Egypt, Nuclear, Multiple Effect Distillation, Offshore, Reverse Osmosis, Nuclear, Russia, Multiple Effect Distillation


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Russia looks to export nuclear power and desalination packages

Russia's nuclear power company, Rosatom, is aiming to sell integrated, large nuclear power and desalination plants overseas through its export arm Rosatom Overseas.

Russian nuclear giant musters experts to lead desalination drive

Russia's nuclear energy corporation, Rosatom, has formed a group of expert desalination advisors as part of its push to win customers for its thermal desalination technologies. The company is targeting world regions where clean water is scarce as a path to becoming "leaders in the global nuclear market," according to Rosatom.

Aquatech awarded a 10,000 m³/d MED plant in Egypt

Aquatech is to design and supply a multiple-effect distillation (MED) seawater desalination system for the Abu Qir Thermal Power Plant near Alexandria, Egypt.

UF nuclear plant contract for inge in China

Germany's inge watertechnologies AG will equip the Hongyanhe nuclear power plant near Dalian in the east of China with its dizzer 5000plus ultrafiltration (UF) modules, each rated for an output of up to 5.0 m³/h each.

Russians to cooperate on Jordan desalination

Desalination plants were included in a nuclear cooperation agreement signed on 22 May 2009 by Russia and Jordan, which also included power stations, research facilities and personnel training centres to be built in Jordan.

Nuclear energy to supply Jordan desalination plants

Four nuclear power plants in the southern region of Jordan will provide almost 750 MW of energy for desalination and water pumping, according to a report in the Jordan Times.

NSF/JWPA developing iodine water filtration protocol

A joint protocol to evaluate the ability of certain water filtration products - such as reverse osmosis - to reduce iodine (including radioactive iodine) from drinking water currently being completed by NSF International and the Japan Water Purification Association (JWPA).

Fujairah F2 desalination plant inaugurated

The Fujairah F2 Power & Seawater Desalination plant was inaugurated in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) on 9 May 2011.

Oman funds renewable desalination research

Oman has approved funding for research into harnessing renewable energy sources for water desalination in the sultanate.

Pilot desalination plant to start up soon on Hudson river

United Water is finalizing construction of a pilot desalination plant at Haverstraw on the Hudson river in New York state. If constructed, the full size reverse-osmosis plant would be 7.5 MGD (28,300 m³/d).

Vapour compression desalination plants for Indian oilfield

Texas-based MECO, which supplies desalination equipment to the offshore, pharmaceutical and military sectors, announced in December 2011 that it would be designing and constructing two vapour compression (VC) desalination plants for an oilfield off the Indian coast.

Aquatech wins Oman MED deal

Water and wastewater technology firm, Aquatech, has won a contract to design and supply a multiple effect distillation (MED) seawater desalination system for Oman's Oil Refineries and Petroleum Industries Company (Orpic).

California county mulls tapping into nuclear plant desalination

As part of its plans to combat ongoing severe drought, California's San Luis Obispo County (SLO) is considering the construction of a 10 km pipeline to tap into the spare capacity of a desalination plant currently providing only the needs of a nuclear power plant.

Kuwait invites bids for Doha desalination plant as Az-Zour is 65% finished

Kuwait's ministry of electricity and water plans to invite bids for the first phase of a new desalination plant at Doha. Separately, construction of the first phase of a US$ 1.4 billion power and water plant at Az-Zour is close to twp-thirds complete.

Qatar MED/TC desalination plant goes to Tri-Tech

A 5,760 m³/d multiple-effect distillation thermocompression desalination plant is to be provided for a petrochemical plant in Qatar by Tri-Tech Holding Inc.

Chinese desalination import ratio to fall, says report

Localisation of desalination products and systems in China is targeted to rise from 60% to 90% by 2020, according to market researchers Frost & Sullivan.

AquaSwiss to market IDE's MED technology in MENA and SE Asia

Desalination system manufacturer IDE Technologies announced on 4 May 2010 that it had signed a technology transfer agreement with AquaSwiss AG, a Switzerland-based provider of advanced water solutions

Germans delivering small MVC/MED units to Saudi Arabia

Medesa GmbH of Germany has delivered a 180 m³/d desalination unit to the Al Marshad Group for the industrial area in Yanbu, Saudi Arabia.

