Desalination, Reverse Osmosis, Water Quality, Malta
RO consumes 4% of Malta's electricity, says new group
Reverse-osmosis desalination plants consume almost 4% of Malta's electricity supply, according to a statement from the newly-formed Malta Water Association (MWA) on 22 March 2011. The group, made up of hydrologists, engineers and other water experts, warned that urgent action is needed to protect Malta's water resources, which "are among the scarcest in the world and under severe stress."
Tunisia and Malta to share desalination expertise
Tunisia has signed an agreement with the Mediterranean island of Malta involving sharing of expertise on desalination plants.
Ceramic nanofiltration company gets big investor
ItN Nanovation AG, a start-up company in Saarbrucken, Germany, making nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 9 December 2010 a framework investment agreement with the US investment fund YA Global Master SPV Ltd, part of the Yorkville Group.
Maltese desalination test-bed shows SalTec energy-recovery advantages
Throughout the desalination industry, plant operators are looking for long-term solutions with lower lifecycle cost because of the link between water costs and energy costs. In order to meet operators' demands and requirements, equipment manufacturers are investing considerable resources in the development of new technologies that will reduce energy costs. The Water Services Corporation in Malta is one example of a forward-looking operator of a seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant seeking to ensure the production of high-quality drinking water at an affordable price. Established in 1993 to produce and distribute potable water on the islands of Malta and Gozo, WSC has an annual production target of 35 million m to satisfy the needs of its 400,000 residents and in excess of one million tourists. With the drive to produce greater efficiencies and water quality WSC has taken an opportunity to investigate and monitor the potential of a new technology from KSB, the SalTec pressure boosting and energy recovery system. The SalTec DT pressure exchanger in combination with KSB's HGM RO high-pressure pump creates a highly attractive proposition for RO plant designers and operators. The SalTec DT system provides a nominal capacity of 250 m /h, giving it the capability to operate in plants with train sizes ranging between 4,400 m /d and 5,000 m /d of permeate at common recovery rates.
Malta tenders Euro 10 million desalination project
The Water Services Corporation of Malta has issued a tender for a reverse osmosis plant at Hondoq Bay on the Island of Gozo.
Finance agreed for Camarillo regional desalter studies
Two water districts and two - possibly three - cities in southern California have agree to finance studies for a regional brackish-water desalination plant to be located near Camarillo.
GE expands HERO licensing agreement
GE Power & Water announced on 1 February 2011 that it has completed a new expanded licensing agreement to allow it to continue offering High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HERO) systems to help more of its industrial customers increase their water usage efficiency and reuse capacity.
MF/RO plant may be Santa Clarita salt solution
A microfiltration/reverse-osmosis (MF/RO) advanced wastewater treatment plant is one of several options being considered by the Santa Clarita Valley Sanitation District (SCVSD) in California, USA, to deal with excessive chloride levels in the wastewater it discharges to the Santa Clara River from its two treatment plants.
Bundamba wastewater reuse plant passes second quality test
The second Water Quality Report for the Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant in Queensland, Australia, has confirmed the excellent quality of the purified water it produces and proved that the water is safe to add to the drinking supply, says government agency WaterSecure
LG Chem bags five orders worth US$ 8 million
LG Chem has acquired new orders for water purification filters totalling US$ 8 million under exclusive deals with five desalination projects. The projects are at sites in Israel, Spain, Malta, Egypt and Mexico, the company said.
IDA to return to Dubai for World Congress 2019
The International Desalination Association (IDA) is to return to Dubai, United Arab Emirates, for its World Congress in 2019, building on the earlier success of the IDA World Congress held in the emirate in 2009.
Desalination help published with WHO drinking water standards
The World Health Organization launched the 4th edition of its Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (ISBN: 978 92 4 154815 1) at the Singapore Water Week on 4 July 2011 - and also launched a separate guide for desalination.
Spanish water investment to hit € 1.2 billion this year
Desalination and water reuse projects are likely to be among the new water infrastructure projects worth € 700 million due to be tendered by Spain's Ministry for Environment & Rural & Marine Affairs (MARM) in the second half of 2011.
