Coal Seam Gas, Industrial, Wastewater Treatment, Recovery, Cyprus, Oil & Gas, Process Control, Hawaii
Commission warns Australia about gas-production wastewater
Handling the wastewater resulting from coal-seam gas (CSG) production in Australia is likely to require a precautionary approach that will demand innovation from water managers and planners, and significantly greater coordination with existing project approval processes, the National Water Commission warned in December 2010.
Queensland legislates for centralised CSG brine disposal
The Queensland state government in Australia is introducing legislation to bring about centralised treatment and disposal of water and brine produced from the coal-seam gas (CSG) industry.
Xylem supplies wastewater denitrification systems in China
Water technology company, Xylem, has supplied denitrification systems to three wastewater treatment plants in eastern China as part of a national strategy to improve wastewater treatment by 90% over five years.
Control contract as GWRS expansion breaks ground
KDC Systems has been awarded a contract to install and/or integrate process control systems for the expansion of the membrane-based Groundwater Replenishment System (GWRS) for Orange County Water District, which broke ground on 17 January 2012.
Desalitech and Veolia tie up Mexican MoU
Desalitech Inc has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies to bring advanced cost‑effective high‑recovery water solutions to Mexico and additional countries worldwide.
Methane to power Queensland CSG desalination plant
A desalination plant in southwest Queensland for the burgeoning coal-seam gas (CSG) industry is to be built by a consortium of GE and Laing O'Rourke for leading Australian gas explorer and producer QGC.
GE forms salt-extraction consortium in Australia
An agreement which brings together GE, Penrice Soda Holdings Ltd, Australia's only manufacturer of soda ash and sodium bicarbonate, and Australian coal-seam gas (CSG) producer QGC Pty Ltd was announced on 24 October 2011.
China's Tri-Tech acquires Wisconsin desalination provider
Desalination and wastewater treatment provider J&Y International Inc, based in Wisconsin, USA, was acquired by subsidiaries of Tri-Tech Holding Inc of China on 9 June 2011.
US$ 6.25 million equity investment for Desalitech
Reverse-osmosis (RO) innovator Desalitech Inc has secured an equity investment of U$$ 6.25 million led by Liberation Capital LLC, which will be used for business expansion and working capital.
Agnihotri elected to board of ThermoEnergy Corp
Dr Dileep Agnihotri, the CEO and president of Advanced Hydro Inc, a company set up to commercialise a novel antifouling membrane coating technology at the University of Texas - Austin, has joined the board of ThermoEnergy Corp, a Massachusetts-based company engaged in development and sales of municipal and industrial wastewater-recovery and clean power-generation technologies.
IDE in talks with Hawaii desalination plant proposer
Desalination designer and builder IDE Technologies has confirmed to D&WR that it has been talking with billionaire Larry Ellison, who is proposing to build a 2.5 MGD (9,500 m³/d) seawater desalination plant on the island of Lanai.
Hawaiian venue for AMTA/SWMOA workshop
The American Membrane Technology Association and the Southwest Membrane Operator Association are to hold a joint technology transfer workshop in Hawaii.
Reclamation Bureau's water recycling and reuse funding criteria published
The US government's Bureau of Reclamation published on 15 October 2010 the funding criteria under its Title XVI - Water Recycling & Reuse Program for two new funding opportunity announcements in fiscal year 2011.
Another oil-sands evaporation contract for GE in Alberta
GE has won its fifth contract in the Alberta oil sands of Canada for use of its evaporation technologies for recycling the blowdown from once-through steam generators (OSTGs).
Papers invited for 2013 AWWA/AMTA event
With the 2012 AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference under way this week in Phoenix, Arizona, a call for papers has been issued for next year's event in Texas.
Ozwater '12 abstracts required before 1 September
The Australian Water Association (AWA) has issued a call for papers for Ozwater '12 to be held on 8-10 May 2012 in Sydney.
Flowserve wins pumps and ERDs for Larnaca desalination
DWEER energy-recovery units and Flowserve DMX high-pressure pumps are to be supplied for the 60,000 m³/d Larnaca seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant currently being rebuilt in Cyprus.
