Corrosion, Groundwater, Algae, Algae
Saudi boost for LiqTech ceramic membranes
The Saudi Arabian Ministery of Water & Electricity has announced that ceramic flat-sheet membranes are the technology of choice for groundwater applications, according to Danish company LiqTech International.
Singapore's PUB draws curtain on algae
Singapore's national water agency PUB has for the first time installed silt curtains at the waters off Tuaspring and Singspring desalination plants, to protect them from damaging fouling of their reverse osmosis membranes by mounting levels of algae in the water.
Ras Al Khaimah seawater desalination has algae shield
Northernmost of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Ras Al Khaimah, has opened a 68 Ml/d seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) project in Ghallilah on the emirate's west coast that is equipped to "overcome the red tide phenomena" - the seasonal proliferation of algae that blights the emirates' coastline.
Algae biomass membrane order for Denmark's LiqTech
Denmark's LiqTech International Inc has received a purchase order of around US$ 300,000 for a prototype filtration system to be used in an algae biomass project.
Spiral scoops innovation award for its 'disruptive' automatic self-cleaning filter
Spiral Water has picked up an Innovation Award from BlueTech Research for its automatic self-cleaning water filter, a "disruptive" new filter technology according to Spiral chief executive Ashwin Gulati.
Algae: a tide of trouble
The water services provider at the industrial port at Sohar in the Oman has learned the hard way, how to combat the seasonal algal wave that can grind vital reverse osmosis desalination and other water treatment to a halt. Despite unprecedented assaults the notorious Red Tide has been tamed. This article first appeared in the May 2015 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Abunayyan resigns as chair of ACWA Power Barka
Mohammad Abdullah Abunayyan has resigned as chairman and board director of ACWA Power Barka in Oman, citing personal reasons.
Nanobubble specialist Moleaer raises capital, seeks people
Moleaer, the California, US-based water technology firm that developed the XTB Nanobubble Generator has raised $6 million to support overseas expansion.
Suez Environnement lands US$ 200 million Middle Eastern deals duo
Suez Environnement has won a desalination contract in Abu Dhabi worth more than US$ 180 million and a separate water reuse deal in Oman taking the total value of the Middle East wins to more than US$ 200 million.
Xylem supplies wastewater denitrification systems in China
Water technology company, Xylem, has supplied denitrification systems to three wastewater treatment plants in eastern China as part of a national strategy to improve wastewater treatment by 90% over five years.
Electrochemical desalination MoU signed in Singapore
A memorandum of understanding (MoU) between Singapore's national water agency, PUB, and Evoqua Water Technologies to further develop electrochemical desalination technology was one of five MoUs signed during Singapore International Water Week, which ended on 5 June 2014.
How we delivered Az Zour North phase one
"With hindsight we were very lucky to get everything through on time and that our construction partner Hyundai Heavy Industries was on time. Fortunately we escaped a lot of those little wrinkles that need sorting out during construction, and can drag on and on, and so we kept to time," says Andy Biffen, chief executive of project delivery vehicle Az Zour Shamal.
Direct membrane filtration simplifies reuse process
Recent trials have proven that direct membrane filtration of high solids (algae) and disinfection provides a simpler treatment process with substantial cost reduction. In Pillbara, Australia, two plants are being constructed to treat wastewater for recycling aiming for a 4-log removal of bacteria and viruses by filtering alone. Ultraviolet treatment provides the final requirement to reach the required 6-log removal rate. This article gives an overview of the application, and details on the technology and design used. It first appeared in the August/September 2013 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
2014 Oman conference to look at HABs and desalination
An international conference on Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) & Desalination is to be held in Muscat, Oman, in April 2014.
Modern Water claims first FO commercial desalination contract
UK-based Modern Water has won what is believed to be the first ever forward-osmosis (FO) commercial contract for desalination, following its award of a UK£ 500,000 (US$ 810,000) contract for a 200 m³/d plant by Oman's Public Authority for Electricity & Water (PAEW).
RO-based advanced treatment plant for West Virginia mines
A 5 MGD (19,000 m³/d) membrane-based wastewater treatment plant is to be built to serve a number of coal mines in West Virginia, USA, as a result of government action following pollution violations.
