Desalination, Research, UAE, Norway, Forward Osmosis
IDE to design PRO power-generation pilot in Norway
The Norwegian renewable-energy company Statkraft has made an agreement for IDE Technologies to design and later purchase and construct a 2 MW osmotic power-generation pilot plant in close cooperation with Statkraft.
Desalination quartet booked for Masdar pilot plants in UAE
Three major contractors in the global desalination business - Abengoa, Degrémont and Sidem/Veolia - together with forward-osmosis developer Trevi Systems, were awarded contracts on 5 May 2014 by Abu Dhabi's Masdar, to each start the construction of a 1,500 m³/d desalination plant as part of Masdar's pilot project announced in 2013.
US bill seeks major desalination research expansion
US Senate hearings began on 10 March 2009 into a bill on the relationship between energy and water which could have wide implications for desalination research, both in the US and internationally.
IDA announces scholarship program winners
Students from Brazil and Singapore are this year's winners of the Channabasappa Memorial Scholarship awarded by the International Desalination Association (IDA).
Modern Water claims Oman success
Modern Water plc announced on 12 November that its desalination plant in Oman has been successfully commissioned and fresh water production has commenced.
New tech to drive 9.5% annual desalination growth - report
By 2020, the annual supply of water from desalination will have reached 54 billion m³, according to a report released on 17 March 2009 by Lux Research.
Masterclass webinar to look at combining reuse and desalination using forward osmosis
Award-winning researcher, Gaetan Bandin, will present the next Desalination and Water Reuse Masterclass Webinar on 30 June looking at opportunities and challenges for forward osmosis and pressure assisted osmosis (PAO) to combine water reuse and desalination.
China opens laboratory to drive forward osmosis development
A pairing of leading players in China's water and petrochemicals industries have launched a venture to develop forward osmosis in seawater desalination that they claim will: "open up a new way for zero liquid discharge (ZLD) in seawater desalination of seawater resources with low energy consumption."
Membrane market growth to run until 2020
The fruits of growing research and development in forward osmosis for desalination are highlighted in a recent sector report as drivers of growth in the market for membrane separation technologies running to at least 2020.
US research challenges value of forward osmosis in seawater desalination
Researchers in the US have claimed that forward osmosis desalination of seawater is significantly less energy efficient than reverse osmosis
RFP to follow UAE renewable-energy desalination launch
A pilot program to test and develop advanced energy-efficient seawater desalination technologies that could be powered by renewable energy sources was launched on 17 January 2013 by Masdar, the UAE renewable energy company.
Chinese website and new director for Modern Water
UK forward-osmosis specialist Modern Water plc has recently appointed William Harvey as its director of strategy and new business development for its Membrane Processes division as well as its electrocoagulation products.
Modern Water ties in with Chinese partner
UK forward-osmosis desalination developer Modern Water plc has signed a framework agreement with Hangzhou Development Center of Water Treatment Technology Company Ltd (Hangzhou Water) in China.
Moore takes over engineering for Modern Water
Brian Moore has left Thames Water to become Modern Water's new engineering manager as part of the UK membrane desalination company's planned growth in its engineering department.
Small FO desalination plant commissioned in Oman
A 200 m³/d forward-osmosis (FO) desalination plant has been commissioned by Modern Water at Al Najdah in the Al Wusta region of Oman.
IDA announces lecturers for next Academy session
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has announced the line-up for the next one-day course in its Desalination Academy, which will take place on 5 December 2012 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, alongside the Saudi Water & Power Forum.
GE's Muscat takes over as Oasys Water CEO
Former GE executive Bob Muscat has been appointed chief executive officer of Oasys Water, the US forward-osmosis desalination specialist.
Modern Water claims first FO commercial desalination contract
UK-based Modern Water has won what is believed to be the first ever forward-osmosis (FO) commercial contract for desalination, following its award of a UK£ 500,000 (US$ 810,000) contract for a 200 m³/d plant by Oman's Public Authority for Electricity & Water (PAEW).
Low-energy desalination trials delayed
Trials of four new energy efficient desalination systems from leading water technology players that could "revolutionise the industry" have been delayed from their summer 2015 start with October forecast as the date when all will be in pilot operation.
