Electrodialysis, Arkansas, Desalination, Sludge
Nine desalination studies bag US$ 1.4 million funding
Nine research projects and pilot studies will share US$1.4 million in funding under a desalination and water purification research programme set up by the US Bureau of Reclamation.
Mitsubishi unit bags sludge system order
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Mechatronics Systems (MHI-MS), has picked up an order for wastewater treatment facilities using its two-phase, activated sludge system, for installation at sister company Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation's Yokkaichi Plant in Mie prefecture.
Grundfos bags US$ 1.1 million grant for wastewater treatment research
Singapore has awarded pump and water technologies company, Grundfos, a S$1.4 million (US$ 1.1 million) grant to develop a wastewater filtration technology which the company says can "significantly reduce" capital investment and operational costs for wastewater treatment.
Multi-technology GE upgrade for Russian refinery treatment
Membrane bioreactor (MBR), electrodialysis reversal (EDR) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology will all feature in a major upgrade for the wastewater treatment at one of Russia's biggest oil refineries.
Veolia buys rights to ZDD desalination technology
Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies has acquired worldwide rights to commercialize a new patented zero discharge desalination (ZDD) technology developed at the University of South Carolina by ZDD Inc.
BEL hooks up with Strand for RO pressure-vessels in US
Desalination pressure-vessel manufacturer BEL Group Ltd, through BEL Composite America Inc, announced a strategic partnership on 30 July 2011 with Strand Composite Engineering & Construction LLC of Harrison, Arkansas, USA.
Masterclass webinar to look at combining reuse and desalination using forward osmosis
Award-winning researcher, Gaetan Bandin, will present the next Desalination and Water Reuse Masterclass Webinar on 30 June looking at opportunities and challenges for forward osmosis and pressure assisted osmosis (PAO) to combine water reuse and desalination.
Urban surge drives 57% growth in Indian municipal water treatment market by 2018
Urban population growth in India will create huge demand for municipal water and wastewater treatment systems including desalination adding 57% to revenues over five years according to a recent report by market analyst Frost an Sullivan (F&S).
Electrochemical desalination MoU signed in Singapore
A memorandum of understanding (MoU) between Singapore's national water agency, PUB, and Evoqua Water Technologies to further develop electrochemical desalination technology was one of five MoUs signed during Singapore International Water Week, which ended on 5 June 2014.
World's largest SWRO desalination plant operational
The world's largest seawater reverse-osmosis plant, the 624,000 m³/d Sorek plant in Israel, is now fully operational.
Nirosoft wins large Colombian desalination plant
Nirosoft Industries Ltd has been awarded a contract by Pacific Rubiales Energy Corp (PREC) for design and construction of a produced-water desalination plant in Colombia.
Global desalination market to grow 9% a year
The global water desalination market is set to grow at nearly 9% a year to 2018 according a report by market researcher, TechNavio.
EDS course to cover ion-exchange membranes
The European Desalination Society has announced details of a course on ion-exchange membranes to be held in Genoa, Italy, on 4-6 June 2012.
T Park sets the bar high with advanced desalination plant
Veolia chief executive Antoine Frerot hailed "the sewage stations of the future" on opening T Park in Hong Kong, the world's largest sewage treatment plant, on 26 May.
Researchers claim electrodialysis good for fracking reuse
Researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Saudi Arabia's King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals have claimed to have found an economical way to use electrodialysis for removing salt from water produced in hydraulic fracturing (fracking) for shale gas.
Solar electrodialysis brings water to off-grid villages
A simple set of solar panels and a battery system connected to an electrodialysis desalination unit could provide fresh water for a typical Indian village according to researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the US.
Jebel Ali project is a new direction for DEWA and Besix
The $237 million contract awarded by Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) for a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant represents a big step for the client, and for Besix Concessions & Assets, which won the work in partnership with Acciona Agua.
Suez and Solvay win first contract in China to treat brine with AOP
Suez and Solvay have won their first contract in China to treat brine from a reverse osmosis desalination plant using a jointly developed advanced oxidation process.