HTI deal takes forward osmosis to China
The world's only commercial manufacturer of forward-osmosis (FO) membranes, modules and systems, Hydration Technologies Innovations LLC (HTI), reached an international distribution, services and cooperation agreement for FO technology with Chinese company Tri-Tech Holding Inc.
Three hundred Fybroc seawater pumps ordered for giant aquarium
The Global Pump Solutions business unit of Met-Pro Corporation has received an order to supply more than 300 corrosion-resistant glass-fiber centrifugal pumps for a marine life park at a world-class casino resort complex in the heart of Southeast Asia.
Shutdown to follow full production at Gold Coast desalination plant
The Gold Coast seawater desalination plant in Australia began delivering water to the South East Queensland Water Grid at 100% capacity on 9 March 2009.
Corrosion and vibration slow Gold Coast commissioning
The progress of the Gold Coast seawater reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination plant in Queensland, Australia, towards its commissioning targets has been slowed by several problems, which are now being addressed.
SEDA December workshop to look at chemicals for RO
The Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA) has announced a technology transfer workshop on Chemical Treatment for Reverse Osmosis (RO) to be held in Palm Bay, Florida, in December 2013.
SWRO corrosion pre-conference workshop for CaribDA
A workshop on Understanding and Preventing Corrosion in Caribbean SWRO Plants will take place in Aruba, Netherlands Antilles, on 19 May 2012, prior to the 2012 Conference of the Caribbean Desalination Association (CaribDA).
Some Gold Coast desalination issues still unresolved
A large number of non-compliance issues relating to the Gold Coast seawater desalination plant in Queensland, Australia, have been listed in a letter sent on 2 July 2009 by Keith Davies, CEO of WaterSecure, who are taking over the project, to the Queensland Department of Infrastructure & Planning.
IDA 2015 World Congress draws 1,700 delegates
More than 1,700 delegates from 63 countries attended the International Desalination Association's (IDA's) 2015 World Congress held in San Diego recently according to the association's key metrics published this week. Awards for papers and presentations topped US$ 30,000.
RO included in Czech powerplant water treatment upgrade
Wabag Brno has begun modernisation of the water treatment plant at the Prunéřov power station in the Czech Republic, involving clarification, filtration, reverse osmosis, softening and demineralisation.
Flowserve valves for Perth 2 desalination plant
Flowserve Corporation announced on 3 June 2010 that it had received an order for plug valves for the Southern Seawater Desalination Plant in Western Australia. The order was booked in the fourth quarter of 2009.
Innovations in IDA Congress technical program
Round-table sessions and touch-screen availability of poster presentations will be used for the first time in the International Desalination Association's World Congress in Dubai on 7-12 November 2009, IDA announced on 19 October 2009.
AquaSure's Victorian Desalination Plant secures its first water order
The Victorian Desalination Project (VDP) is a mega-size seawater RO facility, able to produce up to 150 billion litres of water a year when running at full capacity. Located at the southerly most tip of Australia on the Bass Coast, it was procured by the Victorian State government from AquaSure, a joint venture of Degrémont (now Suez), Macquarie Capital, and Thiess (now Ventia), in 2009, for a capital cost of $3.5 billion.
Calder bought by Flowserve
US pump and valve manufacturer Flowserve announced on 21 April 2009 that it acquired Swiss desalination energy-recovery system provider Calder AG. Terms of the transaction were not disclosed.
Italmach acquires Compass, adds manufacturing base in North America
Italmach Chemicals has acquired Compass Chemical International, adding a strategically important site in Texas that it hopes will support its growth in the oil and gas industry.
Gold Coast desalination plant starts at 33% capacity
The Gold Coast desalination plant in Queensland, Australia, began operating on 26 February 2009 at 33% capacity, producing more than 40,000 m³/d.
Q&A: De Nora group CEO Paolo Dellacha on the acquisition of MIOX
Electrochemical tech company De Nora has acquired water purification firm MIOX. De Nora group chief executive Paolo Dellacha explains the thinking behind the deal and what the future holds
Weir Materials acquired by Rolled Alloys
The Weir name finally dropped out of the desalination mainstream in mid-October when Weir Materials was acquired by Rolled Alloys (RA) a US-based supplier of heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant alloys and branded stainless steels.
