Desalination, Safety


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IDA launches reverse-osmosis certification program

The International Desalination Association (IDA) is to launch a reverse‑osmosis training certificate associated with its recently launched IDA Desalination Academy.

A carpet shark

Shark makes home in Perth II desalination plant

The Water Corporation in Western Australia has confirmed that a wobbegong (carpet) shark has been found in the seawater intake station at the Southern Seawater Desalination Plant during scheduled maintenance work.

Desalination help published with WHO drinking water standards

The World Health Organization launched the 4th edition of its Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (ISBN: 978 92 4 154815 1) at the Singapore Water Week on 4 July 2011 - and also launched a separate guide for desalination.

The intake at the Adelaide desalination plant during construction.

Intakes opened for Adelaide desalination project

Commissioning is now closer for the Aus$ 1.824 billion (US$ 1.905 billion) Adelaide Desalination Project, after the 1.4 km intake began taking in seawater last week.

CDA/EDS seeking Qingdao desalination abstracts by 15 March

Abstracts for the 2011 Qingdao International Desalination Conference in China (20-23 June 2011) must received by 15 March 2011 with final papers by 10 May 2011.

Adelaide plant delayed by four months

The Adelaide desalination plant is four months behind schedule, South Australia's minister for water, Paul Caica, announced on 28 August 2010.

Floating Saudi desalination barges relaunched

Saudi Arabia's two floating water desalination barges have been moved from Shuquaiq to Yanbu, and the first was relaunched on 7 July 2010 by Fehied F Al-Shareef, governor of the Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) and Engineer Nabil Azmaruli, general manager of the General Directorate of Water in Al-Madina.

West Basin demonstrating desalination intake and outfall technologies

One of the first seawater desalination demonstration facilities to employ ocean-protection technology at the source of intake and discharge has begun construction in Southern California, USA.

Chinese Desalination Society joins unconventional-water seminar

A national seminar on Unconventional Water-Use Technology is to be held in Urumqi in Xinjiang province, China, from 5-9 August 2009 to discuss sea- and brackish-water desalination and use of flood water.

Nanoparticles for water and desalination - how safe are they?

The potential dangers from the use of engineered nanoparticles, such as nanotubes, metal oxides or nanodots, some of which form the basis of new solutions for desalination and water treatment, are outlined in a new European Union publication.

SEDA workshop to look at membrane pilot testing

The Southeast Desalination Association (SEDA) is to hold a workshop in Florida in April on Pilot Testing of Integrated Membrane Systems.

SEDA announces certification school in April 2014

The Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA) has announced a membrane operator certification short school on Introduction to Membrane Systems in Florida in April 2014.

The new desalination facility will support production of copper at the mine in northern Chile

IDE to supply desalination for Teck copper mine

IDE is to design and supply a modular desalination plant for Teck Resources' Quebrada Blanca copper mine extension project in northern Chile.

SWCC has appointed DuPont Sustainable Solutions in a bid to improve operational efficiency

SWCC to shape up operations as privatisation begins

Saudi Arabia's Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) has hired DuPont Sustainable Solutions (DSS) to brush up operational performance across the organisation in preparation for privatisation.

Brochure online for SEDA Fall Symposium

The Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA) now has the brochure online for its Fall Symposium, titled Membranes: That's Where Water is Headed, on 23- 25 November 2011 in Clearwater, Florida.

Two direct potable reuse projects are currently in operation worldwide, in Texas, US, and Windhoek, Namibia

The Long Read: Do we have the technology for potable water reuse?

Water reuse for drinking purposes is racing up the agenda in the US and elsewhere. Work to draw up new rules for potable reuse is advancing in states including California and Arizona, as well as in Canada and the European Union. Technologies are being piloted, and plants permitted.

Ras Al Khaimah Municipality discovered water impurities and unsafe water bottles across nine desalination stations

Ras Al Khaimah raps nine desalination stations after extensive testing

Nine water desalination sites in Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates, have been rapped for failing water quality tests, reports Khaleej Times.

Japan's Yokogawa is looking to expand its control systems business in the power and water infrastructure market

Japan's Yokogawa wins first control systems order in UAE

Yokogawa Middle East & Africa is to supply a distributed control system for a power and desalination plant in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) for the first time.

