Desalination, Water Treatment, Japan, Temperature, Cape Verde
Japanese funds sought for Cape Verde desalination plant
Cape Verde is reported to be looking to Japan for funding for a 40,000 m³/d desalination plant on the island of Santiago.
Japan funds Cape Verde desalination scheme
Japan's International Cooperation Agency (JICA) is to provide US$ 150 million towards the funding of a US$ 200 million desalination plant for the Cape Verde republic off the coast of West Africa.
Australians win Cape Verde desalination agreement
A letter of intent involving a desalination plant with an initial capacity of 4,000 m³/d has been given to Water Resources Group (WRG) of Perth, Australia, from the Municipality of Santa Caterina in Cape Verde.
Masdar desal pilot: the results so far
Masdar Clean Energy set a target for its pilot projects of one cubic metre of water for every 3.6 kilowatt hours of energy used. This is a particularly challenging target in the Persian Gulf, where salinity is very high, the water temperature is high, it's very shallow, and there's high organic matter.
Saudi deal gives Toray fourth membrane‑making base
A new joint venture to sell desalination and water treatment membranes in the Middle East has been set up between Toray Industries of Japan and Abunayyan Holding, headquartered in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Veolia supplies RO desalination to Mauritania mine
A 1,500 m³/d reverse-osmosis (RO) brackish-water desalination plant has been supplied to a mine in Mauritania by Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies South Africa, with a heat-exchanger to cool the water.
New headquarters for Kurita Water Industries
Japanese water-treatment chemical supplier Kurita Water Industries has moved to a new headquarters in Tokyo.
LG Electronics forms water treatment JV with Hitachi
South Korea's LG Electronics and Japan's Hitachi are to establish a joint venture in October 2011 to expand into the water and wastewater treatment industries initially in Korea.
Sumitomo allies with VA Tech Wabag
Japan's Sumitomo Corp announced on 7 December 2010 an alliance agreement with India-based VA Tech Wabag Ltd, under which the two companies will strategically cooperate in multiple areas within the water infrastructure industry
Desalitech ties up with Toyo for international market
Innovative reverse-osmosis (RO) developer Desalitech and Japan's Toyo Engineering Corporation announced on 11 December 2013 the formation of a strategic partnership to introduce water and wastewater treatment solutions to Japanese, East Asian and international markets.
JGC and Hyflux to collaborate on water and desalination projects
Hydrocarbon engineering company JGC Corporation of Japan and NewSpring Utility Pte Ltd, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Singapore-based membrane technology company Hyflux Ltd, signed a joint venture agreement on 22 December 2009 to develop greenfield water projects including desalination in China.
Japanese desalination forum program announced
The program has been announced for the Japan Desalination Association (JDA) 2011 Forum in Tokyo on 16 February 2011.
Toray takeover of Korea's Woongjin Chemical agreed
Japan's Toray Industries Inc announced on 6 November 2013 that Toray Advanced Materials Korea Inc (TAK), its Korean subsidiary, had agreed the same day with Woongjin Holdings Co Ltd and others to purchase a 56.2% stake in Woongjin Chemical Co Ltd for Won 430 billion (US$ 406 million).
Metito backs low-temperature distillation to challenge lead desalination technologies
Dubai-based water technology firm, Metito, is set to make a "significant investment" in clean-tech company Thermal Purification Technologies (TPTec), to develop TPTec's patented low-temperature distillation (LTD) technology. Metito claims LTD could displace existing membrane and thermal desalination technologies.
Japanese giants buy Metito stake
Japanese companies Mitsubishi Corporation (MC), and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, (MHI), have acquired a joint 38.4% stake in United Arab Emirates-based water management company Metito for an undisclosed sum.
EDS adds SDI Workshop to Barcelona events
The European Desalination Society has added a workshop on the Silt Density Index to the satellite events around its upcoming Barcelona conference, the society confirmed in an announcement on 12 March 2012.
Desalination help published with WHO drinking water standards
The World Health Organization launched the 4th edition of its Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (ISBN: 978 92 4 154815 1) at the Singapore Water Week on 4 July 2011 - and also launched a separate guide for desalination.