Gulf of Aden project inches forward
Three firms have been pre-selected for a reverse osmosis desalination project in Djibouti, East Africa.
MBR, BNR and RO combined in Gippsland wastewater reuse
The Gippsland Water Factory in the state of Victoria, Australia, is being implemented to reclaim domestic and industrial (pulp and paper) wastewater to provide a reliable and sustainable industrial water supply, replacing the high-quality raw water currently provided by Gippsland Water. This innovative plant, the first of its kind in Australia, involves membrane-bioreactor, activated-sludge incorporating biological nutrient removal and reverse-osmosis treatment. This article first appeared in the February/March 2012 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
HTI deal takes forward osmosis to China
The world's only commercial manufacturer of forward-osmosis (FO) membranes, modules and systems, Hydration Technologies Innovations LLC (HTI), reached an international distribution, services and cooperation agreement for FO technology with Chinese company Tri-Tech Holding Inc.
Possibilities for energy optimisation in design and operation of SWRO plants
Seawater desalination with reverse osmosis (SWRO) has taken a noteworthy upturn during recent years. One of the reasons for the success of the membrane process is its lower energy consumption in comparison with thermal desalination processes. The high-pressure RO desalination stage is undoubtedly the dominating energy consumer of an SWRO plant. Energy consumption of SWRO, despite its energy-recovery aspects, is also influenced by a huge number of additional factors. These are both of an external nature (eg, environmental conditions and stipulations), but are also determined by design and configuration of the plant. On the basis of an SWRO plant model, which covers the different pre-treatment and RO configurations and also the design with energy consumption of potabilisation and additional wastewater treatment and sludge dewatering facilities, the specific energy consumption of an SWRO and its subsystems has been determined in this article. Considering the various aspects to be taken into account for optimization of energy consumption in seawater reverse osmosis plants and the fact that in most cases these measures are offset by increases in capital costs for equipment or possibly also in chemical consumption, optimisation of the energy consumption of SWRO plants during planning and operation is a quite extensive and complicated matter and a demanding engineering task. This article is an expanded and updated version of the article published in the August/September issue of D&WR magazine.
Egypt's first ZLD plant is up and running
The first zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plant in Egypt, part of a water treatment facility designed and supplied by Aquatech, has been commissioned.
Culligan introduces reverse osmosis and membrane bioreactor systems
Italian water treatment firm Culligan has introduced a new skid-mounted seawater RO desalination solution, SW Evo, and a containerised membrane bio reactor system.
Bluewater Bio bags Bahraini upgrade project
Bluewater Bio of the UK has won a project to upgrade Tubli wastewater treatment plant in Bahrain that will more than double the plant's capacity for water reuse.
Singapore to tender S$5 billion of water and waste works
Singapore's PUB and National Environment Agency (NEA) are to tender more than S$5 billion ($3.7 billion) of works covering civil, mechanical and electrical engineering for Tuas Nexus, an integrated wastewater and waste treatment facility.
De Nora pushes ozone generators as answer to Asia's water quality rules
De Nora has introduced its Capital Controls ozone generators to Asia at Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) 2018.
Toray introduces new high performance MBR module
Toray Membrane USA is showing its New High Performance membrane bioreactor (NHP MBR) module at IDA World Congress 2017.
FCC Aqualia bags E3million contract against 'reckless' competitors
FCC Aqualia has won the contract to operate Burgos wastewater treatment plant in northwestern Spain against other "recklessly low" financial tenders.
Singapore ratchets up developments in water reuse
PUB aims to complete its 12,500 m3/d demonstration-scale plant for MBR systems for water reuse in mid-2017.
ACWA Emirates delivers MBR reuse plant for Saudi Aramco
ACWA Emirates has completed a water reuse plant at Shaybah Oilfield, Saudi Arabia, for crude and natural gas exporter Saudi Aramco.
UK government underpins water works in Iraqi Kurdistan
UK water engineer Biwater has won a $1.2 billion contract from Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG), Iraq, to deliver new and upgrade water projects in the region.
PUB and Mitsubishi join to test water recycling technology
Singapore's national water agency, PUB. has contracted Japan's Mitsubishi Corporation to build a demonstration-scale plant to test energy saving technologies that may be deployed at the proposed Tuas Water Reclamation Plant (WRP).