Prince launches Ras Girtas desalination construction

Crown prince Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad al-Thani of Qatar took part in a ceremony on 4 May 2009 to mark the start of construction of the Ras Girtas Power & Water Project in the Ras Laffan industrial zone.

Entropie wins Algerian MED desalination units

Sidem subsidiary Entropie has been awarded a contract by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries for the supply of three multiple-effect distillation (MED) desalination units with a net capacity of 3,600 m³/d each.

Drought stricken California county looks to nuclear plant desalination plant

California's San Luis Obispo County board of supervisors has approved a sewage reclamation project that could add treated wastewater to an aquifer and the expansion of a desalination facility at the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant as emergency water supply options.

Desalia starts works on Egypt reverse osmosis plant

Spain's Desalia has started site works for a new, 24,000 m³/d seawater reverse osmosis plant west of Alexandria, Egypt near the city of Matrouh.

The coastal region of Bushehr, in the Persian Gulf, is in the south west of Iran

Iran poised to finance nuclear plants with co-located desalination

Iran has begun constructing two nuclear power plants, to be co-located with desalination facilities of 200 million m3/d, reports Iranian government news agency, Islamic Republic News Agency.

Multi-technology GE upgrade for Russian refinery treatment

Membrane bioreactor (MBR), electrodialysis reversal (EDR) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology will all feature in a major upgrade for the wastewater treatment at one of Russia's biggest oil refineries.

Vladivostok SWRO project for Aqua-Chem

A custom-built 2.64 MGD (10,000 m³/d) seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant is being installed in eastern Russia, off the coast of Vladivostok, by Aqua-Chem Inc of the USA.

US$ 8 million contracts boost for H2O Innovation

Quebec-based H2O Innovation Inc announced new contracts for desalination and water treatment systems totaling Can$ 7.8 million (US$ 8 million) on 24 March 2011.

Russia sets up water treatment membrane development project

The Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies (Rusnano) is to finance a project for producing nanostructured membranes and separation modules for water treatment in various industries.

Egyptian SWRO plant to use ERI pressure exchangers

Egypt's largest desalination plant being built at Marsa Matrouh is to be supplied with Pressure Exchanger (PX) energy-recovery devices by Energy Recovery Inc of California.

Aquatech signs for Egypt's first ZLD plant

Egypt's first integrated zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plant is to be built by Aquatech, under a contract from the Egyptian Ethylene & Derivatives Company (ETHYDCO) to provide a water treatment facility.

Shivsu supplies desalination plants in Oman and Egypt

Indian OEM Shivsu Canadian Clear International Ltd has become the first Indian company to successfully install desalination water plants, worth Rs 50 crore (US$ 11 million), for the Oman and Egypt governments.

Aqua Engineering wins seawater desalination orders

Two major seawater desalination orders for the United Arab Emirates and Egypt have been won by Austria's Aqua Engineering GmbH, part of the Christ Water Technology Group.

Metito Overseas appoints senior process engineer

Desalination and water treatment specialist Metito Overseas Ltd, based in Sharjah, UAE, has appointed Sagi Essam El-Din A Ghafour as senior process engineer from September 2011.

Metito collects Egypt deals worth US$ 8.5 million

Water management firm, Metito, has won contracts for four projects worth EGP 65 million (US$ 8.5 million) on the back of moves to support the revival of Egypt's local tourism economy.

Norit X-Flow Aquaflex membranes

Giant Moscow UF plant gets Norit X-Flow membranes

One of the largest ultrafiltration (UF) plants in the world, the South-West Moscow drinking water plant in Russia, is currently being expanded to a total of 275,000 m³/d using Norit X-Flow membranes.

Population growth, drought, pollution, and high levels of leakage threaten water supply in the world's big cities

The world's top 11 most water-challenged cities

The BBC world news desk has compiled a list of the top 11 cities most likely to run out of water -- and they're not where you might think.