HTI deal takes forward osmosis to China

The world's only commercial manufacturer of forward-osmosis (FO) membranes, modules and systems, Hydration Technologies Innovations LLC (HTI), reached an international distribution, services and cooperation agreement for FO technology with Chinese company Tri-Tech Holding Inc.

Anurag Bajpayee is co-founder and chief executive of Gradiant

"We become part of our customers' business." Anurag Bajpayee

Gradiant's philosophy on technology is to take fundamental concepts and develop them into water technologies that speak directly to customers' experiences in the field.

The Victorian Desalination Plant is located at the southerly most tip of Australia on the Bass Coast

AquaSure's Victorian Desalination Plant secures its first water order

The Victorian Desalination Project (VDP) is a mega-size seawater RO facility, able to produce up to 150 billion litres of water a year when running at full capacity. Located at the southerly most tip of Australia on the Bass Coast, it was procured by the Victorian State government from AquaSure, a joint venture of Degrémont (now Suez), Macquarie Capital, and Thiess (now Ventia), in 2009, for a capital cost of $3.5 billion.

IDA 2015 World Congress draws 1,700 delegates

More than 1,700 delegates from 63 countries attended the International Desalination Association's (IDA's) 2015 World Congress held in San Diego recently according to the association's key metrics published this week. Awards for papers and presentations topped US$ 30,000.

GE appoints WIBAX as Nordic water tech distributor

GE announced on 27 May 2014 that the Swedish company WIBAX Energy AB, part of the WIBAX Group, would distribute GE's water technologies in the Nordic region.

IDE sells two MVC evaporators to Alberta oil-sands site

IDE Technologies Ltd announced on 10 March 2014 that it had sold two IDE horizontal mechanical vapor compression (MVC) evaporators to increase the produced water treatment capacity of a steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) production site in Northern Alberta.

High-flow cartridges provide safety filter solution for RO

In recent years, considerable progress has been achieved in membrane technology in China. It has been widely used in many fields, including seawater desalination, power plants, metallurgic, petrochemical, and municipal and wastewater reuse. This article looks at the use of safety filters for RO systems and how a high-flow filter can avoid build-up of microorganisms and consequent frequent filter change. A paper factory project provides a case study. Significant advantages including high flow-rate and long service-time help Horizon's RZ filter cartridge to occupy an important position in safety filtration for the membrane water-treatment market in China. It displays superior applicability to those large-scale and super large-scale plants operated in recent years. At the same time, RZ filter cartridges have shown fine performance when handling raw water with complicated quality or large fluctuations. Compared with regular cartridges, RZ filter cartridges provide an excellent solution to safety filtration of membrane water treatment because of their longer service life, smaller investment and lower change-out cost. This article appeared in the May/June issue of D&WR magazine.

De Nora's ozone generators have applications in industrial and municipal water treatment plants

De Nora pushes ozone generators as answer to Asia's water quality rules

De Nora has introduced its Capital Controls ozone generators to Asia at Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) 2018.

Interview: Kati Bell, Stantec global reuse leader

Canadian engineering giant Stantec acquired water business MWH Global for $795 million, back in 2016. Now that the dust has settled on the deal, how well is the integration of the two organisations proceeding, and as the global water reuse practice hits its stride, how could its work help to shape the water markets of the future?

The US EPA's new Science Advisory Committee on Chemicals will review risk assessments among other duties

American Chemistry Council wants bigger say on new EPA panel

The American Chemistry Council has called on the US Environmental Protection Agency to expand its new Science Advisory Committee on Chemicals (SACC) to include representatives from the chemicals industry, reports Chemical Watch.

'Pressure piping systems in European installations must meet safety requirements,' Len Swantek, director, global regulatory compliance, Victualic

Mechanical pipe joints perform under pressure

Since their introduction nearly 100 years ago, mechanical grooved piping systems have provided a wide range of performance benefits for system designers, installers and end users, writes Len Swantek, director, global regulatory compliance, Victualic.