Doosan picks up prize for zero liquid system
Doosan Hydro Technology was among the winners of the 2015 David W York Water Reuse Project of Year Award for its part in the city of Palm Coast's zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plant at Citation Boulevard, Florida.
1,100 US counties face water supply crisis by 2050, says report
A new analysis for the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), examining the effects of global warming on water supply and demand in the contiguous United States, has found that more than 1,100 counties will face higher risks of water shortages by mid-century as the result of global warming.
Aquatech prepares membrane-thermal ZLD for Columbia gold mine
The new hybrid membrane-thermal system is to be installed in April and commissioning is expected to be completed by Q4 2019.
WABAG completes Namibia reclamation plant
Austria-based water engineering group, WABAG, has completed a water reclamation plant in Namibia's capital Windhoek.
Biwater wins reuse treatment plant contract in Morocco
UK contractor Biwater has been awarded a turnkey project to design and construct a new wastewater treatment plant in the city of Aourir, a tourist destination close to Agadir on Morocco's Atlantic coast.
Veolia gains Colombian produced-water clean-up contract
Ecopetrol America Inc, the US subsidiary of the Colombian national oil company, has awarded a contract to Veolia to provide equipment and services that will be used to treat the produced water from the Castilla oilfields in the Llanos Basin, southeast of Bogota.
Ceramic MBR + UASB water reuse plant opens in Singapore
Singapore's first ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant coupled with an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) was opened on 7 March 2014 to treat and recycle industrial used water.
AECOM to design Al Ansab Phase 2 MBR in Oman
Phase 2 of the Al Ansab Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) in Muscat, Oman, which will be based on membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology, will be designed by AECOM.
Aquatech signs for Egypt's first ZLD plant
Egypt's first integrated zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plant is to be built by Aquatech, under a contract from the Egyptian Ethylene & Derivatives Company (ETHYDCO) to provide a water treatment facility.
Ceramic MBR demonstration project agreed in Singapore
A ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) demonstration plant is to be built at Singapore's Jurong Water Reclamation Plant following the signing of an agreement between the country's water agency, PUB, and Meiden Singapore (MSL), a subsidiary of Meidensha of Japan.
VA Tech Wabag wins industrial reuse plant in Gujarat
Ultrafiltration (UF), reverse-osmosis (RO) and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) will all be part of a 32,420 m³/d effluent treatment and recycling plant to be built in India by Chennai-based VA Tech Wabag.
Oil/gas sector MBR leads new H2O Innovation jobs
Supply of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) wastewater treatment and reuse system to an industrial user in the oil and gas industry in Alberta, Canada, was announced by H2 O Innovation Inc on 8 March 2012.
USBF/MBR system allows Canadian wastewater reuse
A wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) expansion featuring an upward sludge blanket filter (USBF) combined with a membrane bioreactor (MBR) has been completed at Snug Cove on Bowen Island in British Columbia, Canada.
STS wins Tianjin denitrification contract
Pennsylvania-based Severn Trent Services has received a contract to provide its Tetra® Denite® denitrification system for the Zhang Gui Zhuang Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Tianjin, China.
New contracts announced by H2O Innovation
A 150,000 GPD (568 m³/d) membrane wastewater treatment system for a First Nation community in Manitoba, Canada, is one of new contracts totaling US$ 2.4 million announced on 12 January 2011 by H2O Innovation.
ABS turbocompressors selected for Jurong MBR plant
Aeration for the membrane bioreactor (MBR) and the biological treatment tanks at Jurong Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore's largest MBR plant, is to be provided by ABS Turbocompressors HST.
World's largest membrane leachate-treatment plant handed over
Norit X-Flow and ISTAÇ (Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality Environmental Protection & Waste Materials Valuation Industry) celebrated the handover on 17 August 2010 of a notable wastewater treatment project: the treatment of leachate from the Istanbul landfill in Odayeri and Kömürcüoda.