Egypt opts to grow desalination plant

Egypt's cabinet economic committee, under prime minister Sherif Ismail, has agreed to provide the funds required to complete expansion in works and production capacity at a seawater desalination plant in Hurghada.

Egyptian power station seeks desalination plant

A tender has been issued for water treatment and desalination systems for Egypt's Ain Sokha Power Project with a deadline of 17 August 2009.

Solar mobile desalination plant inaugurated in Egypt

The Egyptian State Information Service reported that a mobile water desalination plant powered by solar energy was inaugurated in Marsa Matrouh governorate on 18 April 2014.

EBRD in talks with Egypt on desalination finance

The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) is negotiating with the public private partnership (PPP) unit of Egypt's ministry of finance over possible private sector involvement in the unit's infrastructure projects including a desalination facility.

Global desalination market to grow 9% a year

The global water desalination market is set to grow at nearly 9% a year to 2018 according a report by market researcher, TechNavio.

IDA announces lecturers for next Academy session

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has announced the line-up for the next one-day course in its Desalination Academy, which will take place on 5 December 2012 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, alongside the Saudi Water & Power Forum.

Morocco's first solar-powered desalination starts up

Morocco's first solar-powered desalination plant has started operations near Marrakech.

Egypt unveils three public/private desalination deals for 2016

Egypt has unveiled plans for at least three desalination public private partnerships in 2016 among a dozen infrastructure projects in various sectors.

Namibian government poised to table offer for Areva desalination plant

Namibia's government is poised to table an offer to buy Areva's seawater desalination plant at Trekkopje and to use the 20 million m³-a-year facility to supply the country's semi-arid Erongo region.

Hyflux bags Suez Canal desalination deal

Singapore's Hyflux has secured a letter of intent for an engineering procurement and construction contract for a 150,000 m³/d desalination plant in Egypt's Suez Canal Economic Zone.

Egyptian solar desalination

The Egyptian Gazette reported on 22 September 2011 that Egypt's scientists have developed a solar-power based technology to reduce the cost of water desalination from LE 10 (US$ 1.67) to LE 4 ($0 67) per cubic metre.

Egypt and Bahrain seek joint desalination projects

Egypt and Bahrain are looking to develop joint water desalination projects between the two countries.

Sumitomo consortium gets Ras Azzour approval

After complaining about premature announcements of its preferred bidder, Saudi Arabia's Water & Electricity Company (WEC) finally confirmed at the end of October that the consortium of Sumitomo Corporation/Aljomaih Automotive Co/Malakoff International was its First Ranked Bidder for the Ras Azzour independent water & power plant (IWPP).

IDE lands big Australian mining RO contract

IDE Technologies has been awarded the design and supply contract for a 140,000 m³/d desalination plant for the Sino Iron Project in Western Australia by CITIC Pacific Mining.

H2O Innovation commissions pathfinding Indian membrane plant

Canada's H2O Innovation announced on 31 January 2011 that its Indian joint venture, H2O Innovation India Ltd, had commissioned the 7,000 m³/d membrane water treatment system it had designed for Larsen & Toubro Heavy Engineering (L&T) in Gujarat state.

Typical plant configuration based on Synwater 500 system

Bahrain MoU signed for wind-powered desalination technology

Wind-powered desalination technology is to be promoted in Bahrain under a memorandum of understanding (MoU) signed on 31 January 2011 between Jade Consultancy of Bahrain and Synlift Systems GmbH of Germany.

Egypt to step up seawater desalination efforts

Egypt's president Hosni Mubarak has instructed the government to expand its seawater desalination initiatives and step up efforts to discover additional sources of groundwater, according to the Egyptian daily Al-Masry Al-Youm.

Innovations in IDA Congress technical program

Round-table sessions and touch-screen availability of poster presentations will be used for the first time in the International Desalination Association's World Congress in Dubai on 7-12 November 2009, IDA announced on 19 October 2009.

RWL Water unveils desalination deal Egypt

RWL Water and Orascom Construction have signed a memorandum of understanding with the Egyptian government to proceed with a feasibility study for building, financing and operating the first large desalination plant in Egypt for the supply of potable water.