National Water Co 'to take over 15 Saudi cities by 2014'
The Saudi Arabian company set up to take over privatised water services, including desalination, will have 15 cities on its books by 2014, a senior official told media at the Wastewater Treatment and Reuse 2009 conference organised by MEED.
First water produced by Adelaide Desalination Plant
The first desalinated water was produced from the Adelaide Desalination Plant at the end of July 2011.
AMTA/AWWA 2015 membrane conference abstracts invited
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the American Water Works Association have issued a call for papers for their fourth joint Membrane Technology Conference to be held in Florida in 2015.
ASTM to develop standard for fracking water quality
The US standards body ASTM International is to develop standards to be used by contract laboratories, water utilities and other requiring or developing methods for hydraulic fracturing in the oil & gas industry.
Desalitech closed-circuit technology set for BWRO project
Israel-based Desalitech Ltd announced on 7 April 2011 that it had been awarded a contract to design and build a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system for Environmental Protection Technologies (EPT), a global company that leads the industrial wastewater treatment market in Israel.
Veolia to build Saudi Arabia's largest UF/RO plant
The largest ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant in Saudi Arabia is to be built for Marafiq, the country's leading water and electricity services operator, by Veolia Water.
Santa Barbara ponders US$ 2 million subsurface intake test
Californian city, Santa Barbara, may put up to US$ 2 million into a study of a desalination facility seawater intake structure after environmental groups said the existing plant's open water intake pipe could be harmful to marine life.
Toray announces two Chinese SWRO membrane orders
Toray Industries Inc has received orders to supply reverse osmosis (RO) membranes to seawater desalination plants in Qingdao (Shandong) and Caofeidian (Tangshan, Hebei) in China.
South Australian town to get new desalination plant
South Australia's water minister, Ian Hunter, announced on 1 May 2013 that a brackish-water desalination plant to deliver improved water quality to the town of Hawker, in the Flinders Ranges 100km north of Port Augusta, had been approved for construction.
Haverstraw RO pilot plant starts operations
Operation of United Water's Haverstraw Water Supply Project desalination pilot study located in West Haverstraw, New York, began on 23 November 2010.
Severn-Trent wins Chilean mining desalination contract
US water and wastewater treatment company Severn Trent Services has been awarded a contract to provide a seawater desalination plant that will serve the potable and process water needs of the Minera Esperanza copper and gold mine in Antofagasta, Chile.
NanoH2O membranes chosen for Canaries SWRO retrofit
High-rejection QuantumFlux seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) membranes manufactured by NanoH2O Inc have been chosen to retrofit one of two first-pass trains at the Puerto del Rosario IV desalination plant located on Fuerteventura, one of Spain's Canary Islands.
West Basin desalination demo could begin next year
Construction could begin in 2010 on the Ocean-Water Desalination Demonstration Project at Redondo Beach near Los Angeles, California, the West Basin Municipal Water District announced on 30 July 2009.
Poseidon signs two VPs and construction director
Three experienced US water industry personnel have joined Poseidon Resources, following the departure of Nikolay Voutchkov earlier this year, the company announced on 20 July 2009.
Santa Cruz pilot desalination results in 3-4 months
The Water Department of the City of Santa Cruz (SCWD), California, USA, confirmed on 23 March 2009 that its year-long seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) pilot plant test will be ended in mid-April with a report due in June or July 2009.
Solar still v RO comparison for S Australia desalination
A full solar distillation plant was compared with reverse osmosis (RO) for a small groundwater desalination project in South Australia and RO was chosen as the preferred option.
Metito lands Bechtel SWRO desalination in Australia
Dubai-based Metito has landed two new seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants in Australia and is currently nearing completion of one in Qatar.
Agency approves W Australian desalination plant
Western Australia's Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on 13 February 2012 announced conditional approval for Grange Resources Ltd's proposal to construct and operate the Cape Riche Desalination Plant.
Huntington Beach desalination project get NPDES permit
The Santa Ana Regional Water Quality Control Board (SARWQCB) in California, USA, on 10 February 2012 unanimously approved an amended National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit for the Huntington Beach Seawater Desalination Project.
MD developer seeking US powerplant partners
Swedish membrane distillation (MD) manufacturer Scarab AB is seeking US powerplant operators to allow it to demonstrate the technology's ability to convert waste streams to feedwater using waste heat from turbines and engines.