Water Standard finds its shipbuilder in Samsung
Texas-based Water Standard and Korea's Samsung Heavy Industries announced an agreement on 28 June 2011 to collaborate on the design and development of vessels to deliver water treatment solutions to the offshore oil and gas sector.
Canadian low-energy desalination gets government boost
Saltworks Techologies Inc's low-energy desalination project is to receive up to Can$ 580,000 (US$ 577,000) from the Canadian government via Sustainable Development Technology Canada (SDTC).
ACWA wins two membrane-based projects in Saudi
Two separate contracts for membrane-based water and wastewater projects in Saudi Arabia have been awarded to ACWA Emirates LLC of Dubai.
Toray to set up desalination/reuse R&D lab in Singapore
The establishment of Toray Water Technology Laboratory (TWTL) in Singapore to conduct research and development of water treatment technologies was announced by Toray Industries Inc on 24 June 2009. The Nanyang Environment & Water Research Institute (NEWRI) at Nanyang Technological University (NTU) will be Toray's partner for its research activities in Singapore.
Large EDR river desalination plant opens in Spain
GE Water and Aigües Ter-Llobregat (ATLL) of Spain announced on 19 May 2009 the opening of the 220,000 m³/d electrodialysis reversal (EDR) brackish water desalination plant on the Llobregat river.
PUB and Mitsubishi join to test water recycling technology
Singapore's national water agency, PUB. has contracted Japan's Mitsubishi Corporation to build a demonstration-scale plant to test energy saving technologies that may be deployed at the proposed Tuas Water Reclamation Plant (WRP).
Arisawa acquisition of Bekaert Composites complete
Arisawa Manufacturing, located in Joetsu, Japan, announced on 6 January 2011 the completion of its acquisition of Bekaert Progressive Composites, the membrane pressure-vessel business of NV Bekaert SA of Belgium.
Dutch to build ceramic membrane demo plant in Singapore
PWN Technologies (PWNT) of the Netherlands is to build Singapore's first ceramic membrane demonstration plant at Choa Chu Kang Waterworks.
Toray sets up membrane JV in Beijing
A groundbreaking ceremony for a large membrane production facility was held in the industrial development area of Shunyi Airport, Beijing, China, on 24 August 2009.
Samoa first to draw from Japanese solar/desalination fund
Samoa on 17 June 2011 became the first country to access a Japanese fund set up for solar power generation and seawater desalination or a combination of both.
Japan funds desalination for four Fiji islands
The Water Authority of Fiji in the South Pacific announced on 29 May 2013 that four of Fiji's outer islands will now be using desalination plants as an alternative water-supply source.
Hyflux collaborates with Japanese bank
Singapore's Hyflux Ltd has signed a memorandum of understanding with Japan's Mizuho Corporate Bank to collaborate in the global water business.
Aqua-Chem RO and distillers help US aid effort in Japan
A combination of mobile reverse-osmosis (RO) and ship-based RO and distillation plants all made by Aqua-Chem Inc is helping provide water for victims of the Japanese earthquake and tsunami.
JDA moves house
The Japanese Desalination Association, an affiliate of the International Desalination Association, has moved to new offices.
Mitsubishi contracts Hitachi for Qatar desalination plant
Qatar Electricity & Water Company has contracted a consortium of Mitsubishi Corporation and Toyo Thai Corporation Public Company Limited (TTCL), to build the Ras Abu Fontas (RAF) A2 seawater desalination plant.
Hitachi signs Indian desalination water purchase accord
Japan's Hitachi announced on 13 January 2013 that its consortium with Hyflux of Singapore had concluded a water purchase agreement with Dahej SEZ Ltd (DSL), the management company of the Dahej Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in Gujarat, India, for water from its proposed desalination plant in the SEZ.
Sumitomo consortium wins Al Ghubrah desalination
The contract for the Al Ghubrah Independent Water Project (IWP) in Muscat, Oman, has been awarded to a consortium of Sumitomo Corporation of Japan, Malakoff Corporation Berhad of Malaysia and Cadagua SA of Spain.
Italmach acquires Compass, adds manufacturing base in North America
Italmach Chemicals has acquired Compass Chemical International, adding a strategically important site in Texas that it hopes will support its growth in the oil and gas industry.