Far East trio size up Suez Canal zone for desalination

Singaporean company Hyflux, along with Japanese industrial giants, Mitsubishi Matoto, and Toyota Tsusho have started feasibility studies for power plants and water desalination facilities in East Port Said, Egypt.

CDA/EDS seeking Qingdao desalination abstracts by 15 March

Abstracts for the 2011 Qingdao International Desalination Conference in China (20-23 June 2011) must received by 15 March 2011 with final papers by 10 May 2011.

The Sidem distillers were delivered in two major shipments direct to the project site, each one weighing 2,600 tonnes. Six of the distillers were shipped from UAE, and the other four came from China

How we delivered Az Zour North phase one

"With hindsight we were very lucky to get everything through on time and that our construction partner Hyundai Heavy Industries was on time. Fortunately we escaped a lot of those little wrinkles that need sorting out during construction, and can drag on and on, and so we kept to time," says Andy Biffen, chief executive of project delivery vehicle Az Zour Shamal.

Low-grade waste heat holds promise for desalination

Low-grade, waste heat produced by industry may be applicable to distillation desalination to make fresh water where revere osmosis is not suitable according to findings by the University of Western Australia (UWA).

The desalination plant is located north of the desert town Wlotzkasbaken, on the South Atlantic

NamWater seeks consultants to advise on desal deal

Namibia Water Corporation (NamWater) is seeking consultants to help with a possible acquisition of Areva Desalination Plant at Swakopmund.

Solar/MED design aims to desalinate CSG water

A three-way partnership in Australia has entered a solar-powered desalination system for the coal‑seam gas (CSG) industry into the Australian Innovation Challenge being run by Shell and The Australian newspaper.

Chris MacNee, chief executive of Hydrology, believes that Brazil offers opportunities for smaller operators

'Adjustable' desal plant in Brazil financed by project bond

UK water company Hydrology is to build and operate an "adjustable" desalination plant in Cubato in Sao Paulo state, Brazil, to supply industrial conglomerate Unigel.

Aquarion sets up in Russia

Swizerland-based water systems company, Aquarion Group, has established a Russian operation, Aquarion Russia, to focus on providing water and wastewater treatment to industrial customers in Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States.

Cape Town ponders giant desalination project as resources dwindle

Cape Town, South Africa is nearing completion of its feasibility study for a 450 Ml/d desalination plant that could be built near Koeberg on South Africa's west coast within the next 10 years at a cost of some R14.9 billion (US$ 1.23 billion).

Membrane desalination has grown as a proportion of capacity contracted since 2000

New desalination capacity rises by 16 per cent

Desalination capacity of 3.7 million m3/d was added globally in the year to June 30, 2016, representing a 16 per cent rise on 3.2 million m3/d of new capacity added the previous year.

The site of Koeberg Nuclear Power Station, north of Cape Town, South Africa, may host a project to pilot desalination for municipal use

South Africa nuclear plant to install desal unit amid worsening water crisis

South Africa's electricity utility Eskom is to install a desalination unit at Koeberg Nuclear Power Station, as water shortages in Cape Town hit crisis levels, reports South Africa's News24.com.

The hyper-saline Dead Sea would receive brine from the proposed Red Sea-Dead Sea desalination scheme

Jordan and Saudi join forces for atomic-fuelled desalination

Saudi Arabia and Jordan have signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) for a feasibility study on two nuclear reactors in Jordan, to generate electricity and for desalination, reports Zawya.

Solar desalination plant to serve California's Central Valley

Solar desalinatetion specialist, HydroRevolution, is raising funding to construct a solar-powered multi-effect distillation desalination plant in the Panoche Water and Drainage District in the Central Valley.

Japanese-led consortium bags US$ 120 million Saudi desalination deal

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) has awarded a US$ 120 million contract for the expansion of the Shuaiba 2 seawater desalination plant to a joint venture including ACWA Holding and Japanese engineering firms Itochu Corporation and Sasakura.

Regulator blocks New York desalination proposal

A US regional regulator recently dashed a bid by utility, United Water New York to build a desalination plant after customers rejected the water firm's proposed up-front price hikes to meet the cost of the plant. 