Nirosoft selects ERI PXs for Limassol desalination
The 50,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant currently under construction in Limassol, Cyprus, will use PX-260 pressure-exchangers from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).
Desalitech ties up with Toyo for international market
Innovative reverse-osmosis (RO) developer Desalitech and Japan's Toyo Engineering Corporation announced on 11 December 2013 the formation of a strategic partnership to introduce water and wastewater treatment solutions to Japanese, East Asian and international markets.
LACSD signs up Desalitech for chloride‑removal test
Desalination system developer Desalitech is to support a pilot project with the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (LACSD) to upgrade two Santa Clarita Valley wastewater treatment plants in order to meet state‑mandated chloride limits, the company announced on 2 October 2013.
Aquatech increases Pennsylvania oil & gas resources
Aquatech has increased its oil & gas water management services in the Marcellus and Utica Shale regions of Pennsylvania with the acquisition of Fluid Recovery Services (FRS), based in Creekside.
Speakers announced for IDA conference in Banff
Speakers and sessions for the May conference on Water Recycling and Desalination for the Oil & Gas Industry have been announced by the organizers, the International Desalination Association (IDA).
Aquarion sets up in Russia
Swizerland-based water systems company, Aquarion Group, has established a Russian operation, Aquarion Russia, to focus on providing water and wastewater treatment to industrial customers in Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States.
Oil/gas sector MBR leads new H2O Innovation jobs
Supply of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) wastewater treatment and reuse system to an industrial user in the oil and gas industry in Alberta, Canada, was announced by H2 O Innovation Inc on 8 March 2012.
Aquarion in tie with mining cleantech player
Ottawa-based cleantech company, BluMetric Environmental, has teamed up with Swiss water technology firm, Aquarion, in a technology, business, and project development agreement with an industrial wastewater focus.
Study starts on salinity reclamation of W Australian river
Mitigation measures such as desalination and diversion could be proposed for the Collie river basin in Western Australia as a result of an independent review of possible strategies for salinity recovery, which has just been started by consultants KPMG and Worley Parsons.
Aquatech shale-gas treatment center opened
The formal opening of a central water treatment center set up for shale gas producers in Pennsylvania by local company Aquatech took place on 18 April 2013.
Multi-technology GE upgrade for Russian refinery treatment
Membrane bioreactor (MBR), electrodialysis reversal (EDR) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology will all feature in a major upgrade for the wastewater treatment at one of Russia's biggest oil refineries.
Australia's MAK Water buys Clearmake for expansion
Australian reverse-osmosis desalination manufacturer MAK Industrial Water Systems has acquired Queensland-based Clearmake Water Treatment & Recycling Solutions as part of a national expansion strategy across Australia.
Funding for reuse offered by Bureau of Reclamation
The US government's Bureau of Reclamation has announced a funding opportunity for feasibility studies of water reclamation and reuse for non-federal government entities, indian tribes, water districts, wastewater districts or rural water districts in the 17 western US states and Hawaii.
Australia funds water study for coal-seam gas industry
The Australian government is spending up to Aus$ 3.88 million (US$ 3.61 million) on a water feasibility study for the Queensland coal-seam gas industry.
X-Flow commissions Chinese produced-water projects
Three water-reuse projects for oilfields in China that use Pentair X-Flow ultrafiltration (UF) membrane technology have been commissioned recently.
World Bank publishes report on Arab water reuse
Total water reuse in the Arab world is estimated at 2,170 million m³ per year, according to a report just published by the World Bank summarising the findings of the Expert Consultation Meeting on Wastewater Management in the Arab World, convened in Dubai in May 2011.
Energy Recovery announces deal duo
Industrial fluid pressure technology company, Energy Recovery, has announced its second US$ 1.8 million deal in recent weeks at sites in the Middle East and North Africa region. The latest win to supply its PX Pressure Exchanger system was for a 68 Ml/d desalination plant at an undisclosed site in the Middle East. It closed an earlier, similar deal in Morocco.
UF membranes tackle silica at Indian powerplants
Pentair X-Flow HFS 60 Silica ultrafiltration (UF) membranes are to be used in two projects in India for the removal of colloidal silica from surface water.
