2013.
New clarifier solves Virginia UF membrane problems
Funds from the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) have enabled completion of a new pretreatment system for an ultrafiltration membrane system at the Fairmont Water Filtration Plant in West Virginia.
Queensland legislates for centralised CSG brine disposal
The Queensland state government in Australia is introducing legislation to bring about centralised treatment and disposal of water and brine produced from the coal-seam gas (CSG) industry.
Escondido hires consultants for potable water reuse
The City of Escondido in southern California approved on 27 June 2012 spending of US$ 1.14 million to hire a team led by Black & Veatch and including Brown & Caldwell for services towards its Indirect Potable Reuse Program.
Biwater wins Pt Hueneme desalination contract
Biwater AEWT Inc announced on 30 September 2009 that it had been awarded a contract to design and supply a membrane desalination system for the City of Port Hueneme in California, USA. The new system will deliver a total of 1 MGD (3,785 m³/d) of high-quality drinking-water when completed.
World Bank publishes report on Arab water reuse
Total water reuse in the Arab world is estimated at 2,170 million m³ per year, according to a report just published by the World Bank summarising the findings of the Expert Consultation Meeting on Wastewater Management in the Arab World, convened in Dubai in May 2011.
Gradiant China to target industrial ZLD and wastewater market
Gradiant Corporation has established Gradiant China to provide industrial wastewater solutions and zero liquid discharge (ZLD) technology to the Chinese market.
UF membranes tackle silica at Indian powerplants
Pentair X-Flow HFS 60 Silica ultrafiltration (UF) membranes are to be used in two projects in India for the removal of colloidal silica from surface water.
MBR/RO at heart of PepsiCo reuse plant in Chile
A membrane bioreactor (MBR), reverse osmosis (RO) and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection are all part of a wastewater treatment and reuse plant upgrade being completed by Siemens Industry Automation Division for PepsiCo in Chile.
Another oil-sands evaporation contract for GE in Alberta
GE has won its fifth contract in the Alberta oil sands of Canada for use of its evaporation technologies for recycling the blowdown from once-through steam generators (OSTGs).
Interview: Juan Miguel Pinto, ALADYR president
The new president of ALADYR, the Latin America desalination and water reuse association, sees his organisation as a window onto the region for international companies. His big aim is to step up events during 2018, taking knowledge of desalination and reuse out to the market.
Adsorption pilot phase two will focus on ZLD
MEDAD Technologies, a specialist in adsorption, has worked to commercialise a multi-effect distillation adsorption desalination (MED-AD) system since spinning off from the National University of Singapore (NUS) in 2012.
US non-profit NWRI appoints Hardy as executive director
Former Encina Wastewater Authority (EWA) executive Kevin Hardy has joined the US National Water Research Institute (NWRI) as executive director.
ACWA wins two membrane-based projects in Saudi
Two separate contracts for membrane-based water and wastewater projects in Saudi Arabia have been awarded to ACWA Emirates LLC of Dubai.
Desalitech closed-circuit technology set for BWRO project
Israel-based Desalitech Ltd announced on 7 April 2011 that it had been awarded a contract to design and build a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system for Environmental Protection Technologies (EPT), a global company that leads the industrial wastewater treatment market in Israel.
GE expands HERO licensing agreement
GE Power & Water announced on 1 February 2011 that it has completed a new expanded licensing agreement to allow it to continue offering High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HERO) systems to help more of its industrial customers increase their water usage efficiency and reuse capacity.
ACWA Emirates delivers MBR reuse plant for Saudi Aramco
ACWA Emirates has completed a water reuse plant at Shaybah Oilfield, Saudi Arabia, for crude and natural gas exporter Saudi Aramco.
GE signs Saudi Arabian wastewater-reuse MOU
GE has signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) on wastewater reuse with Miahona, a subsidiary of the Arabian Company for Water & Power Development Ltd.
Severn-Trent wins Chilean mining desalination contract
US water and wastewater treatment company Severn Trent Services has been awarded a contract to provide a seawater desalination plant that will serve the potable and process water needs of the Minera Esperanza copper and gold mine in Antofagasta, Chile.
Biwater to supply UF and RO systems to California replenishment project
Biwater, UK, has won a contract to design, supply and supervise ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis systems for Southern California's Groundwater Reliability Improvement Program.