US farmers look to water reuse, as reservoir level drops

Water reuse in agriculture is gaining ground in the USA as farmers and water technologists seek to overcome the domestic water supply shortages caused by drought. The latest figures from the US Bureau of Reclamation show that water levels at Lake Mead, Nevada, the largest reservoir by capacity in the USA, hit a record low of 1,074 feet in March.

Xylem to join US trade mission to India

Water technology company, Xylem, has been selected to participate in the US Department of Commerce's Smart Cities Infrastructure Business Development Mission to India, 8-12 February.

IDE supplies evaporators to groundbreaking Chinese project

Bomo Environmental Engineering has purchased two evaporators from IDE Technologies as part of China's first produced water treatment plant. The facility in Karamay, Xinjian will be the first in China to operate under a Build Operate Own (BOO) model. The win marks IDE's bid to raise its profile in the oil and gas sector, the company said.

CH2M reuse promotion drive picks up Stockholm prize

Colorado-based service and engineering company, CH2M, has won the 2015 Stockholm International Water Institute's (SIWI's) Stockholm Industry Water Award, for developing and advancing methods to clean water and increasing public acceptance of recycled water.

GE reasserts policy proposals for water reuse

Engineering giant, GE, has again urged policymakers to consider four major policy options for water recycling and reuse first unveiled at Water Arabia 2015 in February this year.

CH2M Hill teams with PUB in India

Consultant, CH2M HILL, in partnership with the Singapore Public Utilities Board (PUB) and Singapore Cooperation Enterprise, is providing water management services to the Rajasthan state government in India.

Brussels seeks options on how to up water reuse

A European Union (EU) public consultation on "policy options to optimise water reuse in the EU" is approaching its close as the bloc seeks to exploit a "significant potential for further development of water reuse" among member states.

Hinman to take chair at CH2M Hill

President and chief executive officer of engineering consultant CH2M Hill, Jacqueline Hinman, will take up her new appointment as chairman of the board at the company on 18 September.

H2O Innovation lands three water/wastewater contracts

H2O Innovation Inc announced on 14 January 2014 recent contracts totalling Can$ 6.5 million (UA$ 5.93 million) in Western Canada's energy sector.

Ovivo to supply largest US MBR to Canton, Ohio

The City of Canton, Ohio, is to use Ovivo membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology to upgrade its water reclamation facility from 39 MGD (147,600 m³/d) to 88 MGD (333,000 m³/d).

SWCC lets systems contract for RO training room

Cyprus-incorporated Hyperion Systems Engineering announced on 16 September 2013 that it would supply a generic operator training simulator (OTS) system for the Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) in Saudi Arabia.

Seprotech to acquire Canadian consulting group

Canadian membrane water treatment and reuse provider Seprotech Systems Incorporated has reached agreement to acquire 100% of WESA Group Inc, a professional services company with eight North American offices and one in El Salvador.

Queensland legislates for centralised CSG brine disposal

The Queensland state government in Australia is introducing legislation to bring about centralised treatment and disposal of water and brine produced from the coal-seam gas (CSG) industry.

PPCP Toolkit developed by WateReuse foundation

The WateReuse Research Foundation (WRF) has developed a toolkit for briefing elected officials, policy makers, or the general public about the presence of trace concentrations of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) found in recycled water.

High-visibility reuse demo awarded to APTwater

California-based APTwater, Inc has been awarded a contract to use its technology for a municipal water-reuse system for the City of Anaheim, California.

Arizona panel makes water-reuse recommendations

More than 60 recommendations including many on wastewater reuse have been forwarded to the governor of the US state of Arizona by a "Blue Ribbon" panel formed by the governor, Jan Brewer, in 2009.

Australia urged to recycle more water for urban supplies

Greater use of recycled water in Australia's water supplies was called for on 29 November 2010 by James Cameron, acting CEO of the National Water Commission (NWC).

Norit to supply largest UF wastewater reuse plant

Keppel Seghers has ordered Norit XIGA™ ultrafiltration (UF) membrane technology for the Doha North Sewage Works wastewater reuse project in Qatar, supplier Norit X-Flow announced on 24 April 2009.

Understanding microbes could increase MBR efficiency, conference told

A thorough understanding of the physiology of micro-organisms found in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) used in advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse would greatly improve the overall efficiency of these systems, a conference in Singapore was told on 23 January 2009.