MBR at heart of innovative wastewater reuse project
An innovative wastewater treatment/water reuse project was opened for the City of Clovis, California, USA, on 19 March 2010, featuring membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology, ultraviolet (UV) disinfection and a patented sludge-reduction system
MBR/IFAS reuse technology could be used at Chinese jewellery site
Two wastewater treatment plants being investigated for a new Chinese industrial park for precious-metal jewellery production could use advanced technologies for wastewater reuse.
CDM and Miahona in Saudi water partnership
US consultant CDM and Miahona (Our Water), a subsidiary of ACWA Power Development, have announced a new partnership to execute water projects in Saudi Arabia. The partnership will manage engineering and consulting for water sector projects, including providing studies, designs, construction management, operations, and management consulting services.
US export finance boost for water and energy projects
US exports for renewable-energy, water and nuclear-power projects approved after 1 July 2009 are eligible for a maximum repayment term of up to 18 years under export financing provided by the Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank).
Large EDR river desalination plant opens in Spain
GE Water and Aigües Ter-Llobregat (ATLL) of Spain announced on 19 May 2009 the opening of the 220,000 m³/d electrodialysis reversal (EDR) brackish water desalination plant on the Llobregat river.
EDS/Wetsus issues membrane conference call for papers
A deadline of 30 June 2012 has been set for abstracts for the eighth in the series of conferences on Membranes in Drinking & Industrial Water Production, which will take place at Leeuwarden in the Netherlands on 10‑12 September 2012.
EDR researcher wins 2013 Channabasappa Scholarship
The International Desalination Association has awarded its 2013 Channabasappa Scholarship to Leila Karimi, a PhD candidate at the Institute for Energy & the Environment, Chemical Engineering Department, New Mexico State University (NMSU).
Biwater wins Pt Hueneme desalination contract
Biwater AEWT Inc announced on 30 September 2009 that it had been awarded a contract to design and supply a membrane desalination system for the City of Port Hueneme in California, USA. The new system will deliver a total of 1 MGD (3,785 m³/d) of high-quality drinking-water when completed.
Desalination plant's nitrate removal has hidden benefits
A water district in California has found a novel way to remove multiple contaminants from groundwater currently feeding a desalination plant without creating waste that requires costly treatment and disposal.
EDS unveils course on desalination and renewable energy
The European Desalination Society (EDA) has announced a four‑day intensive course on Wind and Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Powered Desalination Systems (Reverse Osmosis and Electrodialysis Reversal) to be held in the Canary Islands.
Wetsus seeks out breakthrough water innovations
Wetsus is a not-for-profit foundation located in Leeuwarden, the Netherlands. It is a facilitator for trendsetting expertise development and has the ambition to become the European Union (EU) centre of excellence in water treatment technology. Among its 25 research themes are several desalination projects including Electrospray Desalination, Salt Removal via Ionic Liquids and Seawater Preatreatment with Electrodialysis. This article first appeared in the August/September 2011 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Future advancements and acceptance of membrane technologies
The introduction of membrane technologies including reverse osmosis, electrodialysis reversal, ultrafiltration, microfiltration and membrane bioreactors has transformed the approach water treatment. For the second time, the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) is combining its annual conference and exposition (18-21 July 2011) with its Florida-based affiliate, the Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA). The AMTA president ponders where membranes may go from here. This article first appeared in the May/June 2011 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
EPA funding for Arlington Desalter's biological denitrification
California's Western Municipal Water District (WMWD) confirmed on 10 February 2011 that it had secured a US$ 528,000 federal grant in January for design work on a treatment system that uses naturally occurring bacteria to remove toxic contaminants, including perchlorate and nitrate, from drinking water.
The Long Read: Where's the innovation in brine treatment?
As water scarcity bites and the drive to recycle water grows, the focus on recovering clean water and other resources from brine is sharpening. The challenge is particularly pertinent for industrial operators.
'Our capex is on a par with traditional desal'
The commercialisation of Voltea's electrodialysis-based desalination technology, CapDI, is happening apace says chief executive Bryan Brister.