Kurihara to lead Japanese search for cost-cutting desalination
The Japanese Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology (FIRST Program) has granted ¥ 2.924 billion (US$ 33 million) to the Mega-Ton Water System project to research and develop new technologies in the water supply industry.
Philippine/Japanese consortium buys UU Australia
United Utilities Australia Pty Ltd, which is involved in several membrane-based desalination and water reuse projects in Australia, has been bought by a consortium including Manila Water of the Philippines and Mitubishi Corp and JGC Corporation of Japan.
Acciona wins desalination deal in Cape Verde islands
A consortium of Spanish water technology firm, Acciona Agua, and construction firm Sade-CGTH, has won a €16 million (US$ 18.5 million) design and build contract for a 5,000 m³/d seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant on each of the African Cape Verde islands of Sal and São Vicente from the local energy and water utility, Electra-SARL.
Hitachi and Hyflux in Indian desalination agreement
A co-developer agreement for a seawater desalination project in Gujarat state, India, was announced on 22 March 2012 by a consortium of Hitachi Ltd and Itochu Corporation of Japan with Hyflux Ltd of Singapore.
Israel Chemical sells water treatment arm to Kurita in US$ 317 million deal
Israel Chemical (ICL), has sold its water treatment business, APW, to Japanese water treatment giant Kurita Water Industries for €250 million (US$ 317 million). The sale was part of ICL's aim to divest non-core assets.
Toray to supply membranes for Tuaspring desalination plant
Toray of Japan has won the order to supply reverse osmosis (RO) membrane elements to the Tuaspring Desalination Plant in Singapore.
IDA Fellowship winners from Iran and Japan
This year's winners of the International Desalination Association's Fellowship awards come from Iran and Japan, IDA announced on 27 April 2009.
Doyen of Japanese desalination retiring
Dr Totaro Goto, former managing director of the Water Re-use Desalination Center (WDRC) in Japan and a former member of the D&WR Editorial Board, is to retire from the center at the end of March.
Japanese fund three desalination plants for Tuvalu
A 100 m³/d desalination plant and two 10 m³/d plants are to be included in a US$ 4 million project for the drought-stricken islands of Tuvalu approved by the Pacific Environment Community (PEC) Fund on 7 October 2011.
Japan funds desalination relief for South Pacific islands
The construction of a 30 m³/d desalination plant has relieved freshwater problems for around 200 inhabitants of Vanuavatu, one of the islands in the southern Lau Group in the South Pacific.
Indian PM pledges to settle Gujarat desalination project issues
India's prime minister Narendra Modi has pledged, during a current visit to Japan, to resolve outstanding issues with a 336Ml/d seawater desalination project underway in South Gujarat and led by a Singaporean and Japanese consortium.
Japanese pump maker buys 50% of FEDCO
Torishima Pump Mfg Co Ltd of Japan has acquired a 50% stake in Fluid Equipment Development Company (FEDCO), the US manufacturer of high- and low‑pressure pumps and energy-recovery equipment for desalination.
Mitsui acquires minority stake in Water Standard
Houston-based Water Standard Management (US) Inc, which focuses on water treatment for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), announced on 30 May 2012 that Japan's Mitsui & Co Ltd has acquired a minority interest in the company.
Qatar to set up US$ 500 million reverse osmosis desalination plant
Qatar utility, Qatar General Electricity and Water Corporation (Kahramaa) is set to establish a US$ 500-million, reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant that will produce freshwater at 136 Ml/d.
Andrews promoted to lead Nitto global membrane division
Japan's Nitto Group has promoted Brett Andrews to be CEO of Hydranautics and managing director of the Global Membrane Division, effective 1 October 2013.
GE to supply evaporator/ZLD technology for Italian oilfield
GE's advanced evaporator and zero liquid discharge (ZLD) technology is to be used to recycle up to 98% of produced water at six Total E&P Italia SpA oilwells in the Tempa Rossa field in the Basilicata region of southern Italy.
Timeline established for IDA desalination energy guide
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has established a timeline for producing its guidelines for reducing energy consumption in desalination ending at its 2015 World Congress.