Possibilities for energy optimisation in design and operation of SWRO plants
Seawater desalination with reverse osmosis (SWRO) has taken a noteworthy upturn during recent years. One of the reasons for the success of the membrane process is its lower energy consumption in comparison with thermal desalination processes. The high-pressure RO desalination stage is undoubtedly the dominating energy consumer of an SWRO plant. Energy consumption of SWRO, despite its energy-recovery aspects, is also influenced by a huge number of additional factors. These are both of an external nature (eg, environmental conditions and stipulations), but are also determined by design and configuration of the plant. On the basis of an SWRO plant model, which covers the different pre-treatment and RO configurations and also the design with energy consumption of potabilisation and additional wastewater treatment and sludge dewatering facilities, the specific energy consumption of an SWRO and its subsystems has been determined in this article. Considering the various aspects to be taken into account for optimization of energy consumption in seawater reverse osmosis plants and the fact that in most cases these measures are offset by increases in capital costs for equipment or possibly also in chemical consumption, optimisation of the energy consumption of SWRO plants during planning and operation is a quite extensive and complicated matter and a demanding engineering task. This article is an expanded and updated version of the article published in the August/September issue of D&WR magazine.
Desalitech's Rick Stover: "The world's experts on desal and reuse are coming to Miami"
Desalitech executive vice president Rick Stover says that delegates can expect stimulating open forum discussions, papers and research at the IDA Energy and Environment Conference in Miami, USA, December 2016
Veolia in mineral recovery partnership at inland desalination plant
Texas-based company, Enviro Water Minerals (EWM), is to deploy its novel mineral recovery technology in a partnership with water and waste giant, Veolia, to produce potable water from brackish water desalination effluent.
Energy Recovery announces deal duo
Industrial fluid pressure technology company, Energy Recovery, has announced its second US$ 1.8 million deal in recent weeks at sites in the Middle East and North Africa region. The latest win to supply its PX Pressure Exchanger system was for a 68 Ml/d desalination plant at an undisclosed site in the Middle East. It closed an earlier, similar deal in Morocco.
Jersey contracts ACWA to upgrade desalination plant
Utility, Jersey Water, has contracted international water and wastewater treatment firm, ACWA Services, to carry a out a £6 million (US$ 9 million) upgrade of the Channel Island's La Rosière desalination plant in a bid to cut operating costs and meet rising demand.
Oasys furthers advance in China
US-based forward osmosis specialist, Oasys Water, has unveiled its latest advance in its bid to expand in China with its partner in the region, Beijing Woteer.
Doosan picks up prize for zero liquid system
Doosan Hydro Technology was among the winners of the 2015 David W York Water Reuse Project of Year Award for its part in the city of Palm Coast's zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plant at Citation Boulevard, Florida.
Energy Recovery bags US$ 1 million in desalination orders in India and Ghana
Fluid flow energy efficiency firm Energy Recovery has won desalination orders totalling US$ 1 million for original manufacturer projects using its technology in India and Ghana. The company said the deals were among a continuing revenue stream from small-to-medium sized projects.
Papermaker ups water performance with Desalitech reverse osmosis
Arizona-based papermaker, Doubletree Paper Mills, said it has increased its purified water recovery by 20% at its Gila Bend plant since replacing its reverse osmosis water treatment system in 2014 with Desalitech's ReFlex RO system. The modification has also cut wastewater output by almost two thirds and lopped 25 % off energy consumption said Doubletree.
Biwater completes Virgin Islands desalination plant
Water technology company, Biwater, has started full commercial operation of a new 10,400 m³/day reverse osmosis seawater desalination plant constructed by the firm on the island of Tortola in the British Virgin Islands.
Treatment of process effluent water for reuse in food production
Effluent water reuse in the food industry raises inevitable questions about the risk and reliability of wastewater treatment and recovery processes in meeting the required standards. The author looks at how two food processing facilities adopted process water recovery and reuse shows how the benefits can be a maximized and how the challenges live among the detail. This article first appeared in the November/ December 2014 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
IDE in talks with Hawaii desalination plant proposer
Desalination designer and builder IDE Technologies has confirmed to D&WR that it has been talking with billionaire Larry Ellison, who is proposing to build a 2.5 MGD (9,500 m³/d) seawater desalination plant on the island of Lanai.
Hawaiian venue for AMTA/SWMOA workshop
The American Membrane Technology Association and the Southwest Membrane Operator Association are to hold a joint technology transfer workshop in Hawaii.
Reclamation Bureau's water recycling and reuse funding criteria published
The US government's Bureau of Reclamation published on 15 October 2010 the funding criteria under its Title XVI - Water Recycling & Reuse Program for two new funding opportunity announcements in fiscal year 2011.
KMS achieves North American MBR debut
Koch Membrane Systems Inc (KMS), has sold its first Puron Plus packaged membrane bioreactor (MBR) wastewater treatment system in North America.
EDS/Wetsus issues membrane conference call for papers
A deadline of 30 June 2012 has been set for abstracts for the eighth in the series of conferences on Membranes in Drinking & Industrial Water Production, which will take place at Leeuwarden in the Netherlands on 10‑12 September 2012.