Antiscalant removes need for acid in wastewater RO

Field trials of a new scale-inhibiting chemical for use with reverse-osmosis membranes in wastewater reuse plants show that, at a low dose rate, it can increase the solubility of calcium phosphate by over one hundred times, obviating the need for using dangerous and costly acid. Current design practices for large effluent reuse projects are focused on a combination of removing phosphate by precipitation prior to the RO plant and acid dosing to reduce pH to 6.0 and hence increase calcium phosphate solubility to prevent fouling. Conventional antiscalants are ineffective at high phosphate and high recovery rates, and the only other option has been to dose large quantities of acid to reduce feed pH to below 6.2. Reducing the pH from 7.5 to 6.0 on a 2,700 m /day plant would require 0.5 to 1 ton of 95% sulphuric acid per day. Handling this quantity of acid is an environmental, health, safety and logistical problem that many plant operators would like to move away from. The results from the field trials show that using a highly active threshold inhibiting antiscalant such as Genesys PHO at a low dose rate of 2 -5 mg/L can increase the solubility of calcium phosphate by over one hundred times. This article appeared in D&WR magazine's August/September 2008 issue.

Oman's Sur expansion is 70% complete

Construction of Sharqiyah Desalination Company's expansion project for water desalination in Sur, Oman, is 70% complete. The extension project is expected to be completed by mid-2016, said project manager, Veolia.



San Antonio to get brackish desalination in 2016

The San Antonio Water System (SAWS) in Texas has announced that by October 2016 it will start up a brackish water desalination plant that will eventually become the largest in the US.

Wind damage prompts Sydney desalination critics to renew calls for closure

Winds topping 200km/h have ripped roofs off Sydney's dormant Kurnell desalination plant. Critics of the plant have called for it to be closed completely but New South Wales' water minister, Niall Blair, said abandonment would break the state's contract obligations.

Carlsbad opened

The US$ 1 billion Carlsbad seawater desalination plant in San Diego County, California has opened.

New York orders desalination standby to be scrapped

The New York state Public Service Commission (PSC) has directed Suez, to abandon its US$ 150 million Haverstraw desalination project following local pressure to scrap the plan in favour of conservation measures.

St Kitts ponders desalination plant to counter dry periods

A proposal to build a new desalination plant was among strategies being pursued by the St. Kitts and Nevis ministry of public infrastructure to ensure water supply can meet the growing demand of the population of the Caribbean island duo.

Utility piles US$ 330 million into Emirates water projects

Ras Al Khaimah-based utility, Utico, has invested AED 1.2 billion (U$ 326.7 million) in projects across the United Arab Emirates to meet their growing demand for power and water.

US agency picks trio for desalination project pipe deal

US water agency, California American Water (CalAm), has selected three firms to construct a 30km pipeline with pumping stations and storage facilities to deliver desalinated water from a planned facility under its Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project.

Masdar steps up ties with China

Abu Dhabi's Masdar Institute of Science and Technology is stepping up its research collaborations, knowledge exchange and industrial partnerships, with China.

Don't let climate uncertainty stymie desalination investment says risk expert

Water and wastewater utilities must view climate change as a "disruptive opportunity" and not allow uncertainty to stymie investments in desalination and other resilience measures according to a UK risk management expert. Climate change created a business opportunity where "the most resilient will have an implicit lead over their competitors," the expert told a recent international forum.

Texas loan boosts Gulf of Mexico project

Texas has agreed a US$ 2 million loan for the Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority (GBRA) to fund a study into site and transport options for a power and water project including a seawater desalination plant on the Texas Gulf coast. The project will provide additional water supplies and add diversity to the region's water sources.

Fujairah expansion kicks off

The Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Authority (ADWEA) and Sembcorp Industries have completed construction and begun operation of a US$ 200-million expansion to the Fujairah 1 Independent Water and Power Plant (IWPP) in the United Arab Emirates.

Global green group seeks to carve carbon emissions out of desalination

The Global Clean Water Desalination Alliance - H₂0 minus CO₂ initiative, launched at the current climate talks in Paris, has called on its 17-nation membership to use clean energy to power new desalination plants. The call was part of the alliance's aim to tackle the water-energy nexus and climate change.