Malta to redevelop defunct desalination facility on Gozo island
A defunct desalination facility on Malta's Gozo island is to be redeveloped and brought back into use.
Kenya's a contender for IDA 2021 World Congress
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has shortlisted Mombasa, Kenya, among four finalists to host its 2021 World Congress, reports The Star.
Contamination security white papers released in USA
New security technologies for detecting and monitoring water supplies could be developed as a result of a contamination warning system (CWS) demonstration pilot project in the USA undertaken by CH2M Hill and the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD).
Visalia wastewater upgrade will be largest MBR in California
The City of Visalia, USA, is upgrading its wastewater treatment plant with membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology and will be the largest MBR plant in California when it enters service in 2013.
Modesto water quality project gets Siemens MBR equipment
Equipment for a 12.6 MGD (47,700 m³/d) membrane bioreactor (MBR) system is to be supplied to City of Modesto, California, USA, by Siemens Water Technologies for the Jennings Road Water Quality Control Facility.
Stockholm water week seeks abstracts and seminars
Abstracts and seminar proposals have been invited for the 2010 World Water Week in Stockholm, Sweden, during 5-11 September 2010.
USEPA to enforce Clean Water Act better
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administrator Lisa P. Jackson announced on 15 October 2009 at a House of Representatives Transportation & Infrastructure Committee hearing that the agency is stepping up its efforts on Clean Water Act enforcement.
Boiler-feed treatment extension for Aquatech in India
Aquatech has been awarded a third contract extension to provide operating services for a boiler feed water treatment plant at Reliance Industries Limited's PTA (purified terephthalic acid) manufacturing unit in Hazira, Gujarat, India.
Yuma salinity/desalination conference - abstract deadline nears
Abstracts for the Salinity & Desalination in the Southwest conference in Yuma, Arizona, USA, on 26-27 April 2011 must be in by the end of February.
California gives Monterey environmental thumbs up
The California Public Utilities Commission's recently published draft environmental impact report on the Monterey Peninsula Water Project and has rated the desalination project as the environmentally preferred of a number of options scrutinised as possible solutions to the region's drought problems.
NWC report boosts Australian brackish desalination
Brackish groundwater desalination can be considered a viable community water supply option in some areas, says a report just announced by Australia's National Water Commission (NWC).
Researchers share industry prize for fouling research
Doctoral students, Ariel Atkinson of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Erin Partlan of Clemson University, have received the 2014 Fellowship for Membrane Technology award from the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the National Water Research Institute (NWRI) for research in membrane fouling.
Carollo selected for Texas DPR health check
Carollo Engineers has been selected by the Texas Water Development Board to carry out detailed public health analysis of the first direct potable water reuse (DPR) facility in the USA.
Minister reassures public about Sydney's desalinated water
The minister for water for the Australian state of New South Wales, Phil Costa, reassured the public on 7 November 2011 that Sydney's drinking water remains completely safe for consumption and poses absolutely no health risk.
Parsons selected for California water-reuse expansion
California's West Basin Water District has awarded its largest ever water-reuse contract to Pasadena-based Parsons Corporation on a design-build basis.
Orange County loses widely respected lab director
Orange County Water District (OCWD) in California announced on 21 March 2011 that Steve Fitzsimmons, director of its Advance Water Quality Assurance Laboratory, who had been a key figure in water quality testing for Water Factory 21 and gaining credibility for the Groundwater Replenishment System, died on 3 March 2011.
Commission warns Australia about gas-production wastewater
Handling the wastewater resulting from coal-seam gas (CSG) production in Australia is likely to require a precautionary approach that will demand innovation from water managers and planners, and significantly greater coordination with existing project approval processes, the National Water Commission warned in December 2010.
3rd International Desalination Workshop set for Jeju
The European Desalination Society and the Center for Seawater Desalination Plant are organising the 3rd International Seawater Desalination Workshop in Jeju, South Korea, taking place on 3-6 November 2010.
Texas wastewater-reuse plant could be first of three
The Colorado River Municipal Water District (CRMWD) in Texas, USA, is anticipating the construction phase early in 2011 of its first regional water reclamation plant, which will be membrane-based and located in Big Spring.