MECO wins US Navy desalination contracts

Louisiana-based MECO has been awarded the design and development of advanced shipboard desalination units for the US Navy under contracts with the Office of Naval Research.

The site of the decommissioned San Onofre Nuclear Generation Station is ripe for redevelopment as a solar desalination plant, says SolRio

SolRio proposes solar desal for old nuclear power site

SolRio, a US non-profit that supports solar-powered desalination, has proposed turning the decommissioned San Onofre Nuclear Generation Station, California, into a desalination plant.

New technology and long-term reliability in process and potable water production

The Rabigh desalination plant in Saudi Arabia has outstripped its design output and water quality for nearly ten years. Designer of the plant s multiple effect distillation heart, Aquatech, sought at the outset to rein in operating costs while maintaining the plant s reliability and resilience. This article first appeared in the August 2014 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Veolia wins Az Zour MED desalination plant in Kuwait

Veolia Environnement announced on 13 January 2014 that its Sidem subsidiary had won the contract to build the seawater desalination plant at the Az Zour North complex in Kuwait for € 320 million.

Sidem to build Kuwait's Az-Zour MED desalination plant

A consortium of Hyundai Heavy Industries (HHI) of South Korea and Sidem, a subsidiary of Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies, has announced the signing on 12 December 2013 of a US$ 1.4 billion engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contract with Shamal Az-Zour Al-Oula to build the first phase of the Az-Zour North Independent Water & Power Project (IWPP) in Kuwait.

The new adsorption-based facility will use solar energy to power the desalination process

Saudi Arabia to build solar-powered, adsorption desalination plant

Saudi Arabia is building a solar-powered desalination plant using adsoprtion technology, in one of seven strategic projects that include the nation's first nuclear research reactor.

SWCC Governor Dr Abdulrahman bin Mohammed Al-Ibrahim, Doosan  president and COO Keysun Han with SWCC and Doosan executives at the Yanbu Phase 2 Expansion MED  Seawater Desalination Plant.

Ceremony marks Yanbu 2 MED desalination completion

The completion ceremony for the Yanbu Phase 2 Expansion seawater desalination plant was held on 19 December 2012 by Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Doosan takes Yanbu 3 MSF plant in Saudi

Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction is to build the Yanbu Phase 3 Seawater Desalination Plant under a contract worth US$ 1 billion from the Saline Water Conversion Corporation of Saudi Arabia.

IDA backs Abu Dhabi water summit

The International Desalination Association (IDA) announced on 12 November 2012 that it would be supporting the 2013 International Water Summit in Abu Dhabi as a Knowledge Partner and would lead sessions on water and energy.

Who will buy GE Water & Process Technologies?

The news that GE wants to sell its Water & Process Technologies business sent a ripple of surprise through the global desalination industry last week, with many at first asking: "Why?"

Agnihotri elected to board of ThermoEnergy Corp

Dr Dileep Agnihotri, the CEO and president of Advanced Hydro Inc, a company set up to commercialise a novel antifouling membrane coating technology at the University of Texas - Austin, has joined the board of ThermoEnergy Corp, a Massachusetts-based company engaged in development and sales of municipal and industrial wastewater-recovery and clean power-generation technologies.

Seokwon Yun (left), executive vice president of Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction and Thamer S Al-Sharhan, president of Marafiq, sign the contract for Yanbu II.

Doosan signs 68,000 m³/d MED desalination contract

Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction is to build a 68,000 m³/d multi-effect distillation (MED) desalination plant in the Yanbu region of Saudi Arabia.

Doosan set to build 2 MED plants in Yanbu

Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction of South Korea is to receive an engineering, procurement and construction contract for two multi-effect distillation desalination (MED) units from Marafiq, the power and water utility company for Jubail and Yanbu, Saudi Arabia.

Part of the Ras Laffan C desalination plant.

MED/TVC desalination plant inaugurated in Qatar

The Ras Laffan C power and desalination plant in Qatar was officially opened on 31 May 2011 in the presence of the emir, Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani, and Gérard Mestrallet, chairman and CEO of GDF Suez.