Low-pressure valves for desalination: time for a new look at the butterfly?
Across the entire water industry spectrum, valves are an essential element in the treatment of water and in its supply. The subject of butterfly valve technology and its suitability for desalination plants is one particular aspect that rightly demands attention, particularly in respect of specifying materials that will withstand corrosion. The centred-disc butterfly valve is a proven technology and, according to KSB's Amri Water Valve Division Competence Centre in La Roche Chalais, France, it is in widespread demand from all types of desalination plant. It is a simple yet effective design principle whereby the disc rotates around an axis at right angles to the flow. When open, the fluid passes around both sides of the disc. "Low pressure valves are rarely considered as a critical item," says Pascal Viaud, "but if not correctly specified at the outset of a project problems can occur over the long term. Wrong selection of valves can be the cause of up to 40% all operational problems, so the customer must consider the real importance of valves at the specification stage. Even though valves may only constitute 1% of the plant investment costs, it only takes a single valve to create problems and seriously affect plant production." Butterfly valves are installed in the low-pressure areas of a desalination plant, usually in the early stages of production upstream of the membranes and then again at the end on the permeate lines. By keeping the butterfly valves open each valve creates a pressure loss and with the centred disc the differential pressure is much lower than an offset disc valves. Where a high number of valves, say 1,000 units, are installed in a desalination plant the accumulation of pressure saved on each valve will contribute to lower energy savings. The full article first appeared in the November/December 2008 issue of D&WR magazine
Treatment chemicals annual demand rise to top 3%
Demand for water treatment chemicals in the US will rise 3.2% a year to US$ 7.3 billion by 2019, according to a report by market researcher, ReportLinker.
Energy Recovery hires senior management duo
Pressure energy technology firm Energy Recovery has appointed Chris M Gannon as chief financial officer and Eric O Siebert as vice president of corporate strategy. Both appointments are effective from 8 June 2015.
Membrana filtration curbs corrosion in Disney Shanghai cooling
Membrane manufacturer Polypore has supplied its Membrana ultrafiltration units for Shanghai Disneyland to curb corrosion in the resort's cooling water system.
Cutting the costs of corrosion in seawater desalination with shut-off butterfly valves
Lower cost materials and coatings used in addition to corrosion-resistant valve designs both urged on by preferences in plant construction contracts have reduced the capital and operational costs of valves used in membrane and thermal seawater desalination. The design of the valve too has a significant role to play in keeping a rein not only on corrosion but also cost of operation. This article first appeared in the issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Membrane market growth to run until 2020
The fruits of growing research and development in forward osmosis for desalination are highlighted in a recent sector report as drivers of growth in the market for membrane separation technologies running to at least 2020.
H2O Innovation updates Piedmont Pacific acquisition
Its recent acquisition of Piedmont Pacific means that Canada's H2O Innovation Inc is now supplying flexible pipe couplings to some of the largest desalination plants under construction in the world.
Piedmont signs new supply and distribution contracts
Piedmont, a producer of corrosion resistant equipment for desalination plants, has signed a roster of new supply and partner distribution agreements globally.
Mega-ton project symposium set for Tokyo in November
A symposium is to be held in Japan in November 2013 centred on the Mega-Ton Water System, a national research program to develop sustainable water treatment technologies, including large-scale desalination, that have a low environmental load and are energy-saving and low in cost.
Two workshops ahead for SEDA in January
The Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA) is holding two technology transfer workshops in Florida at the end of January 2013.
Promotions and appointments announced by BWA
Two appointments affecting the European and Americas regions were announced by BWA Water Additives of the US on 2 April 2012, as well as two new vice-president positions.
CaribDA opens registration for Aruba conference
The Caribbean Desalination Association (CaribDA) has opened registration for its 2012 Conference & Exposition 80 Years Of Desalination Makes For One Happy Island.
Voltea gets funding for two desalination applications
Dutch desalination innovator Voltea BV announced on 21 February 2012 that it had completed a € 4.5 million funding round to support the commercial rollout of its Capacitive Deionization (CapDI) technology.
Huntington Beach is 'precedent-setting' for California
When the California State Water Board adopted new regulations on seawater desalination plants in 2015, Poseidon, the developer of a proposed 50 million gallons a day (189,000 m3/d) capacity seawater RO plant in Huntington Beach, California, went back to the drawing board on its water intake technology.
WRF unveils initial findings of study into blending variables in DPR
The US Water Research Foundation has shared preliminary findings from its ongoing research into the impact of blending variables on direct potable reuse water.
Gold Coast desalination plant finally handed over
The Tugun desalination plant in Gold Coast, Australia, was handed over to the Queensland state government on 1 October 2010 and has become part of the South East Queensland Water Grid (SEQWG).
IDA publishes program for Gulf desalination and environment seminar
The International Desalination Association has published details of program sessions and topics for its seminar on Desalination and the Gulf: The Relationship between the Environment and Meeting the Region's Water Needs, which will take place in Bahrain on 6-7 December 2010.
Gold Coast desalination plant producing water again
The major phase of final works at the Tugun desalination plant on Queensland's Gold Coast in Australia has been completed, the minister for infrastructure and planning, Stirling Hinchliffe, announced on 10 September 2010.
Southern California reused-water purchase agreed
The Water Replenishment District of Southern California (WRD) and the Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County (SDLAC) signed a 30‑year recycled water purchase agreement on 29 August 2013, which will eliminate the need for water from northern California and the Colorado river for groundwater recharge.
Texas will need desalination says land commissioner
The Texas Land Commissioner, Jerry Patterson, said on 29 August 2013 at the Texas Groundwater Summit in San Marcos that the state would need more alternatives such as desalination to provide a solution for its thirsty growing population.
Ceramic membranes replace polymer in Saudi projects
German ceramic membrane-maker ItN Nanovation AG has received two orders for its flat membrane filters for groundwater projects in Saudi Arabia, replacing previously used polymer membranes.
Perth groundwater replenishment project gets go-ahead
The Western Australia state government announced on 1 August 2013 that it was adopting groundwater replenishment with reused municipal and industrial wastewater to help secure Perth's water supplies.
System for perchlorate in groundwater demonstrated
A demonstration system for the degradation of perchlorate, which minimises production of a secondary waste system such as that from ion‑exchange, has been installed at Aerojet General Corporation's site near Rancho Cordova in California, USA.
Parsons lands SAWS brackish water desalination job
Parsons Corporation is leading a joint venture to serve as the construction manager at risk for the San Antonio groundwater desalination program in Texas, USA.
Alamagordo completes first stage of RO project
The City of Alamagordo in New Mexico, USA, announced on 26 March 2013 that it had completed Phase 1 of its Westside Infrastructure Improvements Project, which will eventually include a 6 MGD (22,700 m³/d) desalination plant.
Swiss water treatment to use PAC/UF combination
Wabag Water Technology has announced two water-treatment contracts in Switzerland based on ultrafiltration (UF) and worth around € 6 million which were won by the company at the end of 2012.
Four workshops to precede AMTA / AWWA conference
There are now four preconference workshops prior to the Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition being held by the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) and the American Water Works Association (AWWA) in San Antonio, Texas, at the end of February 2013.
Almogordo mobile desalination project in train
A mobile desalination facility to treat 4,000 acre-ft per year (af/y) (4.9 million m³/y) near Almogordo, New Mexico, moved closer to realisation when the City Commission approved an approach for a US$ 2.7 million loan/grant from the New Mexico Finance Authority on 1 November 2012.
Another TWDB loan for SAWS desalination project
The Texas Water Development Board has given a US$ 50 million loan to the San Antonio Water System (SAWS) towards its first-ever groundwater desalination plant in southern Bexar County.
Brackish desalination studied for Oklahoma aquifer
The Central Oklahoma Water Resources Authority (COWRA) in the USA is currently working with local company Guernsey Engineering and California's Separation Processes Inc to do a feasibility study and pilot project to use brackish water from the Garber Wellington aquifer which underlies 3,000 sq miles (7,700 km²) of central Oklahoma.
Solar still v RO comparison for S Australia desalination
A full solar distillation plant was compared with reverse osmosis (RO) for a small groundwater desalination project in South Australia and RO was chosen as the preferred option.
Massive health grant aids Chino desalters expansion
California's Western Municipal Water District announced on 28 June 2012 that it had received a "monumental" US$ 51 million grant from the state's Department of Health towards the US$ 130 million expansion of the Chino desalination plants.
Land commission looking at Texas desalination
The Texas General Land Commission (GLO) has contracted two consulting firms to investigate the possibility of brackish-water desalination north of New Braunfels.
Western Australia's GWR scheme moves nearer
Western Australia's state government is to spend Aus$ 2.5 million (US$ 2.54 million) in 2012‑13 on preliminary design and investigation works to ensure that the Water Corporation is in a position to implement a groundwater replenishment scheme for Perth, should the trial be successful.
New Monterey desalination plan launched by Cal Am
A 5.4-9.0 MGD (20,440-34,000 m³/d) desalination plant located in North Marina employing slant well intake technology remains at the heart of California American Water (Cal Am)'s latest proposal for supplying the Monterey Peninsula.
NWC report boosts Australian brackish desalination
Brackish groundwater desalination can be considered a viable community water supply option in some areas, says a report just announced by Australia's National Water Commission (NWC).
Another legal blow for Monterey desalination alternative
California American Water's (Cal Am's) progress in developing an alternative desalination project for California's Monterey Peninsula received yet another setback on 2 February 2012, when a judge issued an amended ruling on the environmental impact report (EIR) originally published for the abandoned Regional Desalination Project.
Control contract as GWRS expansion breaks ground
KDC Systems has been awarded a contract to install and/or integrate process control systems for the expansion of the membrane-based Groundwater Replenishment System (GWRS) for Orange County Water District, which broke ground on 17 January 2012.
Financial meetings held over Gaza desalination project
The Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) announced on 18 January 2012 that a delegation headed by deputy secretary general Rafiq Husseini visited Kuwait and Saudi Arabia during the previous week to present the Gaza water desalination project to financing institutions.
Membrane plant to treat Delaware city groundwater
A membrane treatment plant is to be part of the renovation and extension of the existing 6 MGD (22,700 m³/d) water treatment plant in City of Delaware, Ohio, USA, which will start in 2012.
North Port awards groundwater RO contract
The City of North Port in Florida, USA, awarded a US$ 9 million contract on 12 September 2011 for a 1.5 MGD (5,676 m³/d) reverse-osmosis (RO) groundwater treatment plant to Wharton-Smith Inc, also of Florida.
Outfall and intake problems hit OC desalination
The pilot plant for the South Orange Coastal Ocean Desalination Project in California has been forced to close down due to relocation of its outfall pipe due to heavy storms . The project has also run into problems with its intake water.
Perth desalination expansion to start immediately
The premier of Western Australia, Colin Barnett, announced on 1 August 2011 that work would begin immediately to double the capacity of the Southern Seawater Desalination Plant, the second major desalination plant in the Perth region.
Grant for Texas pilot wind-powered desalination plant
The Texas Department of Rural Affairs (TDRA) has made a US$ 2.75 million grant to Mitchell County, Texas, towards a US$ 8 million pilot project to use wind power for a brackish-water desalination project.
More federal money sought for Chino Desalters
Western Municipal Water District (WMWD) in California, USA, is to seek additional federal money later this financial year for the Chino Desalters Phase 3 expansion.
Perth desalination expansion could swap for reuse project
The water minister of Western Australia, Bill Marmion, was quoted in the Australian media on 27 May 2011 as saying that the expansion of the Southern Seawater desalination plant may be indefinitely delayed in favour of more water reuse.
Go-ahead for 113,500 m³/d Orange County GWRS expansion
Orange County's world-renowned membrane-based Groundwater Replenishment System (GWRS) in California is to be expanded by another 30 MGD (113,500 m³/d) following approval by the board of the Orange County Water District (OCWD) on 30 March 2011.
RO consumes 4% of Malta's electricity, says new group
Reverse-osmosis desalination plants consume almost 4% of Malta's electricity supply, according to a statement from the newly-formed Malta Water Association (MWA) on 22 March 2011. The group, made up of hydrologists, engineers and other water experts, warned that urgent action is needed to protect Malta's water resources, which "are among the scarcest in the world and under severe stress."
EPA funding for Arlington Desalter's biological denitrification
California's Western Municipal Water District (WMWD) confirmed on 10 February 2011 that it had secured a US$ 528,000 federal grant in January for design work on a treatment system that uses naturally occurring bacteria to remove toxic contaminants, including perchlorate and nitrate, from drinking water.
Chino desalters get first general manager
Curtis Paxton, currently assistant general manager and chief operating officer of the Palmdale Water District, is to become the first general manager of the Chino Basin Desalter Authority (CBDA) in California from 24 January 2011.
Further funding for San Antonio BWRO desalination project
Initial project construction for the brackish groundwater desalination program planned by San Antonio Water System (SAWS) in the USA will now be possible following a US$ 24.6 million loan from the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB).
Commission warns Australia about gas-production wastewater
Handling the wastewater resulting from coal-seam gas (CSG) production in Australia is likely to require a precautionary approach that will demand innovation from water managers and planners, and significantly greater coordination with existing project approval processes, the National Water Commission warned in December 2010.
Australia's first groundwater replenishment trial launched
Western Australia's water minister, Graham Jacobs, launched Australia's first Groundwater Replenishment Trial on 30 November 2010, which research indicates may be cheaper than desalination.
CaribDA to sponsor Chile desalination seminar
The Caribbean Desalination Association (CaribDA) announced on 14 October 2010 that it would be a sponsor of a seminar on Desalination, Innovations & Sustainable Development to be held in Antofagasta, Chile, during 29 November - 1 December 2010.
Egypt and Bahrain seek joint desalination projects
Egypt and Bahrain are looking to develop joint water desalination projects between the two countries.
Southern California gets wastewater reuse and desalination grants
Southern California's Joint Water Purification Pilot Program (JWPPP), which will evaluate the feasibility of wastewater reuse using advanced water treatment, has received a US$ 334,000 grant from the US Bureau of Reclamation's WaterSMART program.
Egypt to step up seawater desalination efforts
Egypt's president Hosni Mubarak has instructed the government to expand its seawater desalination initiatives and step up efforts to discover additional sources of groundwater, according to the Egyptian daily Al-Masry Al-Youm.
Chino Desalter expansion to start in late summer
The Western Municipal Water District in California, USA, accepted US$ 4.5 million of federal government funds on 18 May 2009 towards the Chino II Desalter expansion project, which expected to start in late summer.
EDR/MBR well treatment may debut in Utah
A membrane bioreactor (MBR) system, developed and patented in 2008 by Magna Water District (MWD), in the US state of Utah, and Carollo Engineers, could be used for the first time together with an electrodialysis reversal (EDR) facility to remove perchlorate and arsenic from the Barton Well Field in Utah.
IDA Fellowship winners from Iran and Japan
This year's winners of the International Desalination Association's Fellowship awards come from Iran and Japan, IDA announced on 27 April 2009.
Obama ups federal powers to curb river pollution
US president, Barrack Obama, has stepped up federal protection of the country's waterways and drinking water supplies with a rule that clarifies which water courses and bodies may be covered by the 1972 Clean Water Act.
Australian study finds way to up value of desalination for farming
Scientists at Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) have found that the addition of nutrients could make desalinated water more financially attractive to farmers.
Joint venture wins Perth groundwater replenishment contract
Western Australia's Water Corporation has awarded a contract to design, construct, and commission a full-scale advanced water replenishment plant (AWRP) to a joint venture between CH2M Hill,and engineering company Thiess. The project will help secure Perth's drinking water supplies through 2060
Yemen poised to build first desalination plant
Yemen is set to build its first desalination plant. The $300 million project is a response to growing water demand as the country's natural water resources have become dangerously depleted.
New York PSC delays Haverstraw desalination to 2020
The proposed Haverstraw desalination plant on the Hudson river in New York state, USA, has been put on hold until at least 2020 by the New York State Public Service Commission (PSC).
San Antonio first phase desalination set for 2016 finish
The first phase of a groundwater desalination plant in San Antonio is set to be completed next year. The US$ 193 million first phase will produce fresh drinking water at about 50 Ml/d for customers of the San Antonio Water System.
LA district renews reuse plant contract with United Water
Los Angeles West Basin Municipal Water District has renewed its contract with United water for the next five years to operate and maintain the Edward C Little Water Recycling Plant including four satellite plants.