LTTD seawater plant 'to be started in Chennai by July'
A start on a Low Temperature Thermal Desalination (LTTD) plant about 30 km off the coast of Chennai is to be made by July, according to a report from India.
Desalination affected by California powerplant ruling
The powerplant with which California's new 189,000 m³/d Carlsbad seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant is co-located has been ordered to cease once-through cooling by 2017. The Huntington beach powerplant, site of another proposed desalination plant, has been given until 2020.
Topics and presenters announced for IDA Academy course
The next International Desalination Association (IDA) Academy course, to be held at the International Water Summit in Abu Dhabi on 21‑22 January 2014 will feature Integration of Hybrid Technologies with Renewable Energy to Improve the Sustainability of Water Desalination and Sustainable Operation with Advanced Membrane Filtration.
Japanese trio to challenge European water contract domination
Three major Japanese companies have launched a joint venture to challenge European companies for major contracts in the international water sector, including desalination, reuse and purification.
Low-temperature distillation technology licensed to Sterling Water
The low-temperature distillation method of desalination developed by the New Mexico State University (NMSU) in the USA has been licensed to Sterling Water LLC of Qatar.
French and Kuwaitis sign solar desalination agreement
French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius and his Kuwaiti counterpart Sheikh Sabah Al- Khaled Al- Hamad Al-Sabah have signed a memo of understanding for implementing a project for water desalination using solar energy.
Queensland can use geothermal desalination says study
Queensland, Australia, has ample geothermal energy resources to power thermal desalination plants and provide clean water for small towns suffering from water shortages, according to The University of Queensland's Queensland Geothermal Energy Centre of Excellence.
Oil company invests US$ 2.5 million in Saltworks desalination
Canadian oil company Cenovus Energy Inc is investing Can$ 2.5 million (US$ 2.56 million) in Vancouver-based desalination startup company Saltworks Technologies Inc.
Monterey consultant can't choose between projects
The Monterey Peninsula Regional Water Board (MPRWA) in California still has to decide between three competing seawater desalination projects for the area after its Technical Advisory Committee accepted on 17 September 2012 a report by consultants Separation Processes Inc of Carlsbad.
Scientists to probe outlet brine risks to sealife
Scientists have been commissioned to investigate whether brine waste from two proposed 150 Ml/d seawater reverse osmosis desalination plants could damage or alter the marine environment along the KwaZulu-Natal coastline in South Africa.
Modern Water in tie up with Bilfinger Deutsche Babcock
Water and wastewater treatment technologies firm, Modern Water has signed an agreement with construction, operation and maintenance services company, Bilfinger Deutsche Babcock Middle East. The deal covers the joint development and commercialisation of Modern Water's proprietary forward osmosis technology, in multi-stage flash (MSF) desalination plants across the Middle East and Northern Africa.
Brownsville pilot study published
Pilot study results from consultant NRS Consulting Engineers have confirmed that seawater desalination on the shore of the Ship Channel in Brownsville, Texas, USA, is technically feasible.
Marubeni takes 40% stake in Osmoflo
Marubeni Corporation of Japan has taken a 40% stake in Adelaide-based Osmoflo, Australia's leading locally owned desalination company.
Singapore desalination plant upgrade will use ceramic membranes
An upgrade planned for later this year at Singapore's Choa Chu Kang Waterworks will use ceramic membranes in a first for the country.
Solar/MED design aims to desalinate CSG water
A three-way partnership in Australia has entered a solar-powered desalination system for the coal‑seam gas (CSG) industry into the Australian Innovation Challenge being run by Shell and The Australian newspaper.
Hitachi buys Cumberland
Japanese engineering giant Hitachi Zosen has acquired Dubai-based electrochemical company Cumberland, for an undisclosed sum.
Mississippi researchers win funding for low-temperature desalination
Mississippi State University (MSU), is to use US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funding to work on a low-cost desalination process.
Koreans devoting R&D cash to gas-hydrate desalination
Korea's Minister of Land, Transport & Maritime Affairs, Kwon Do-youp, unveiled "a new paradigm" in desalination development when he announced on 4 October 2011 that Korea was pursuing gas-hydrate desalination.