Historic Israel-Jordan water deal scuppered by planners

Less than a week after ministers from Jordan and Israel launched pre qualification for an US$ 900 million desalination and water transfer project, local planning in Israel reject the proposed scheme.

Veolia Peru wins operation deal for mine desalination

Veolia Peru, has won a three-year operation and maintenance contract for a 4.1 Ml/d reverse osmosis desalination plant at the Cerro Lindo multi metal mine owned by Lima-quoted exploration and mining firm, Milpo.

Barbados ponders more desalination to tackle water scarcity

Barbados is very likely to soon have another desalination plant according to minister of agriculture, food, fisheries and water resource management, David Estwick.

Egypt opts to grow desalination plant

Egypt's cabinet economic committee, under prime minister Sherif Ismail, has agreed to provide the funds required to complete expansion in works and production capacity at a seawater desalination plant in Hurghada.

Singapore's PUB set to adopt power saving desalination by Evoqua

Technology developed in Singapore by US firm, Evoqua, uses half the amount of electricity required by conventional seawater reverse osmosis the firm has claimed.

Boart Longyear wins slant well deal

California American Water (CalAm) has selected drilling firm, Boart Longyear, to construct seven to nine source water slant wells that would draw ocean water for a desalination facility proposed as part of CalAm's US$ 320 million Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project.

Veolia tops targets in Masdar desalination pilot programme

Interim findings by engineering giant, Veolia, from trials designed to up efficiency and develop renewable energy-driven desalination have already outstripped energy reduction targets the company has reported.

Australian island rigs up solar powered desalination

Rottnest Island, off the Western Australian coast, is constructing a solar power source for the island's population including its desalination plant.

Chile's copper mines will turn to desalination for half their water

Desalination will provide half the water demand of Chile's copper mining industry by 2026, according to findings in a report by the Chilean state copper commission, Cochilco.

Monterey desalination project seeks four-year deadline extension

US water supplier, California American Water (CalAm), along with local stakeholders has sought more time to complete its Monterey Peninsular desalination project.

Veolia signs Kazakhstan deal

Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies has signed a memorandum of understanding with Kazyna Capital Management to implement jointly a seawater desalination plant in Kazakhstan.

Qatar ups desalination capacity

Qatar has upped its desalination capacity by 144 Ml/d after Qatar Electricity and Water's (QEWC's) inauguration of its US$ 504 million, Ras Abu Fontas multi-stage flash distillation plant A2. And QEWC has commenced construction work on its Ras Abu Fontas A3 desalination plant at Ras Abu Fontas, near Al Wakra.

PUB picks HSL Constructor for Singapore's third plant

HSL Constructor will build Singapore's third desalination plant in Tuas, the country's water supply agency, PUB, has announced. And PUB has awarded a consultancy services tender for a fourth desalination plant.

Abu Dhabi rejects more desalination despite growing water stress

Environment Policy and Planning at Environment Agency - Abu Dhabi (EAD) has rejected upping desalination as a means to counter growing water scarcity in the emirate, opting instead for conservation and reuse.

Taiwan county seeks central backing for desalination expansion plan

Taiwan's Penghu county magistrate, Chen Kuang-fu, has urged central government to back the county's proposed expansion of its desalination capacity.



Trinidad residents struggle as Point Lisas closes for maintenance

Trinidad's water supplies will be placed under stress after the water and sewerage authority temporarily shuts down the Point Lisas desalination plant for maintenance creating a 10% shortfall in output.

Kwazulu-Natal district consults on seawater desalination

The Ugu district municipality on South Africa's KwaZulu-Natal south coast is exploring the possibility of desalination amid a "dire" water shortage.

South Africa's Cape ponders desalination as water crisis grips

The provincial government of South Africa's Western Cape is looking to water reclamation and seawater desalination as it considers its options for securing water amid a serious crisis.

Oman seeks bids for desalination inlets consultation

Oman Power and Water Procurement (OPWP) company has invited bids from consultancies to investigate the best sea-water intake and outfall location for two independent desalination projects.



Gulf nations poised for 40% boost to desalination output by 2020

The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region is poised to up its seawater desalination capacity by nearly 40% by 2020 to meet the growing demand for drinking water, according to a recent report.