Pedal-powered nanofiltration kits sent to Haiti
Researchers from the Department of Environmental Science & Engineering at South Korea's Gwangju Institute of Science & Technology (GIST) sent several human-powered nanofiltration (NF) water- treatment systems to the earthquake victims of Haiti in January.
Santa Clara votes for advanced wastewater reuse plant
The directors of the Santa Clara Valley Water District in California, USA, approved two agreements with the City of San Jose on 23 February 2010 to build a new advanced water treatment facility involving microfiltration, reverse osmosis and ultraviolet disinfection.
San Diego wastewater reuse demonstration to continue
San Diego City Council voted on 7 July 2009 to continue a $12 million wastewater indirect potable reuse demonstration project which would take purified sewage water from the North City Water Reclamation Plant and pump it into the San Vincente Reservoir to augment drinking water supplies.
First water produced at Victorian desalination plant
On 6 September 2012, the AquaSure/Thiess Degremont Joint Venture announced that the Victorian desalination plant near Melbourne had started producing drinking water that meets Australian drinking water guidelines and contract requirements as part of ongoing commissioning.
Siemens membranes to pretreat Perth II plant
Siemens is to provide a 95 MGD (360,000 m³/d) pressurized membrane treatment system for Water Corporation's Southern Seawater desalination plant in Binningup, south of Perth, Australia.
IChemE forecasts more UK municipal desalination by 2050
By 2050, at least four municipal desalination plants and up to 800 smaller units could be providing water to UK households and industry.
Three desalination workshops follow IDA World Congress
Three different aspects of desalination will be covered in workshops announced on 10 September 2009 by the International Desalination Association (IDA), which will follow its upcoming World Congress in Dubai.
Indian desalination conference set for February
The Indian Desalination Society (InDA) has published a brochure for its National Conference on Water Purification Technologies & Management (InDACON 2012).
Santa Barbara OKs US$644k desalination study funding
US city, Santa Barbara, has approved US$ 644,000 to fund studies needed before its dormant desalination plant can reopen. Without the plant the city faces a potential water supply crisis.
Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination: Innovative Intake Designs
The search for additional reductions in the cost of seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination needs new leads now energy recovery has gone about as far as it can go. The authors believe this can be done by improving raw-water quality using innovative intake designs. The use of "filtration" type intakes can have a significant effect on reducing the life-cycle cost of a SWRO plant. This article first appeared in the November/December 2010 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Nine desalination studies bag US$ 1.4 million funding
Nine research projects and pilot studies will share US$1.4 million in funding under a desalination and water purification research programme set up by the US Bureau of Reclamation.
IDE Technologies wins desal project at Mai-Liao Power Plant, Taiwan
IDE Technologies is to build and operate a seawater reverse osmosis desalination facility at Mai-Liao Power Plant in Yunlin County, west Taiwan.
Q&A: AMTA president Brent Alspach on why the need for membranes has never been more acute
In the week of the AMTA/AWWA Membrane Technology Conference 2018, in Florida, US, Brent Alspach, president of AMTA and director of applied research at Arcadis, outlines the water challenges and how current and in-development membrane-based treatments are addressing them.
Membrane 'summit' will precede AMTA conference
The 2nd Osmosis Membrane Summit will precede this year's annual conference of the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) in San Diego.
How we delivered Az Zour North phase one
"With hindsight we were very lucky to get everything through on time and that our construction partner Hyundai Heavy Industries was on time. Fortunately we escaped a lot of those little wrinkles that need sorting out during construction, and can drag on and on, and so we kept to time," says Andy Biffen, chief executive of project delivery vehicle Az Zour Shamal.
The Long Read: Do we have the technology for potable water reuse?
Water reuse for drinking purposes is racing up the agenda in the US and elsewhere. Work to draw up new rules for potable reuse is advancing in states including California and Arizona, as well as in Canada and the European Union. Technologies are being piloted, and plants permitted.
"We're now at more than $100 million revenue." Doug Brown, AquaVenture chairman and CEO
AquaVenture chief executive Doug Brown has a track record of delivering shareholder value. When he joined water technology and engineering firm Ionics as chief executive in 2003, the struggling business was trading at $16 a share.