Oasys announces sales hook-up with oil & gas servicer
Forward-osmosis specialist Oasys Water announced on 12 December 2013 that it had recently signed an exclusive sales agreement with National Oilwell Varco LP (NOV), a leading global provider of equipment and services used in the oil and gas market.
Modern Water set for first FO desalination plant in China
Modern Water is set to build a forward-osmosis (FO) desalination plant in Xugong Island, China, as a result of one of three deals signed by the UK company during a trade mission to China led by UK prime minister David Cameron.
Masdar picks four firms to test new desalination techniques
Abu Dhabi clean energy company, Masdar, has selected four international water technology firms to test techniques that could reduce the energy intensity of desalination and lead to a large renewably powered water purification station.
TWO process to recover sodium sulphate from ion-exchange
California-based Catalyx Inc has signed a build-own-operate contract with RG Global Lifestyles Inc, which owns Catalyx Fluid Systems (CFS), for a brine dehydration system to facilitate recovery of sodium sulfate from ion-exchange regenerant brine.
Forward-osmosis patent filed by QuantumSphere
Another forward-osmosis process has taken a step forward. QuantumSphere Inc filed for a US patent on 14 January 2009 for its water purification process, which, it claims, serves as a more energy-efficient alternative to desalination methods now commonly used.
Researchers cast doubt on economics of osmotic power
New research findings have questioned the economics of power production from pressure retarded osmosis (PRO).
Woongjin backs Californian FO membrane‑maker
Korean membrane company Woongjin Chemical Company has signed an agreement with California startup Porifera Inc providing investment for the Silicon Valley company to develop, manufacture and commercialize forward osmosis (FO) membranes at high volume.
Tri-Tech planning forward-osmosis pilot plants
Chinese water and wastewater treatment company Tri-Tech Holdings announced on 13 May 2011 that its current plans include constructing and operating one or more forward-osmosis (FO) pilot units using technology licensed from Arizona-based Hydration Technology Innovations (HTI).
Membrane 'summit' will precede AMTA conference
The 2nd Osmosis Membrane Summit will precede this year's annual conference of the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) in San Diego.
FO pilot plant could follow HTI Dubai link-up
Forward-osmosis (FO) system manufacturer Hydration Technology Innovations LLC (HTI) has signed an international distribution, services and cooperation agreement for FO technology with Future Technologies LLC of Dubai. Future Technologies will distribute HTI's FO OsMem membrane technology for industrial applications.
HTI deal takes forward osmosis to China
The world's only commercial manufacturer of forward-osmosis (FO) membranes, modules and systems, Hydration Technologies Innovations LLC (HTI), reached an international distribution, services and cooperation agreement for FO technology with Chinese company Tri-Tech Holding Inc.
Masdar steps up ties with China
Abu Dhabi's Masdar Institute of Science and Technology is stepping up its research collaborations, knowledge exchange and industrial partnerships, with China.
Masdar city, Masdar Institute, Laborelec, and Degrémont to collaborate in renewable-powered desalination project
Abu Dhabi university, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, has unveiled recently its research collaboration with three leading energy and clean technology corporations in a research project supporting the development of a full-scale, completely solar-powered, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Pipeline could rein in Emirates' desalination investment
A giant pipeline between Pakistan and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) could stem the Middle Eastern states' investment in desalination according to an Emirates businessman.
Sommariva secures International Desalination Association presidency
Dr Corrado Sommariva, managing director of ILF Consultants Middle East, was elected president of the International Desalination Association on 5 September 2011, the first day of the IDA's World Congress in Perth, Australia.
Study shows novel heavy-metals-from-wastewater method
Scientists in Singapore and Saudi Arabia have reported a novel method for extracting toxic and valuable heavy metals from wastewater using forward osmosis (FO).
Oasys forward osmosis concentrates in China
Massachusetts-based Oasys Water has claimed its recent contract to supply a forward osmosis brine concentrator to a fossil-fuelled power plant in China to be a world first.
Forward-osmosis companies launch international association
Four companies specializing in forward osmosis membrane technology launched the International Forward Osmosis Association (IFOA) on 7 April 2014.