Gradiant China to target industrial ZLD and wastewater market
Gradiant Corporation has established Gradiant China to provide industrial wastewater solutions and zero liquid discharge (ZLD) technology to the Chinese market.
Oasys furthers advance in China
US-based forward osmosis specialist, Oasys Water, has unveiled its latest advance in its bid to expand in China with its partner in the region, Beijing Woteer.
Adionics launches liquid-to-liquid desalination system
France-based Adionics has launched a smart desalination solution that is able to remove specific salts to address the growing demand coming from oil and gas, food and beverages as well as mining.
Desalitech closed-circuit technology set for BWRO project
Israel-based Desalitech Ltd announced on 7 April 2011 that it had been awarded a contract to design and build a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system for Environmental Protection Technologies (EPT), a global company that leads the industrial wastewater treatment market in Israel.
GE expands HERO licensing agreement
GE Power & Water announced on 1 February 2011 that it has completed a new expanded licensing agreement to allow it to continue offering High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HERO) systems to help more of its industrial customers increase their water usage efficiency and reuse capacity.
GE signs Saudi Arabian wastewater-reuse MOU
GE has signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) on wastewater reuse with Miahona, a subsidiary of the Arabian Company for Water & Power Development Ltd.
Interview: Juan Miguel Pinto, ALADYR president
The new president of ALADYR, the Latin America desalination and water reuse association, sees his organisation as a window onto the region for international companies. His big aim is to step up events during 2018, taking knowledge of desalination and reuse out to the market.
Aquarion buys Hager + Elsaesser
Water treatment firm Aquarion Group has acquired German water technology company Hager + Elsaesser (H+E) for an undisclosed sum.
"We're now at more than $100 million revenue." Doug Brown, AquaVenture chairman and CEO
AquaVenture chief executive Doug Brown has a track record of delivering shareholder value. When he joined water technology and engineering firm Ionics as chief executive in 2003, the struggling business was trading at $16 a share.
Registration open for AMTA/AWWA membrane conference
Registration has been opened and new sessions added to the programme for the 2013 Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition in San Antonio, Texas, on 25-28 February 2013.
Papermaker ups water performance with Desalitech reverse osmosis
Arizona-based papermaker, Doubletree Paper Mills, said it has increased its purified water recovery by 20% at its Gila Bend plant since replacing its reverse osmosis water treatment system in 2014 with Desalitech's ReFlex RO system. The modification has also cut wastewater output by almost two thirds and lopped 25 % off energy consumption said Doubletree.
Biwater completes Virgin Islands desalination plant
Water technology company, Biwater, has started full commercial operation of a new 10,400 m³/day reverse osmosis seawater desalination plant constructed by the firm on the island of Tortola in the British Virgin Islands.
Treatment of process effluent water for reuse in food production
Effluent water reuse in the food industry raises inevitable questions about the risk and reliability of wastewater treatment and recovery processes in meeting the required standards. The author looks at how two food processing facilities adopted process water recovery and reuse shows how the benefits can be a maximized and how the challenges live among the detail. This article first appeared in the November/ December 2014 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Interim CEO and CFO appointed to Evoqua board
The board of directors of Evoqua Water Technologies, formerly Siemens Water Technologies, has named AEA Investors LP operating partner Gary Cappeline as interim CEO, and Mark Roos, formerly of Unifrax LLC, as interim CFO.
Oasys forward osmosis concentrates in China
Massachusetts-based Oasys Water has claimed its recent contract to supply a forward osmosis brine concentrator to a fossil-fuelled power plant in China to be a world first.
Electrochemical desalination MoU signed in Singapore
A memorandum of understanding (MoU) between Singapore's national water agency, PUB, and Evoqua Water Technologies to further develop electrochemical desalination technology was one of five MoUs signed during Singapore International Water Week, which ended on 5 June 2014.
Sembcorp reuse closes Chinese port-zone's water loop
Singapore company Sembcorp today opens its first industrial water reclamation plant in China on 13 December 2011.
Water Planet to use 3M polymer in membrane manufacture
Water Planet Engineering (WPE), a spinoff company from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), has entered into a joint development agreement with global company 3M to explore commercial production of a new polymer material with widespread industrial application.
Parsons selected for California water-reuse expansion
California's West Basin Water District has awarded its largest ever water-reuse contract to Pasadena-based Parsons Corporation on a design-build basis.
Desalitech RO wastewater use 'will pay back in 6 months'
Desalitech, developer of the closed-circuit desalination (CCD) system, is to supply a zero liquid discharge (ZLD) advanced wastewater treatment system for a pesticide plant in Gujarat, India.
Sembcorp to build Chinese chemical wastewater plant
Sembcorp announced on 19 December 2013 that it would be developing a new industrial wastewater treatment plant in the Caofeidian Chemical Industrial Park in Hebei province, China.
Mann+Hummel buys into membrane-maker Microdyn-Nadir
Industrial filtration group Mann+Hummel announced on 8 May 2014 that it had taken a 50% stake of the German‑based company Microdyn‑Nadir.
EDS/Wetsus issues membrane conference call for papers
A deadline of 30 June 2012 has been set for abstracts for the eighth in the series of conferences on Membranes in Drinking & Industrial Water Production, which will take place at Leeuwarden in the Netherlands on 10‑12 September 2012.
New clarifier solves Virginia UF membrane problems
Funds from the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) have enabled completion of a new pretreatment system for an ultrafiltration membrane system at the Fairmont Water Filtration Plant in West Virginia.
Escondido hires consultants for potable water reuse
The City of Escondido in southern California approved on 27 June 2012 spending of US$ 1.14 million to hire a team led by Black & Veatch and including Brown & Caldwell for services towards its Indirect Potable Reuse Program.
MBR/RO at heart of PepsiCo reuse plant in Chile
A membrane bioreactor (MBR), reverse osmosis (RO) and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection are all part of a wastewater treatment and reuse plant upgrade being completed by Siemens Industry Automation Division for PepsiCo in Chile.
Adsorption pilot phase two will focus on ZLD
MEDAD Technologies, a specialist in adsorption, has worked to commercialise a multi-effect distillation adsorption desalination (MED-AD) system since spinning off from the National University of Singapore (NUS) in 2012.
US non-profit NWRI appoints Hardy as executive director
Former Encina Wastewater Authority (EWA) executive Kevin Hardy has joined the US National Water Research Institute (NWRI) as executive director.
ACWA Emirates delivers MBR reuse plant for Saudi Aramco
ACWA Emirates has completed a water reuse plant at Shaybah Oilfield, Saudi Arabia, for crude and natural gas exporter Saudi Aramco.
ACWA wins two membrane-based projects in Saudi
Two separate contracts for membrane-based water and wastewater projects in Saudi Arabia have been awarded to ACWA Emirates LLC of Dubai.
Severn-Trent wins Chilean mining desalination contract
US water and wastewater treatment company Severn Trent Services has been awarded a contract to provide a seawater desalination plant that will serve the potable and process water needs of the Minera Esperanza copper and gold mine in Antofagasta, Chile.
Possibilities for energy optimisation in design and operation of SWRO plants
Seawater desalination with reverse osmosis (SWRO) has taken a noteworthy upturn during recent years. One of the reasons for the success of the membrane process is its lower energy consumption in comparison with thermal desalination processes. The high-pressure RO desalination stage is undoubtedly the dominating energy consumer of an SWRO plant. Energy consumption of SWRO, despite its energy-recovery aspects, is also influenced by a huge number of additional factors. These are both of an external nature (eg, environmental conditions and stipulations), but are also determined by design and configuration of the plant. On the basis of an SWRO plant model, which covers the different pre-treatment and RO configurations and also the design with energy consumption of potabilisation and additional wastewater treatment and sludge dewatering facilities, the specific energy consumption of an SWRO and its subsystems has been determined in this article. Considering the various aspects to be taken into account for optimization of energy consumption in seawater reverse osmosis plants and the fact that in most cases these measures are offset by increases in capital costs for equipment or possibly also in chemical consumption, optimisation of the energy consumption of SWRO plants during planning and operation is a quite extensive and complicated matter and a demanding engineering task. This article is an expanded and updated version of the article published in the August/September issue of D&WR magazine.
Energy Recovery trials its pump-guarding fracking system
Liberty Oilfield Services is to conduct trials of Energy Recovery's Vor Teq hydraulic pumping system for hydraulic fracturing (fracking) at US well sites. The system is based on Energy Recovery's PX Pressure Exchanger technology which is deployed in more than 15,000 desalination installations worldwide according to Energy Recovery.
Oil and gas player commissions produced water treatment plant
Encana Oil and Gas has designed and commissioned a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant to treat produced water from its oil sand wells in the Moneta Divide, Wyoming. It has since sold the plant along with all its Moneta Divide assets to Aethon Energy.
Energy Recovery chief to quit
Chief executive officer (CEO) of pressure technology specialist Energy Recovery, Thomas Rooney, has resigned as the company increases its focus on the oil and gas sector.
STW joins HFEIS developer to target power/desalination
STW Resources Holding Corp of Texas, USA, announced on 18 September 2013 a mutual strategic relationship with Colorado‑based Tat‑Tech Inc to remediate oil-sands waste, brackish groundwater and seawater via the construction and operation of proprietary systems developed by Tat‑Tech.
North Sea gas RO package supplied by UK company
A containerised reverse‑osmosis (RO) desalination package is to be supplied for an unmanned gas platform in the North Sea by Salt Separation Services of Rochdale, UK.
GE wins oilsands evaporator contract in Alberta
GE's water evaporation technology will treat de-oiled produced water, boiler and heat-recovery steam-generator blowdown and brackish makeup water for Sunshine Oilsands at its West Ells project in Ft McMurray, Alberta, Canada.
Aquatech sells produced-water evaporators in Alberta
Aquatech is to design, engineer, supply and supervise installation and commissioning of a produced-water evaporator system for Pengrowth Energy Corporation's Lindbergh 12,500 bpd Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) enhanced oil-recovery facility.
Biwater to supply UF and RO systems to California replenishment project
Biwater, UK, has won a contract to design, supply and supervise ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis systems for Southern California's Groundwater Reliability Improvement Program.
Osmoflo to supply two ship-mounted ROs to gas field
Potable and process water is to be supplied to a gas field north of Australia by ship-mounted seawater reverse-osmosis (RO) plants supplied by Adelaide-based desalination specialist Osmosflo.
IDA announces May 2013 oil and gas conference
The International Desalination Association (IDA) is to organize its first technical conference focused on water treatment strategies for the oil & gas industry.
Nirosoft wins large Colombian desalination plant
Nirosoft Industries Ltd has been awarded a contract by Pacific Rubiales Energy Corp (PREC) for design and construction of a produced-water desalination plant in Colombia.
Metito lands Bechtel SWRO desalination in Australia
Dubai-based Metito has landed two new seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants in Australia and is currently nearing completion of one in Qatar.
Mitsui acquires minority stake in Water Standard
Houston-based Water Standard Management (US) Inc, which focuses on water treatment for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), announced on 30 May 2012 that Japan's Mitsui & Co Ltd has acquired a minority interest in the company.
EDS and SPE host joint oil/gas desalination workshop
The European Desalination Society is joining the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) to present a joint workshop on Desalination in the Oil and Gas Industry.
Pilot vapour-recompression plant tackles oil and gas water
A pilot project to treat produced water from oil and gas operations in southern Saskatchewan, Canada, has been initiated by Purestream Technology of Salt Lake City, USA, using its advanced vapour recompression (AVARA) system.
ERI hires oil expert from Schlumberger
Energy Recovery Inc has hired seasoned oil and gas expert Ismail Nawaz as its vice president, oil and gas product development.
Water Standard finds its shipbuilder in Samsung
Texas-based Water Standard and Korea's Samsung Heavy Industries announced an agreement on 28 June 2011 to collaborate on the design and development of vessels to deliver water treatment solutions to the offshore oil and gas sector.
VWS Westgarth bags Angolan offshore UF/SRP contract
A multimillion dollar contract for design, supply and delivery of an ultrafiltration (UF) system and a sulphate-removal package (SRP) for offshore oilfield exploration in Angola has been won by UK-based VWS Westgarth, a subsidiary of Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies.
Desalitech's Rick Stover: "The world's experts on desal and reuse are coming to Miami"
Desalitech executive vice president Rick Stover says that delegates can expect stimulating open forum discussions, papers and research at the IDA Energy and Environment Conference in Miami, USA, December 2016
Veolia in mineral recovery partnership at inland desalination plant
Texas-based company, Enviro Water Minerals (EWM), is to deploy its novel mineral recovery technology in a partnership with water and waste giant, Veolia, to produce potable water from brackish water desalination effluent.
Jersey contracts ACWA to upgrade desalination plant
Utility, Jersey Water, has contracted international water and wastewater treatment firm, ACWA Services, to carry a out a £6 million (US$ 9 million) upgrade of the Channel Island's La Rosière desalination plant in a bid to cut operating costs and meet rising demand.
Doosan picks up prize for zero liquid system
Doosan Hydro Technology was among the winners of the 2015 David W York Water Reuse Project of Year Award for its part in the city of Palm Coast's zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plant at Citation Boulevard, Florida.
Energy Recovery bags US$ 1 million in desalination orders in India and Ghana
Fluid flow energy efficiency firm Energy Recovery has won desalination orders totalling US$ 1 million for original manufacturer projects using its technology in India and Ghana. The company said the deals were among a continuing revenue stream from small-to-medium sized projects.
MBR plant at heart of United Environtech contract in China
A 50,000 m³/d membrane-based wastewater treatment plant is to be built in Jiangsu Province, China, by United Envirotech of Singapore under a contract worth RMB 220 million (US$ 34.5 million).
Giti to head APTwater North American sales
Ali Giti, recently responsible for overseeing North America sales at Severn Trent has joined APTwater Inc as vice president of North American sales, the California-based supplier of water/wastewater treatment technologies announced on 6 July 2011.
Chinese membrane wastewater firm gets big investment
Global investor KKR has entered into an agreement with United Envirotech Limited (UEL), a water treatment and recycling company in China, for a US$ 40 million common equity investment. KKR subscribed US$ 113.8 million convertible bonds issued by UEL in October 2011 to support the company's business expansion.
Tri-Tech planning forward-osmosis pilot plants
Chinese water and wastewater treatment company Tri-Tech Holdings announced on 13 May 2011 that its current plans include constructing and operating one or more forward-osmosis (FO) pilot units using technology licensed from Arizona-based Hydration Technology Innovations (HTI).
Wastewater leads membrane chemicals charge
Growth in the global membrane chemical market to 2020, will be led by the wastewater sector according to market analyst Future Market Insights (FMI). And desalination was expected to witness the highest compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 11.4% in the global membrane chemicals market between 2014 and 2020.
H2O Innovation supplies US city with UF, NF and RO
The City of Delaware in Ohio, USA, has awarded a contract to Canada's H2O Innovation Inc for a drinking-water production system involving ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO).
Chinese industrial wastewater job won by United Envirotech
Singapore-based United Envirotech Ltd, a membrane-based water and wastewater treatment company, announced on 8 February 2011 that it had signed a transfer-operate-transfer agreement with the management committee of the Nanpu Economic Development Zone in China to provide a 80,000 m³/d wastewater treatment plant and a 40,000 m³/d wastewater recycling plant.
Interview: IDE Technologies CEO Avshalom Felber
Above all, IDE is a solutions provider. So says chief executive Avshalom Felber, the former financial whizz turned water industry leader, as he outlines the company's unique mix of thermal and reverse osmosis (RO) technologies, operational expertise, and contractual nous.
New contracts announced by H2O Innovation
A 150,000 GPD (568 m³/d) membrane wastewater treatment system for a First Nation community in Manitoba, Canada, is one of new contracts totaling US$ 2.4 million announced on 12 January 2011 by H2O Innovation.
Siemens MBR contracted for Chinese industry park
An underground membrane bioreactor (MBR) system worth several million US dollars is to be provided by Siemens (Tianjin) Water Technology Engineering Co Ltd to Shenzhen Zhongying Precious Metal Co Ltd.