LG Chem to supply eight desalination projects

LG Chem, has signed an US$ 8 million deal to supply reverse osmosis (RO) filters for eight seawater desalination projects in five nations from its newly constructed plant at Cheongju in South Korea's North Chungcheong province.

Venezuelan oil firm ups desalination to offset drought

Amid a persistent severe drought, Venezuelan state oil company PDVSA's Paraguaná refinery has upgraded its desalination facility to increase output by a third following investment in plant of some US$ 250 million.

EBRD in talks with Egypt on desalination finance

The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) is negotiating with the public private partnership (PPP) unit of Egypt's ministry of finance over possible private sector involvement in the unit's infrastructure projects including a desalination facility.

Anlayst forecasts desalination to double in under five years

Global desalination revenues will more than double to top US$ 19 million by 2019 reflecting a similar surge in the numbers of facilities according to a report by market analyst, Frost & Sullivan.

Singapore desalination plant upgrade will use ceramic membranes

An upgrade planned for later this year at Singapore's Choa Chu Kang Waterworks will use ceramic membranes in a first for the country.

Veolia venture finishes Spain's Campo Dalias desalination

A joint venture led by Veolia Water Technologies' Spanish operation has completed the 97.2 Ml/d Campo Dalías reverse osmosis desalination plant in the south of Spain.

Oman names preferred bidders for Sohar and Barka projects

The Oman Power and Water Procurement company has named its preferred bidders for two major water desalination projects planned at Sohar and Barka on the sultanate's Batinah coast.

Miner ties up with Chinese steel firm in desalination deal

White Mountain Titanium Corporation has signed a non-binding memorandum of understanding (MOU) with China's state-controlled metallurgy and engineering firm, Sinosteel Equipment and Engineering, which includes a desalination project.

Poseidon plays down watchdog's warning

The developer of a giant desalination project at Huntingdon Beach, California has played down a recent notice from the Coastal Commission telling the firm that its application for a development permit was incomplete.

Vietnam island to get Korean-financed desalination

Having acquired electricity only last year, Vietnam's Ly Son Island is to build a VND 264 billion (US$ 12.5 million), 2,000 m³/d desalination plant to provide potable water to 16,000 islanders.

Namibia nears deal on Areva desalination plant

The Namibian government has claimed to be close to completing its acquisition of a N$ 3 billion (US$ 220 million) desalination plant owned by French engineering giant, Areva. Negotiations over the deal started in 2014. Local newspapers have reported that both parties were expected to conclude their offers by the end of this month.

California gives Monterey slant test green light to resume pumping

The California Coastal Commission has given the go-ahead for water supplier, California American Water (CalAm), to resume operation of its test slant well. The well has been idle since June when groundwater fell below a threshold specified in CalAm's permit conditions that required it to cease working.

Dry Australian state mulls starting up desalination plant

A A$ 4 billion (US$ 2.93 billion) desalination plant in Australia's Victoria state could make its debut as parts of the state are suffering their driest period on record.

Emirates Singapore venture poised for bond issue

Emirates SembCorp Water and Power - the joint venture, behind the Fujairah 1 independent water and power plant - is considering issuing a project bond to refinance its debt.

Plastics group ponders suppliers for 100 Ml/d desalination project

Taiwan-based Formosa Plastics Group is considering several major international suppliers for its NT$ 5 billion (US$ 150 million) project to build Taiwan's first large-scale desalination plant. The 100 Ml/d facility will be constructed on the site of one of Formosa's naphtha crackers at Mailiao, Yunlin County to alleviate the impact on the naphtha plant of forecast droughts.

Oman to issue tenders for two projects

Oman Power and Water Procurement Company (OPWP) is poised to issue a prequalification tender to build new water desalination plants across the sultanate.

Exova bags power plant testing deal in Abu Dhabi

Testing firm, Exova, has won a five-year contract to provide testing services for the Taweelah B power and desalination plant in Abu Dhabi.

Sweetwater starts US$ 42 million desalination upgrade

Sweetwater Authority has begun its US$ 42 million expansion of the Richard Reynolds Groundwater Desalination facility in Chula Vista.


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