Modern Water gets £ 9.5 million from share issue
UK forward-osmosis (FO) and monitoring specialist Modern Water plc announced on 12 February 2013 that it had raised, subject to certain conditions, £ 10.0 million (approximately £ 9.5 million net of expenses) by way of a placing of 20,000,000 new ordinary shares with both new and existing institutional shareholders at a price of £0.50 per ordinary share.
Buenos Aires membrane papers deadline 15 June
A deadline of 15 June 2012 has been set for papers for the International Water Association (IWA) 3rd Regional Conference on Membrane Technology.
Oasys deal to treat Texas produced water with FO
Oasys Water has struck an agreement with Houston-based Select Energy Services, LLC (SES), a leading provider of engineered water solutions to the oil and gas industry, for exclusive use of its forward osmosis (FO) technology in the Permian Basin in West Texas and New Mexico, USA.
Cadagua selects PX devices for Al Zawrah desalination
PX energy-recovery devices have been selected for the 45,000 m³/d Al Zawrah seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in Ajman, UAE, by the consortium led by Spanish company Cadagua.
Metito Overseas appoints senior process engineer
Desalination and water treatment specialist Metito Overseas Ltd, based in Sharjah, UAE, has appointed Sagi Essam El-Din A Ghafour as senior process engineer from September 2011.
ERI pressure-exchangers chosen for Fujairah expansion
Acciona Agua has chosen Energy-Recovery Inc to provide its PX® Q line of energy-recovery devices (ERDs) for the Fujairah 1 Expansion desalination project in the UAE.
Consultants sought for Ajman SWRO desalination
The Federal Electricity and Water Authority (FEWA) in the UAE has issued a tender (19W/2013) for consultancy services for a seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant at Al Zawra, Ajman.
Aquatech awarded SWRO plant in Ras Al Kaimah
Aquatech is to build a 15 MIGD (68,000 m³/d) seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination facility at Ghalilah for the emirate of Ras Al Khaimah, UAE.
Fujairah F2 desalination plant inaugurated
The Fujairah F2 Power & Seawater Desalination plant was inaugurated in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) on 9 May 2011.
Xylem provides DAF pretreatment for Fujairah 1
Xylem Inc has won a contract to provide a dissolved air flotation (DAF) pretreatment system for the Fujairah 1 Independent Water & Power Plant (IWPP) in the UAE to help ensure an uninterrupted potable water supply from the desalination plant to Abu Dhabi emirate and the east coast.
Groundbreaking for Fujairah 1 IWPP in UAE
The US$ 200 million expansion project for the Furjairah 1 Independent Water & Power Plant (IWPP) in the UAE broke ground on 30 June 2013.
Cadagua lands RO desalination plant in UAE
The UAE's Federal Electricity and Water Authority (FEWA), responsible for supplying water and electricity in the northern emirates, has given Spanish contractor Cadagua a letter of intent for the award of a reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Al Zawrah, Ajman.
UF modules ordered for UAE steelworks' RO pretreatment
Ultrafiltration modules from Germany's inge watertechnologies AG have been ordered for a 80,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant at the Emirates Steel Industries steelworks in Mussafah, UAE.
Bermuda-based group acquires 50% of Aqualyng China
Beijing Enterprises Water Group Limited (BEWGL) announced on 9 April 2010 that it had acquired a 50% equity interest in Aqualyng China Limited. Norway-based Aqualyng Holding AS, which has many years of experience in design, construction and installation of seawater desalination facilities, holds the other 50%.
Norwegian desalination barge venture seeks Israeli expertise
Norwegian company, EnviroNor, is recruiting Israeli expertise to provide the water-processing technology necessary for its project to convert secondhand oil barges into floating desalination and wastewater treatment plants.
Doosan Babcock wins maintenance and support deal at giant Taweelah plant
Energy engineering company, Doosan Babcock, has won a contract with Taweelah Asia Power Company (Tapco) to provide essential maintenance and technical support services for Tapco's desalination plant in Abu Dhabi.
Aqua Engineering wins seawater desalination orders
Two major seawater desalination orders for the United Arab Emirates and Egypt have been won by Austria's Aqua Engineering GmbH, part of the Christ Water Technology Group.