APTwater buys remaining Sepro shares from Sojitz
California-based APTwater Rochem® has acquired the remaining shares of Sepro Membranes from its previous joint-venture partner Sojitz Corporation of Tokyo, Japan.
Toray set to buy Korea's Woongjin Chemicals
Reports from Korea indicate that membrane-maker Woongjin Chemical is to be acquired by Toray Advanced Materials of Japan.
ISO set to widen water reuse brief
A proposal to widen current International Standardization Organisation (ISO) work on water reuse for irrigation to include other forms of water reuse was put forward at the beginning of March by three member states, China, Israel and Japan.
Ceramic MBR demonstration project agreed in Singapore
A ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) demonstration plant is to be built at Singapore's Jurong Water Reclamation Plant following the signing of an agreement between the country's water agency, PUB, and Meiden Singapore (MSL), a subsidiary of Meidensha of Japan.
Kubota to set up membrane base in Ohio?
Japanese membrane technology company Kubota Corp is discussing potentially opening a research, development and manufacturing facility in the city of Canton, between Cleveland and Pittsburgh, Ohio.
India to set up low-temperature distillation desalination at power plant
A new low-temperature thermal desalination (LTTD) plant is being set up at a lignite-fired power station in southern India.
Rochem and APTwater announce merger
A merger was announced on 9 November 2011 between APTwater Inc of California, USA, and Rochem AG of Switzerland.
India's NIOT prepares detailed report on offshore desalination
The National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) of India has finalised designs and submitted a detailed project report for an offshore desalination plant using low temperature thermal technology, reports New Indian Express.
Saudi Arabia and China to develop nuclear desalination projects
Saudi Arabia and China have signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) on developing desalination projects using gas-cooled nuclear reactors.
Ministry updates India's low-temperature desalination plans
India's Ministry of Earth Sciences (MES) released an update on 29 August 2011 about its program for development of Low Temperature Thermal Desalination (LTTD).
No pure-play desalination investments in top 20 contractors
Of the top 20 construction contractors in desalination, only Singapore company, Hyflux, provides investors with exposure to desalination, unalloyed with other industry risks according to market analyst, Nanalyse.
Hyflux and JBIC in collaboration agreement
Singapore water treatment and desalination firm Hyflux has entered into an agreement with the Japan Bank for International Cooperation for global collaboration on water projects.
Hitachi and Veolia duo wins US$ 240 million Iraq pretreatment contract
A consortium of Japanese and French industrial giants, Hitachi and Veolia Environnement, alongside Egyptian engineering firm, ArabCo, have won a ¥ 24 billion (US$ 240 million) order from the Iraqi government to build pretreatment facilities at a desalination plant in Basrah, Iraq.
Mega-ton project symposium set for Tokyo in November
A symposium is to be held in Japan in November 2013 centred on the Mega-Ton Water System, a national research program to develop sustainable water treatment technologies, including large-scale desalination, that have a low environmental load and are energy-saving and low in cost.
Indian ministry seeks to get LTTD program going again
Revised cost estimates for the six additional low temperature thermal desalination (LTTD) plants to be built at different locations in India's Lakshadweep Islands area are being prepared by the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT).
Understanding potential of low temperature distillation for desalination
In October 2012, Watersolutions AG introduced the Watersolutions LTD system, a patented thermal process for desalination based on the principle of low temperature distillation. The company's vision is to offer a new option for desalination - one that is simple to install, yet robust and highly efficient with low running and maintenance costs. This article first appeared in the November/December 2012 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
The Long Read: The changing EPC landscape
There is a big shift going on in the water sector, and it's exemplified by the Suez-GE deal. While the focus of services offered by engineers has always ebbed and flowed along a spectrum of consultancy, design work, systems integration, and delivery, nowadays customers' decision-making processes are pushing at the boundaries of these traditional project service offerings.
Toray sets up Chinese manufacturing joint venture
An agreement was reached in late November 2008 between Toray Industries Inc and China Blue Star & BS group to establish a new joint company for water treatment in Beijing.