Kalpakkam Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Plant, India

Water scarcity can make nuclear option attractive to some countries

Nuclear power and desalination have been seen as symbiotic technologies for a long time. The combination is viewed as an attractive option for countries that have nuclear capability but which also lack sufficient potable water. The author reviews recent advances in IAEA member states to improve reactors with regard to desalination. He also looks at major recent nuclear desalination studies and projects around the globe This article first appeared in the November/December 2011 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine. It has already appeared on this site, but was accidentally deleted.

Doosan to build world's largest MED desalination unit

Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction has signed an agreement with the Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) in Saudi Arabia to co-build what will be the world's largest single multi-effect distillation (MED) desalination unit.

IDE wins Chinese follow-on order for four MED desalination plants

Four additional multi-effect distillation (MED) desalination units, each with a production capacity of 25,000 m³/day of distilled water, are to be supplied for Tianjin SDIC, China's new electricity- generation megaplant, by IDE Technologies of Israel.

San Luis county pledges US$ 900,000 for plans tap into nuclear plant desalination

The San Luis Obispo County Board of Supervisors has committed US$ 900,000 to planning and permitting for a proposal to expand Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant's reverse osmosis desalination plant to supply South County residents.

Saudi and Chinese state-owned entities are collaborating on nuclear desalination

Saudi Arabia and China to develop nuclear desalination projects

Saudi Arabia and China have signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) on developing desalination projects using gas-cooled nuclear reactors.

French loan for two desalination evaporators in Kazakhstan

France is to loan Kazakhstan US$ 32 million to build two desalination plants to help supply water for the west of the country.

HTI deal takes forward osmosis to China

The world's only commercial manufacturer of forward-osmosis (FO) membranes, modules and systems, Hydration Technologies Innovations LLC (HTI), reached an international distribution, services and cooperation agreement for FO technology with Chinese company Tri-Tech Holding Inc.

The new joint venture enterprise led by China National Nuclear Power will be based in Shanghai

China to sell off-the-shelf floating nuclear desalination units

Chinese state-owned China National Nuclear Power (CNNP) has formed a new joint venture company to build floating nuclear power and seawater desalination plants.

IDA-GWI conference to be held in Paris in 2010

The annual conference held jointly by the International Desalination Association and Global Water Intelligence is to be held next year in Paris on 26-27 April 2010.

South Africa's Cape ponders desalination as water crisis grips

The provincial government of South Africa's Western Cape is looking to water reclamation and seawater desalination as it considers its options for securing water amid a serious crisis.

Chennai venue for InDACON 2010 desalination conference

Next year's InDACON-APDA conference will be in Chennai on 10-12 March 2010, the Indian Desalination Association (InDA) announced on 16 September 2009.

US export finance boost for water and energy projects

US exports for renewable-energy, water and nuclear-power projects approved after 1 July 2009 are eligible for a maximum repayment term of up to 18 years under export financing provided by the Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank).

Westgarth wins another offshore SWRO contract

VWS Westgarth has been awarded a contract by SBM Inc for the design, procurement and supply of equipment and provision of construction technical assistance for a single lift module seawater sulphate reduction package (SRP) system for SBM's existing installation, FPSO (Floating Production, Storage & Offloading vessel) Xikomba off Angola.

Tapping into Table Mountain aquifer is among the measures proposed to beat the drought

Western Cape looks to desal, as Eksom issues RFP

Western Cape, South Africa, is to expedite an environmental impact assessment for a mobile desalination plant, as the area is officially declared a disaster zone due to water scarcity.

Chinese licensee joins Dow residential Filmtec program

Haier Group of China, a leading multinational home appliances and consumer electronics company, has become the latest official licensee to partner with Dow Water & Process Solutions in its newly launched Filmtec™ reverse osmosis (RO) ingredient branding program.

Aquatech wins ZLD job in Turkmenistan

Aquatech has been awarded a contract to design and supply a zero‑liquid discharge ZLD wastewater-reuse system in a gas‑field development project in Turkmenistan.

China ups daily desalt capacity by a billion cubic metres

China built 112 seawater desalination plants in 2014, with a total output of 927 Ml/d the State Oceanic Administration revealed recently in a report on seawater use during last year.


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