Doosan ships giant evaporator to UAE
Evaporator No 1 for the Shuweihat S2 seawater desalination plant in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) was shipped by its manufacturer, Doosan Heavy Engineering, on 15 June 2009.
Northern emirates to get 30 MIGD desalination boost
The Federal Electricity & Water Authority (FEWA) in the UAE announced on 22 April 2009 the construction of a new 10 MIGD (45,460 m³/d) seawater desalination plant in Ras Al Khaimah, only days before tenders are due in for another reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Ajman.
Energy Recovery supplies Mirfa project
US fluid pressure recycling specialist, Energy Recovery, is to provide its PX Pressure Exchanger technology to the giant Mirfa desalination project in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Major water-sector contractor formed in Dubai
The Leighton Group, which has been involved in the construction of three of Australia's large seawater desalination plants, has brought two group companies together in Dubai, UAE, to create a strong water and environment contracting company.
Abu Dhabi signing for Al Zawra desalination plant
A 30 MIGD (136,400 m³/d) seawater desalination plant is to be built in Ajman, UAE, following the signing of a memorandum of understanding on 4 February 2014 between Abu Dhabi National Energy Company PJSC (TAQA) and the Federal Electricity & Water Authority (FEWA).
Aquatech installs Emirates desalination plant
Water and wastewater technology company, Aquatech, has installed a 60 Ml/d seawater reverse osmosis-based desalination plant at Ghalilah, in Ras Al Khaimah, the northernmost of the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Toray wins back‑to‑back UAE membrane orders
Two contracts for seawater reverse‑osmosis (SWRO) desalination membranes in the United Arab Emirates were announced by Toray Industries on 6 September 2012.
FEDCO moves to new Dubai sales and service center
Fluid Equipment Development Company (FEDCO) has relocated its Dubai sales and service office to a new facility during November.
Canada/Norway study of pretreatment for osmotic power
Pretreatment of fresh water for an osmotic power plant is to be studied by Canada's Hydro-Quebec as part of a three-year agreement with Norway's Statkraft to speed up the development of osmotic power.
Ras Al Khaimah seawater desalination has algae shield
Northernmost of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Ras Al Khaimah, has opened a 68 Ml/d seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) project in Ghallilah on the emirate's west coast that is equipped to "overcome the red tide phenomena" - the seasonal proliferation of algae that blights the emirates' coastline.
Two pressure-vessel contracts for Protec Arisawa
Desalination membrane pressure vessels made by Protec Arisawa have been chosen for contracts in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Brazil, the company announced on 14 June 2012.
ERI lands contract for Ghalilah desalination project
Aquatech International has awarded Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) a contract for provision of energy‑recovery devices for a large‑scale desalination plant in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Bidding for largest solar desalination plant opens soon
Tenders for the world's largest solar-powered seawater desalination plant in Ras Al Khaimah, UAE, will be invited next month by utility company Utico Middle East.
New Dubai base for Black & Veatch
Engineering company Black & Veatch (B&V) announced on 11 January 2012 that it has moved its Middle East office to a new location in Dubai, UAE.
Desalination plant for Ras Al Kaimah "within two years"
A 68,000 m³/d desalination plant is to be built in Ras Al Kaimah, UAE, within two years, according to a report in a local newspaper.
IDA to support UAE water summit as knowledge partner
The International Desalination Association has announced that it will again be supporting the International Water Summit (IWS) 2014 in Abu Dhabi, UAE, as a knowledge partner.
Desalination to grow by 9% up to 2016, says report
Global installed desalination capacity is expected to grow by about 55 million m³/d over the period 2010-2016 at a compound annual growth rate of more than 9%, according to a new report from Pike Research.
Japanese desalination forum program announced
The program has been announced for the Japan Desalination Association (JDA) 2011 Forum in Tokyo on 16 February 2011.
Escobar appointed as editor-in-chief of IDA journal
Dr Isabel Escobar of the University of Toledo, Ohio, USA, has been appointed by the International Desalination Association (IDA) to succeed Dr Jim Birkett as editor-in-chief of the IDA Journal of Desalination & Water Reuse.
MEDRC announces new director and deputy
Netherlands ambassador Ronald Mollinger was officially announced as the new director of the Middle East Desalination Research Center (MEDRC) in Oman on 21 January.