MIT spinout cracks fracking water waste
A Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) spinout, Gradiant Corporation, is working toward making hydraulic fracturing (fracking) a water-neutral process, by making water reuse more economical. Fracking produces millions of litres of wastewater and much of it is discarded into deep injection wells, and clean water has to be purchased.
Desalitech teams with TEC to target municipalities
Reverse osmosis (RO) specialist, Desalitech, has tied up with Treatment Equipment Company (TEC) to provide sales support for municipal water treatment projects.
Foxconn invests $30 million in ZLD to reduce intake from Lake Michigan, US
Taiwanese technology firm Foxconn is investing $30 million in a zero liquid discharge (ZLD) water reuse system at Wisconn Valley Science and Technology Park, Wisconsin, US.
Biwater picks up two desalination deals in California
Water project company, Biwater, is soon to begin work on contracts for the design, supply and supervision of installation of reverse osmosis (RO) equipment of two desalination expansion projects in California.
Desalitech teams up with Pall
High-efficiency reverse osmosis (RO) system specialist, Desalitech, has entered into a non- exclusive partnership with filtration, separation and purification technology firm Pall Corporation. The agreement will enable the companies to offer integrated microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF) and RO solutions for water treatment applications worldwide.
Desalitech wins zero liquid deal in China
Desalitech has won a deal to supply a high-efficiency, ultrapure water treatment system for Novelis' aluminium production facility in Changzhou, China to help comply with a regulatory requirement for zero-liquid discharge (ZLD) in applicable process wastewaters.
Doosan Babcock wins maintenance and support deal at giant Taweelah plant
Energy engineering company, Doosan Babcock, has won a contract with Taweelah Asia Power Company (Tapco) to provide essential maintenance and technical support services for Tapco's desalination plant in Abu Dhabi.
Energy Recovery bags deal for giant Chinese desalination plant
Energy Recovery has won a US$ 2.3 million to supply its pressure exchange technology for a 100,000 m³/d desalination plant in China.
Oman's Sur expansion is 70% complete
Construction of Sharqiyah Desalination Company's expansion project for water desalination in Sur, Oman, is 70% complete. The extension project is expected to be completed by mid-2016, said project manager, Veolia.
The big push
UK-based researchers have developed a reverse osmosis desalination system that they say promises to meet the challenges in providing freshwater to the millions worldwide who lack access to it. The research leader explains how his team has addressed the dilemma of cutting energy demand while upping recovery. This article first appeared in the December 2015 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Veolia tops targets in Masdar desalination pilot programme
Interim findings by engineering giant, Veolia, from trials designed to up efficiency and develop renewable energy-driven desalination have already outstripped energy reduction targets the company has reported.
Desalitech bags water treatment deal for five power plants
Desalitech has won a contract with Southern California Edison (SCE) to supply five of its ReFlex water treatment systems for installation at SCE's peak power generating stations in California.
Energy Recovery sells exclusivity rights to Schlumberger
Energy Recovery has sold the exclusive rights to manufacture and operate its VorTeq hydraulic fracturing technology for the next 15 years to engineering firm, Schlumberger in a deal that immediately tripled the energy from pressure firm's share price.
Veolia venture finishes Spain's Campo Dalias desalination
A joint venture led by Veolia Water Technologies' Spanish operation has completed the 97.2 Ml/d Campo Dalías reverse osmosis desalination plant in the south of Spain.
Five Minutes With: John Williams, global business development, membranes, Lanxess Sybron Chemicals
Returning to the membrane industry 'feels like a very comfortable transition', says Lanxess new business development hire John Williams
Energy Recovery: 'hyper-focused' on water
The former chief financial director of Energy Recovery has now stepped into the top job as chief executive on a permanent basis. He reveals plans to develop new packaged product for the desalination market, and takes a wry line on the industry's lively rumour mill.
Giant solar desalination project plans US$ 10 million public offering
Shares in what would be California's first commercial-scale solar desalination plant issued by WaterFX will this year form a US$ 10 million state-registered direct public offering (DPO) in the state.
Energy Recovery wins Saudi solar deal
Industrial fluid pressure technology specialist, Energy Recovery, has won a US$ 1.4 million deal to supply its PX pressure exchanger technology for the world's first large-scale solar-powered desalination plant.
Energy Recovery bags US$ 1.8 million Morocco deal
Pressure energy technology firm, Energy Recovery, has won a US$ 1.8 million deal to supply its PX pressure exchanger technology for a desalination plant in Morocco.
STW and Sunstone join to market zero discharge technology
Water management firm, STW Water Process and Technologies, has expanded its role in its exclusive agreement with Sunstone Water Group to commercialize Sunstone's patented wastewater effluent treatment technology to provide direct potable reuse (DPR) in municipal markets.