AMTA's Hall of Fame honours industry pioneers
A raft of industry awards was unveiled at the Membrane Technology Conference 2017, including AMTA's four-strong Hall of Fame 2017, which recognises pioneering careers in membrane technology.
EC-backed pilots to trial desalination by electrodialysis
A new European Commission-backed series of desalination pilots are about to kick off, as part of Horizon 2020, the European Union's biggest ever research and innovation programme.
Resort uses desalination in innovative reuse project
The Cache Creek state-of-the-art water reuse project in the USA is very interesting for its use of the Vibratory Shear Enhanced Process (VSEP) for brine volume reduction. However the use of Electrodialysis Reversal (EDR) desalination prior to this process is also of interest, and the project s award from the WateReuse Association (2009 Project of the Year Desalination Facility) confirms that this is a project worthy of a little more detail. This article first appeared in Desalination & Water Reuse s November/December 2009 issue.
UK researchers unveils solar-powered brine treatment process
A UK academic has proposed a new solar energy-driven process to convert brine produced by desalination plants. The process also removes carbon dioxide dissolved in the oceans ocean to reduce its damaging environmental impacts according to the researcher at Birmingham's Aston University.
AMTA unveils annual gongs for membrane experts
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has conferred its annual roster of awards for membrane specialists, include its Lifetime Service Award, Hall of Fame Awards, and Operator of the Year Award.
IDA World Congress 2017 award winners in full
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has recognised the best technical papers and other contributions at IDA World Congress 2017 with a roster of special awards.
EDR/MBR well treatment may debut in Utah
A membrane bioreactor (MBR) system, developed and patented in 2008 by Magna Water District (MWD), in the US state of Utah, and Carollo Engineers, could be used for the first time together with an electrodialysis reversal (EDR) facility to remove perchlorate and arsenic from the Barton Well Field in Utah.
Saudi EDR plant to be retrofitted as RO
A project to retrofit the first stage of the existing electrodialysis-reversal plant at Quayiah Water Treatment Plant in Saudi Arabia into a 2,500 m³/d reverse-osmosis unit has been won by Technology Experts Co (TE) of Riyadh.
Water scarcity stokes civil unrest in rural India
The Times of India is reporting a series of protests about a lack of drinking water by groups of hundreds of people in rural areas of southern India.
BIOBROx bill passes US House committee
The United States House of Representative's Committee on Natural Resources approved on 11 September 2009 Magna Water District Water Reuse & Groundwater Recharge Act of 2009 (HR 2265) proposed by Representative Jason Chaffetz.
Can$ 4.7 million new orders for H2O Innovation
A 1.1 MGD (4,200 m³/d) ultrafiltration (UF) drinking water system for a community in British Columbia, Canada, is one of new contracts worth Can$ 4.7 million (US$ 4.6 million) announced on 6 June 2013 by H2O Innovation Inc.
ZWT wins oil-camp replacement RO plant order in Libya
Three turnkey reverse-osmosis (RO) water treatment plants are to be provided by Zulal Water Technology (ZWT) for the Gialo, Waha and Essider oil camps operated in Libya by Waha Oil Company.
MIT researchers host Reddit Ask Me Anything session on photovoltaic EDR system
Researchers at MIT have developed a solar-powered electrodialysis system that could "provide 250 million people in India with safe and affordable water," MIT News reports.
California regulators seek less water restriction as Carlsbad kicks in
California regulators have proposed that a 25% state-mandated water conservation target should be eased off on grounds including the start up of major desalination and water reuse programmes.
Energy Recovery bags deal for giant Chinese desalination plant
Energy Recovery has won a US$ 2.3 million to supply its pressure exchange technology for a 100,000 m³/d desalination plant in China.
Dormant plant is on Victoria supply menu
The Wonthaggi desalination plant at Victoria, Australia has yet to deliver any water but switching on the multibillion-dollar desalination plant has become part of Victoria's water planning as the state remains gripped by drought and extremely high temperatures.
Oman's Sur expansion is 70% complete
Construction of Sharqiyah Desalination Company's expansion project for water desalination in Sur, Oman, is 70% complete. The extension project is expected to be completed by mid-2016, said project manager, Veolia.
San Antonio to get brackish desalination in 2016
The San Antonio Water System (SAWS) in Texas has announced that by October 2016 it will start up a brackish water desalination plant that will eventually become the largest in the US.
Wind damage prompts Sydney desalination critics to renew calls for closure
Winds topping 200km/h have ripped roofs off Sydney's dormant Kurnell desalination plant. Critics of the plant have called for it to be closed completely but New South Wales' water minister, Niall Blair, said abandonment would break the state's contract obligations.
The US$ 1 billion Carlsbad seawater desalination plant in San Diego County, California has opened.
New York orders desalination standby to be scrapped
The New York state Public Service Commission (PSC) has directed Suez, to abandon its US$ 150 million Haverstraw desalination project following local pressure to scrap the plan in favour of conservation measures.
St Kitts ponders desalination plant to counter dry periods
A proposal to build a new desalination plant was among strategies being pursued by the St. Kitts and Nevis ministry of public infrastructure to ensure water supply can meet the growing demand of the population of the Caribbean island duo.
Utility piles US$ 330 million into Emirates water projects
Ras Al Khaimah-based utility, Utico, has invested AED 1.2 billion (U$ 326.7 million) in projects across the United Arab Emirates to meet their growing demand for power and water.
US agency picks trio for desalination project pipe deal
US water agency, California American Water (CalAm), has selected three firms to construct a 30km pipeline with pumping stations and storage facilities to deliver desalinated water from a planned facility under its Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project.
Masdar steps up ties with China
Abu Dhabi's Masdar Institute of Science and Technology is stepping up its research collaborations, knowledge exchange and industrial partnerships, with China.
Don't let climate uncertainty stymie desalination investment says risk expert
Water and wastewater utilities must view climate change as a "disruptive opportunity" and not allow uncertainty to stymie investments in desalination and other resilience measures according to a UK risk management expert. Climate change created a business opportunity where "the most resilient will have an implicit lead over their competitors," the expert told a recent international forum.
Texas loan boosts Gulf of Mexico project
Texas has agreed a US$ 2 million loan for the Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority (GBRA) to fund a study into site and transport options for a power and water project including a seawater desalination plant on the Texas Gulf coast. The project will provide additional water supplies and add diversity to the region's water sources.
Fujairah expansion kicks off
The Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Authority (ADWEA) and Sembcorp Industries have completed construction and begun operation of a US$ 200-million expansion to the Fujairah 1 Independent Water and Power Plant (IWPP) in the United Arab Emirates.
Global green group seeks to carve carbon emissions out of desalination
The Global Clean Water Desalination Alliance - H₂0 minus CO₂ initiative, launched at the current climate talks in Paris, has called on its 17-nation membership to use clean energy to power new desalination plants. The call was part of the alliance's aim to tackle the water-energy nexus and climate change.
Historic Israel-Jordan water deal scuppered by planners
Less than a week after ministers from Jordan and Israel launched pre qualification for an US$ 900 million desalination and water transfer project, local planning in Israel reject the proposed scheme.
Veolia Peru wins operation deal for mine desalination
Veolia Peru, has won a three-year operation and maintenance contract for a 4.1 Ml/d reverse osmosis desalination plant at the Cerro Lindo multi metal mine owned by Lima-quoted exploration and mining firm, Milpo.
Barbados ponders more desalination to tackle water scarcity
Barbados is very likely to soon have another desalination plant according to minister of agriculture, food, fisheries and water resource management, David Estwick.
Egypt opts to grow desalination plant
Egypt's cabinet economic committee, under prime minister Sherif Ismail, has agreed to provide the funds required to complete expansion in works and production capacity at a seawater desalination plant in Hurghada.
Singapore's PUB set to adopt power saving desalination by Evoqua
Technology developed in Singapore by US firm, Evoqua, uses half the amount of electricity required by conventional seawater reverse osmosis the firm has claimed.
Boart Longyear wins slant well deal
California American Water (CalAm) has selected drilling firm, Boart Longyear, to construct seven to nine source water slant wells that would draw ocean water for a desalination facility proposed as part of CalAm's US$ 320 million Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project.