Masdar graphene study bags Abu Dhabi research prize
A graphene desalination membrane research project was among six proposals from Abu Dhabi's sustainable technology-focused university, the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, that each won a AED 2 million (US$ 500,000) Abu Dhabi Education Council Award for Research Excellence.
The Long Read: Where's the innovation in brine treatment?
As water scarcity bites and the drive to recycle water grows, the focus on recovering clean water and other resources from brine is sharpening. The challenge is particularly pertinent for industrial operators.
Singapore company wins UF reuse plant in UAE
Boustead Singapore's subsidiary Salcon has won an AED 55 million (US$ 5.6 million) contract to design, engineer and construct a new ultrafiltration wastewater reuse plant.
Schlumberger partners EAD in Abu Dhabi aquifer-recharge symposium
Schlumberger Water Services today announced that it is partnering the Environment Agency of Abu Dhabi to organize the 7th International Symposium on Managed Aquifer Recharge (ISMAR7), which will be held in Abu Dhabi, UAE, on 9-13 October 2010.
3rd Osmosis Membrane Summit set for Barcelona
Norwegian power company Statkraft, which is developing forward osmosis for energy, is organising the 3rd Osmosis Membrane Summit on 26-27 April 2012 alongside the European Desalination Society's conference and exhibition in Barcelona, Spain (23-26 April 2012).
Global demand for desalination to rise each year until at least 2020
Desalination capacity is expected to grow by 8 per cent annually to 140 million m3/d by 2020, new research shows.
Desalination using forward osmosis with nanofiltration membranes
Forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging membrane technology, often used for desalination. Like reverse osmosis (RO), FO uses a semi-permeable membrane to separate water from dissolved solutes. The semi-permeable membrane acts as a barrier that allows water to pass through while blocking salts. Generally, any dense, non-porous, selectively permeable material can be used as a membrane for FO. Professor Chung invented a novel polybenzimidazole (PBI) nanofiltration (NF) membrane with a narrow pore size and high flux for the FO process. PBI was chosen mainly because of its robust mechanical strength and excellent chemical stability. However, at high ionic strength (normal in FO applications) and normal operational pH values, the charge of the membrane surface is neutral, leading to a decrease in electrostatic repulsion between the membrane surface and electrolytes to be rejected. Consequently, monovalent salts rejection decreases. Ideal NF membranes for FO would be highly negatively charged at most pH values. Additionally, these membranes are hydrophobic and have a propensity to foul during operation. Therefore, this collaboration is performing research to improve the separation performance of the PBI FO membrane by (1) lowering membrane fouling via chemical modification, and (2) increasing its monovalent salt-rejection via membrane surface modifications. Since these properties are given to a porous PBI NF membrane instead of the conventionally used dense RO membranes, this project has the potential to revolutionize the field of desalination using FO. Development of a desalination process technology using the FO route has the potential to achieve up to a 75% decrease in costs and energy consumption in desalination, in comparison with conventional thermal or RO processes. This technology is still undergoing research. Acknowledgments The source of funding was the National Science Foundation, NSF OISE 0832894. This article appeared in D&WR magazine's May/June 2009 issue.
ERI to cooperate with Koreans on PRO for energy
Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) announced on 15 October 2013 that it has signed a mutual cooperation agreement with Seoul-based global company GS Engineering & Construction Corporation (GS E&C Corp), part of Korean conglomerate GS Group, to significantly advance osmotic power generation using ERI's PX Pressure Exchanger® technology.
NASA, space flight, water recycling and forward osmosis
For manned space vehicles and especially for the International Space Station, America's National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) has had to invent and adapt many technologies. Not least among these are those aimed at life support and water supply in particular. In developing these, forward osmosis (FO) is playing a prominent part. NASA Research in FO has demonstrated that it has both spacecraft and terrestrial applications. The terrestrial applications are just now becoming a reality. This article first appeared in the August/September 2011 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
IDA lifetime achievement award for Toray's Kurihara
A lifetime achievement award to Dr Masaru Kurihara of Toray Membranes was awarded by the International Desalination Association at its awards banquet which closed the IDA World Congress in Perth, Australia on 8 September 2011.