The coming of membrane distillation technology
Membrane distillation (MD) is a unit operation that uses hydrophobic membranes as a barrier for contaminated water from which mass transport of vapor is driven by differences in vapor pressure. MD does not require a mechanical pressure pump, and temperature levels are such that low-grade heat sources may be used to supply the required energy for the process. It is therefore ideal for treatment of industrial effluents and for desalination in co-generation with thermal solar power plants. This article assesses membrane distillation, a technology that the author believes is becoming increasingly relevant, particularly for use with renewable energies and in less developed countries. The recent promotion of the Desertec energy creation project in the Sahara is just one opportunity he sees for the technology.
UF Pretreatment For Cold Seawater RO
The main obstacle to the use of UF membranes for SWRO pretreatment has always been the high operating cost. This paper describes operational experience of pilot projects using a new membrane designed for the lowest whole-life cost while enabling the most difficult seawater to be treated using membrane desalination. This article shows how the project results can be translated into a technical and commercial evaluation of the best pretreatment option for the desalination of water from low temperature water sources. The technical design details are described for the Evides demonstration plant in the Netherlands, fed from the river delta formed by the Meuse, the Scheldt and the Rhine rivers in southwest Netherlands. It also explains the decision-making process for selection from pretreatment options for the Thames Gateway SWRO project, a plant that is fed by water strongly influenced by tidal effects.
Conwed hits half a century
Plastic netting manufacturing giant, Conwed, hits 50 this year. Minneapolis-based Conwed has, since its launch in 1966, developed netting solutions for industrial and consumer products worldwide including, in recent years, desalination membranes.
Vacuum-driven MD breakthrough promised by memsys
Vacuum-driven membrane distillation (MD) delivers high flux and true multi-effect distillation with very good energy recovery. The process runs at low temperature levels and is fully modular. This article describes the background of the development of the memsys company, membrane distillation, its specific advantages and potential applications, current and planned demonstration plants, and MD s future role in desalination. This article first appeared in the February/March 2011 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Adsorption pilot phase two will focus on ZLD
MEDAD Technologies, a specialist in adsorption, has worked to commercialise a multi-effect distillation adsorption desalination (MED-AD) system since spinning off from the National University of Singapore (NUS) in 2012.
Another patent for Aquaporin in China
Danish company Aquaporin A/S has received a Notification of Allowance from the Chinese government's State Intellectual Property Office for its patent application titled Methods for Production of Salinity Power.
MIT spinout cracks fracking water waste
A Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) spinout, Gradiant Corporation, is working toward making hydraulic fracturing (fracking) a water-neutral process, by making water reuse more economical. Fracking produces millions of litres of wastewater and much of it is discarded into deep injection wells, and clean water has to be purchased.
Japan firms to supply desalination expertise to Saudi Arabia
Several Japanese companies have signed up to provide desalination technology and commercialisation expertise to Saudi Arabia, reports Asian Review.
Is low temperature the next hot prospect?
Membrane-based desalination has been the lead technology set in recent years but Thermal Purification Technologies thermal process could tick boxes for sustainability and cost with a system that uses low-quality heat to produce high purity water. So with a big hitter in Metito as its strategic partner with even bigger backers including Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, could established technologies have a challenger in low-temperature distillation? This article first appeared in the February 2015 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
AquaSure's Victorian Desalination Plant secures its first water order
The Victorian Desalination Project (VDP) is a mega-size seawater RO facility, able to produce up to 150 billion litres of water a year when running at full capacity. Located at the southerly most tip of Australia on the Bass Coast, it was procured by the Victorian State government from AquaSure, a joint venture of Degrémont (now Suez), Macquarie Capital, and Thiess (now Ventia), in 2009, for a capital cost of $3.5 billion.
Aquatech to supply Oman oilfield water softener
Aquatech announced on 4 April 2012 that it had been awarded a contract to construct a 237 m³/h produced-water softening plant for the Amal Steam Facilities Phase 1B in Oman.
Proton compares closed-circuit versus conventional RO
Proton anti-scaling software from Amercian Water Chemicals was first introduced at the AMTA Conference in 2014. The platform's innovative approach to modelling membrane treatment systems which, unlike other anti-scalant predictors, accounts for ion complexes and ion activity in water, and differentiates between nano-filtration and reverse osmosis membranes, enabled it to improve on the accuracy of predicting water quality and chemical dosing requirements.