Egypt's first ZLD plant is up and running
The first zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plant in Egypt, part of a water treatment facility designed and supplied by Aquatech, has been commissioned.
Consolidated Water lines up Mexican mega-project
The Playas de Rosarito seawater RO desalination mega-plant project has been six years in the making. It began as a twinkle in Consolidated Water's eye even before Mexico had introduced its new public-private partnerships law, but the act's introduction in 2012 gave the project a clear structure for moving ahead.
AquaSure's Victorian Desalination Plant secures its first water order
The Victorian Desalination Project (VDP) is a mega-size seawater RO facility, able to produce up to 150 billion litres of water a year when running at full capacity. Located at the southerly most tip of Australia on the Bass Coast, it was procured by the Victorian State government from AquaSure, a joint venture of Degrémont (now Suez), Macquarie Capital, and Thiess (now Ventia), in 2009, for a capital cost of $3.5 billion.
Water reuse: a growing market of opportunity and challenge
Survey findings suggest a market with the technical expertise, innovative ideas, and will to service customers' water needs, while a lack of money, reluctance to take chances on new technology, and instances of poor governance present challenges.
Suez and Solvay win first contract in China to treat brine with AOP
Suez and Solvay have won their first contract in China to treat brine from a reverse osmosis desalination plant using a jointly developed advanced oxidation process.
Proton compares closed-circuit versus conventional RO
Proton anti-scaling software from Amercian Water Chemicals was first introduced at the AMTA Conference in 2014. The platform's innovative approach to modelling membrane treatment systems which, unlike other anti-scalant predictors, accounts for ion complexes and ion activity in water, and differentiates between nano-filtration and reverse osmosis membranes, enabled it to improve on the accuracy of predicting water quality and chemical dosing requirements.
South Florida embraces desalination and water reuse for the future
The days of limitless and cheap water in South Florida are gone. Planning, investments in alternative water sources such as desalination and reuse, and conservation are required to secure reliability and sustainability of current and future water supplies. The South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) is the oldest and largest of the five districts in Florida. The district's mission is to oversee the water resources in the southern half of the state by balancing and improving water quality, flood control, natural systems and water supply within a 16-county region. A key initiative is restoration of the Everglades, a vast wetlands and US national park. By augmenting supplies through alternative sources - including desalination of brackish and seawater, reclaimed water and reducing demand through year-round water conservation, the SFWMD hopes to continue quenching the thirst for a renewed environment and an ever-growing population. Realizing that water desalination using reverse osmosis is energy-intensive, the district also supports studies and projects that use renewable energy to reduce the carbon footprint, operate more efficiently to reduce water use, and manage concentrate to protect the environment. To encourage diversification of water resources, public utilities that use reclaimed water for outdoor irrigation are exempt from water-shortage restrictions. This article appeared in the February/March 2009 issue of D&WR magazine.
Australian mining town to up quality from boreholes close to pit with desalination plant
The Australian arm of water technology firm, Valoriza Agua, has won a design and construct contract to deliver a 16.5 Ml/d water treatment plant to replace an existing facility and provide drinking water for the Western Australian mining town, Newman and the mine. The plant will include brackish water reverse osmosis and an ultraviolet treatment system to treat a mix of flows from drinking water boreholes sited too close to mining activities.
Cape Town ponders giant desalination project as resources dwindle
Cape Town, South Africa is nearing completion of its feasibility study for a 450 Ml/d desalination plant that could be built near Koeberg on South Africa's west coast within the next 10 years at a cost of some R14.9 billion (US$ 1.23 billion).
GRA web seminar to look at California salt plans
CalDesal, the California desalination non-profit organisation, is joining a web seminar on Workflow for Salt and Nutrient Plans on 15 May 2013 presented by the Groundwater Resources Association with the Association of California Water Agencies.
Chilean solar desalination demo precurses pilot project
A demonstration solar-powered desalination plant was installed in mid‑March 2013 in Arica, Chile, by Fundación Chile, in advance of a pilot project for irrigation purposes.
Methane to power Queensland CSG desalination plant
A desalination plant in southwest Queensland for the burgeoning coal-seam gas (CSG) industry is to be built by a consortium of GE and Laing O'Rourke for leading Australian gas explorer and producer QGC.
Abu Dhabi rejects more desalination despite growing water stress
Environment Policy and Planning at Environment Agency - Abu Dhabi (EAD) has rejected upping desalination as a means to counter growing water scarcity in the emirate, opting instead for conservation and reuse.
Deadline soon for InDA Congress abstracts
Abstracts for the Indian Desalination Association (InDA) Congress - InDACON 2011 - must reach the association by 1 December 2010.
Berlin venue for next GWI/IDA water summit
Former UN secretary general Kofi Annan will be the guest speaker at the next Global Water Summit organized by Global Water Intelligence and the International Desalination Association, which will be in Berlin, Germany, on 18-19 April 2011.
IWA looks at organic matter in treatment and reuse
The International Water Association (IWA) is holding a specialist conference with the Australian Water Association (AWA) in Perth in October 2013 on natural organic matter (NOM), which will look at its effects on water treatment and reuse, and desalination.
November deadline for Singapore papers
Papers have been invited for the Water Convention held as part of the Singapore International Water Week, 4-8 July 2011.
Palmer set to lead Australian desalination centre
Neil Palmer, currently general manager of technical services at Australia's Osmoflo, will take over late in October as the CEO of the National Centre of Excellence in Desalination (NCED).
UK utility ponders south coast desalination plant
UK utility, Southern Water, is considering the construction of a seawater desalination plant near the south coast city of Southampton.
CCC to rule on Cambria desalination plant studies
California Coastal Commission (CCC) staff have advised the commission at its meeting this week to agree to a US Army Corps of Engineers proposal to test a beach in the Cambria region, near San Luis Obispo, for use as beach wells for a desalination plant.
IDA announces nine new Gulf task force members
The importance now being accorded to the environment by the desalination industry was emphasized on 22 April 2010 when the International Desalination Association (IDA) announced the addition of nine distinguished scientists to its Gulf regional task force and an environmental symposium in Bahrain in December 2010.
Desalination health and environment book to be published in June
A book on the health and environmental impacts of desalination is to be published by CRC Press in collaboration with the World Health Organization on 25 June 2010.
California town uses fast-track laws to push through desalination plant
California coastal tourist town Cambria has used the state's fast-track approval scheme for measures to address its drought emergency to build a desalination plant scheduled to go on stream later this month after only six months in preparation.
Small FO desalination plant commissioned in Oman
A 200 m³/d forward-osmosis (FO) desalination plant has been commissioned by Modern Water at Al Najdah in the Al Wusta region of Oman.
California district ups desalination and reuse incentive by 36%
Southern California's Metropolitan Water District has increased by 36% the financial
incentive for water agencies to develop and produce recycled water, recovered
groundwater, and desalinated seawater supplies.
Indian PM pledges to settle Gujarat desalination project issues
India's prime minister Narendra Modi has pledged, during a current visit to Japan, to resolve outstanding issues with a 336Ml/d seawater desalination project underway in South Gujarat and led by a Singaporean and Japanese consortium.
Preconstruction for Carlsbad desalination can go ahead
Site demolition and preparation for the Carlsbad Desalination Project can now take place following the issue to Poseidon Resources on 3 November 2009 of its Coastal Development Permit (CDP) from the California Coastal Commission (CCC).
Papers invited for Singapore Water Week
Papers have been invited by 15 November 2009 for the 3-day conference during 29 June - 1 July 2010 that is one of the flagship events for the Singapore International Water Week.
Massive health grant aids Chino desalters expansion
California's Western Municipal Water District announced on 28 June 2012 that it had received a "monumental" US$ 51 million grant from the state's Department of Health towards the US$ 130 million expansion of the Chino desalination plants.
Investment and credit success for NanoH2O
Innovative membrane-maker NanoH2O Inc announced on 30 April 2012 that it has closed a US$ 40 million equity round and US$ 20.5 million in credit facilities.
ACWA supports California desalination regulation rethink
The Association of California Water Agencies (ACWA) has proposed to the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) that the board's new environmental document for desalination and brine disposal should propose a method to combine the current regulatory requirements, permits and approvals.