Topics and presenters announced for IDA Academy course
The next International Desalination Association (IDA) Academy course, to be held at the International Water Summit in Abu Dhabi on 21‑22 January 2014 will feature Integration of Hybrid Technologies with Renewable Energy to Improve the Sustainability of Water Desalination and Sustainable Operation with Advanced Membrane Filtration.
Innovations in IDA Congress technical program
Round-table sessions and touch-screen availability of poster presentations will be used for the first time in the International Desalination Association's World Congress in Dubai on 7-12 November 2009, IDA announced on 19 October 2009.
IDA releases more Congress details
More details have been released about the program for the 2009 World Congress of the International Desalination Association (IDA), which will take place during 7-12 November 2009 in Dubai.
Modern Water in tie up with Bilfinger Deutsche Babcock
Water and wastewater treatment technologies firm, Modern Water has signed an agreement with construction, operation and maintenance services company, Bilfinger Deutsche Babcock Middle East. The deal covers the joint development and commercialisation of Modern Water's proprietary forward osmosis technology, in multi-stage flash (MSF) desalination plants across the Middle East and Northern Africa.
Experts urge Gulf investment in desalination energy efficiency
Two prominent water experts have urged Gulf Cooperation Council utility providers and businesses to invest in energy efficient desalination to reduce the technology's carbon footprint and high power costs.
Speakers announced for IDA conference in Banff
Speakers and sessions for the May conference on Water Recycling and Desalination for the Oil & Gas Industry have been announced by the organizers, the International Desalination Association (IDA).
IChemE forecasts more UK municipal desalination by 2050
By 2050, at least four municipal desalination plants and up to 800 smaller units could be providing water to UK households and industry.
IDA energy task force meeting in Abu Dhabi
The International Desalination Association (IDA) will convene the first meeting of its global Energy Task Force in conjunction with the International Water Summit, which takes place on 15-17 January 2013 in Abu Dhabi.
Gulf red-tide early-warning system funding 'soon'
A new early-warning system in the Gulf for harmful algal blooms (HABs), also known as red tides, using satellite imagery, remote sensing, and modeling could be one result of a conference on HABs held on 16‑17 April 2014 by the Middle East Desalination Research Center (MEDRC).
Registration opened for next IDA Academy courses
The International Desalination Association has opened registration for the next IDA Desalination Academy courses in Singapore on 16‑19 September 2013.
Mining firm strikes funding deal for desalination plant at planned mine
Mining firm, White Mountain Titanium, has agreed a deal with US private equity company, Nexo Capital Partners, to fund, construct and manage a desalination plant to form part of White Mountain's planned Cerro Blanco mining project in Chile.
Stover becomes Oasys vice-president of engineering
Rick Stover, whose exit from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) was announced last week, joined Oasys, the developer of Engineered Osmosis systems for desalination, energy and resource recovery, as vice- president of engineering, on 19 January 2010.
Oasys gets $10 million capital
Oasys, the Yale University forward-osmosis desalination start-up company, says that it has secured US$ 10 million in venture capital funding for production of a commercial unit in two years time, says the Boston Globe.
ERI appoints Dyer as CTO
Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) has appointed Tim Dyer as chief technology officer (CTO) to replace Rick Stover, who left ERI in January to join forward-osmosis company Oasys. Previously ERI chief scientist, Dyer will manage all engineering and R&D initiatives.
Registration open for AMTA/AWWA membrane conference
Registration has been opened and new sessions added to the programme for the 2013 Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition in San Antonio, Texas, on 25-28 February 2013.
Combining Forward Osmosis with Reverse Osmosis
A combination of forward osmosis with reverse osmosis could facilitate the treatment of some high fouling wastewaters. The system uses brine to draw water from the wastewater without high pressure or turbulence. Key element is the membrane's ability to allow rapid passage of water without much internal concentration polarization. The diluted draw solution can then be desalinated by reverse osmosis. The Two-Way Osmosis or TWO system may also be usable in very remote areas, where seawater ponds can be built for evaporative recovery of salt. Catalyx is designing a pilot system (patent pending) to desalinate seawater without external electric power. This article was published in the May/June 2009 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse.