Ceramic, Netherlands, Netherlands, Membrane
IX + ceramic membrane water treatment plant unveiled
A water treatment plant in the Netherlands combining ion-exchange (IX) with ceramic membranes was presented to the water industry for the first time on 12 May 2014 by PWN Technologies of Velserbroek.
Dutch to build ceramic membrane demo plant in Singapore
PWN Technologies (PWNT) of the Netherlands is to build Singapore's first ceramic membrane demonstration plant at Choa Chu Kang Waterworks.
UNESCO-IHE announces membrane course in October
The UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education in Delft, Netherlands, is holding a short course on Membrane technology in drinking and industrial water treatment in October 2012.
Giant Moscow UF plant gets Norit X-Flow membranes
One of the largest ultrafiltration (UF) plants in the world, the South-West Moscow drinking water plant in Russia, is currently being expanded to a total of 275,000 m³/d using Norit X-Flow membranes.
Pentair to buy CPT division from Norit
Pentair Inc is to acquire the Netherlands-based Clean Process Technologies (CPT) division of Norit Holding BV in the second quarter of this year for € 503 million (US$ 705 million), plus net debt at closing.
B&V find ceramic membranes help water recycling
Ceramic membranes used in conjunction with ozone produce significant benefits for water recycling. Jonathan Clement of Black & Veatch, revealed this research result to the Australian Water Association's (AWA) third specialty conference on membranes and desalination held in Sydney, Australia, on 11-13 February 2009.
Partnership launches ceramic trial
Netherlands-based PWN Technologies, in partnership with Indian water treatment firm VA
Tech Wabag and Japanese membrane maker, Metawater, has launched a trial to
demonstrate the effectiveness of ceramic membranes as pre-treatment for seawater
Intensive short desalination course from UNESCO-IHE
An intensive short course on Membrane Technology in Drinking & Industrial Water Treatment has been announced by UNESCO-IHE).
Aquatech unveils Dutch subsidiary
Aquatech, US provider of desalination, water reuse and zero-liquid discharge (ZLD) sytems, announced on 15 April 2010 the establishment of Aquatech BV, a fully owned subsidiary in Leiden, the Netherlands.
Buenos Aires membrane papers deadline 15 June
A deadline of 15 June 2012 has been set for papers for the International Water Association (IWA) 3rd Regional Conference on Membrane Technology.
US ceramic membrane company expands to Singapore
Ceramic filter-maker LiqTech International Inc of Nevada, USA, announced on 17 January 2012 the opening of an expansion office in Singapore.
Membrane pioneer draws new investment
Water treatment membrane and solutions developer, Water Planet, has received a new Series B round of investment for its development and commercialization of its industrial wastewater treatment technologies.
Saudi boost for LiqTech ceramic membranes
The Saudi Arabian Ministery of Water & Electricity has announced that ceramic flat-sheet membranes are the technology of choice for groundwater applications, according to Danish company LiqTech International.
Ceramic MBR + UASB water reuse plant opens in Singapore
Singapore's first ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant coupled with an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) was opened on 7 March 2014 to treat and recycle industrial used water.
Water Planet to use 3M polymer in membrane manufacture
Water Planet Engineering (WPE), a spinoff company from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), has entered into a joint development agreement with global company 3M to explore commercial production of a new polymer material with widespread industrial application.
Ceramic membranes replace polymer in Saudi projects
German ceramic membrane-maker ItN Nanovation AG has received two orders for its flat membrane filters for groundwater projects in Saudi Arabia, replacing previously used polymer membranes.
Ion exchange + ceramic MF for UK water treatment plant
A water treatment plant using suspended ion-exchange (SIX) and ceramic microfiltration is to be built by the UK's South West Water using CeraMac technology from PWN Technologies of the Netherlands.
IPO in summer for China's H2O Solutions
Shanghai-based H2O Solutions announced on 11 May 2012 that the company, which specializes in nano-membrane purification and multi-charged plate desalination technologies, was taking its stock public in the summer of 2012.
IDA 2015 World Congress draws 1,700 delegates
More than 1,700 delegates from 63 countries attended the International Desalination Association's (IDA's) 2015 World Congress held in San Diego recently according to the association's key metrics published this week. Awards for papers and presentations topped US$ 30,000.
Innovation conference part of new Amsterdam water week
Amsterdam's biennial Aquatech exhibition, the leading water exhibition in Europe, has been subsumed into an International Water Week like those in Stockholm and Singapore.
GE acquires Dutch membrane maker
Industrial conglomerate, GE, has agreed to acquire Netherlands-based membranes manufacturer IMT Solutions.
Dutch government funding CapDI development for reuse
The development of the Capacitive Deionisation (CapDI) desalination system for wastewater recycling is to be funded specifically for agricultural use by a € 1.2 million order for Voltea BV awarded on 26 May 2011 by the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure & the Environment (MIE).
Dutch consultants merge into significant water-sector player
Leading Dutch consulting engineers DHV and Royal Haskoning signed a letter of intent on 27 February 2012 to merge.
Voltea gets funding for two desalination applications
Dutch desalination innovator Voltea BV announced on 21 February 2012 that it had completed a € 4.5 million funding round to support the commercial rollout of its Capacitive Deionization (CapDI) technology.
EDS/Wetsus issues membrane conference call for papers
A deadline of 30 June 2012 has been set for abstracts for the eighth in the series of conferences on Membranes in Drinking & Industrial Water Production, which will take place at Leeuwarden in the Netherlands on 10‑12 September 2012.
Singapore signals more water co-operation with the Dutch
The Netherlands Water Partnership (NWP) and PUB, the national water agency of Singapore, signed a letter of intent on 22 October 2009 to boost collaborations undertaken by businesses and research institutions in the fields of science, technology and innovations in Singapore's water sector.
Aquarion acquires Germany's MFT
Swiss oil and gas industry water systems company, Aquarion Group, has acquired Membran- Filtrations-Technik (MFT) of Germany for an undisclosed sum.
AMTA NEWS Novel sub-nanofiltration ceramic membrane production uses DNA
A novel method for creating ceramic reverse osmosis membranes with sub-nanometre pores by using the genetic material, DNA, as a template former, overcomes the poor reproducibility encountered in conventional methods according to the developer of the technology, Cerahelix.
German/Saudi JV to make ceramic membranes for RO pretreatment
German nanotechnology investment company Nanostart announced on 20 October 2011 that one of its holdings, ItN Nanovation AG, had finalised a joint venture (JV) agreement with Saudi Arabian company Jaffali to produce ceramic flat membranes (CFMs) primarily for pretreatment for reverse-osmosis.
Ceramic MBR demonstration project agreed in Singapore
A ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) demonstration plant is to be built at Singapore's Jurong Water Reclamation Plant following the signing of an agreement between the country's water agency, PUB, and Meiden Singapore (MSL), a subsidiary of Meidensha of Japan.
RO, IX and ceramic membranes in Veolia oilfield reuse contract
A 45,000 bpd (7,154 m³/d) produced-water reclamation facility is to be installed at the Arroya Grande oilfield in California by Veolia Water through a design-build-operate contract.
Singapore desalination plant upgrade will use ceramic membranes
An upgrade planned for later this year at Singapore's Choa Chu Kang Waterworks will use ceramic membranes in a first for the country.
H2O Innovation wins North American contracts worth US$ 3.6 million
H2O Innovation has bagged four new contracts worth a total of US$ 3.6 million with two each in the US and Canada. These new deals, the company reported, will maintain its sales backlog for water treatment projects at US$ 38.6 million excluding its Professional Water Technologies, Piedmont and H2O Innovation Maple businesses.
Vial appointed business development manager by inge
Denis Vial has been appointed business development manager by German ultrafiltration (UF) membrane manufacturer inge GmbH, effective 1 March 2014.
Norit UF membranes for Swedish water treatment
A surface-water treatment plant that will be used to supply Göteborg, Sweden's second largest city, is to use ultrafiltration (UF) technology supplied by Norit X-Flow of the Netherlands.
Norit to supply UF pretreatment for Qingdao desalination
Norit X-Flow has signed an agreement with Befesa to supply the UF pretreatment technology for the Qingdao Desalination Project in Shandong province, China.
MD plant using generator heat starts on Maldive island
The world's first desalination unit using waste heat from a power generator with membrane distillation has started up on Guhli island in the Maldives in the Indian Ocean.
The Long Read: Where's the innovation in brine treatment?
As water scarcity bites and the drive to recycle water grows, the focus on recovering clean water and other resources from brine is sharpening. The challenge is particularly pertinent for industrial operators.
UF Pretreatment For Cold Seawater RO
The main obstacle to the use of UF membranes for SWRO pretreatment has always been the high operating cost. This paper describes operational experience of pilot projects using a new membrane designed for the lowest whole-life cost while enabling the most difficult seawater to be treated using membrane desalination. This article shows how the project results can be translated into a technical and commercial evaluation of the best pretreatment option for the desalination of water from low temperature water sources. The technical design details are described for the Evides demonstration plant in the Netherlands, fed from the river delta formed by the Meuse, the Scheldt and the Rhine rivers in southwest Netherlands. It also explains the decision-making process for selection from pretreatment options for the Thames Gateway SWRO project, a plant that is fed by water strongly influenced by tidal effects.
Ceramic nanofiltration company gets big investor
ItN Nanovation AG, a start-up company in Saarbrucken, Germany, making nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 9 December 2010 a framework investment agreement with the US investment fund YA Global Master SPV Ltd, part of the Yorkville Group.
ERI appoints Dyer as CTO
Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) has appointed Tim Dyer as chief technology officer (CTO) to replace Rick Stover, who left ERI in January to join forward-osmosis company Oasys. Previously ERI chief scientist, Dyer will manage all engineering and R&D initiatives.
Pressure-exchanger court case goes to Hauge
The latest round of the "pressure-exchanger wars" between inventor Leif J Hauge, his company Isobarix Inc and energy-recovery equipment manufacturer Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) has gone in favour of Hauge.
Water Planet wins produced water contracts
￼Water treatment technology firm, Water Planet, has won a contact to provide industrial wastewater treatment and reuse systems for two recycling centres in California, USA that could recycle oil and gas industry produced water at nearly 20 Ml/d.
Ceramic filters bought for Saudi RO pretreatment
German start-up company ItN Nanovation AG, which makes nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 15 March 2011 an order in Saudi Arabia for its CFM Systems® nanoceramic-based filtration system for water purification.
SafBon to supercharge production of ItN membranes
SafBon is dramatically stepping up production of ItN Nanovation ceramic flatsheet membranes to fulfil new orders.
Water Planet introduces "revolutionary" new polymeric membranes
Water Planet has launched its new membrane filtration product, PolyCera, which it claims outpaces the current range of polymeric membranes, and costs less.
Ozone improves ceramic membrane use for wastewater reclamation
Ceramic membranes have been used in the industrial production of beer, wine and cheese. One of the reasons for this use is the narrow pore size distribution, where careful separation of different size compounds can be achieved. Outside of Japan, the use of ceramic membranes has been almost non-existent for municipal drinking-water systems. The slow adoption of this technology is largely the result of a perception by many that the costs are significantly higher. While the capital costs may be higher, the whole life cycle costs may not be, due to extended membrane life and more reliable operation. Most water reuse today takes the form of indirect potable reuse. These schemes frequently consist of several steps including physical and chemical disinfection and advanced oxidation. They have the disadvantage of high cost and often poor membrane fluxes due to the nature of the wastewater being treated. The study outlined in this article is preliminary, but shows that ozone in conjunction with ceramic membranes for water-reuse applications has many advantages when disinfection and advanced oxidation is required. As opposed to polymeric membrane systems that cannot tolerate ozone, ceramic membranes in conjunction with ozone can achieve multiple key objectives in one step. This article appeared in the May/June issue of D&WR magazine.
Singapore pledges S$200 million for water research
Singapore's National Research Foundation is pledging S$200 million ($148 million) for the water industry through its research, innovation and enterprise (RIE) 2020 plan.
Welcome to Water Planet
It's 9am in California and Eric Hoek is speaking from his car. Fresh from dropping his two pre-schoolers off for the day, the former UCLA engineering professor turned CEO is ready to concentrate on his other 'babies' - the two divisions of Water Planet, the water tech company he started with private investment following his involvement in cleaning up the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. "I think of myself as having basically four kids right now," he laughs. "It's hard work, chasing after them, trying to protect and nurture them as they grow."
Aquatech prepares membrane-thermal ZLD for Columbia gold mine
The new hybrid membrane-thermal system is to be installed in April and commissioning is expected to be completed by Q4 2019.
Five Minutes With: Joe Gifford, Nanostone vice president of research and development
Joe Gifford, who is listed as an inventor on water technology patents in the US and globally, is Nanostone's new vice president of research and development
Nanovation wins US$ 1.7 million Veolia contract in Saudi
Germany's Nanovation has been awarded a €1.3 million (US$ 1.7 million) contract to supply its flat sheet ceramic ultrafiltration membranes to Veolia Water's VWS Saudi Industries for a new waterworks project at Al Quaiyah, east of Jeddah.
Biwater delivers Jacksonville desalination
Water and wastewater management company Biwater has delivered a custom 15 Ml/d reverse osmosis desalination system for Onslow Water and Sewer Authority near the USA city of Jacksonville, North Carolina.
Singapore trial proves ceramic-ozone synergy
Since September 2011, PUB, Singapore's national water agency, has been testing a new ceramic membrane treatment technology as a filter for removal of suspended matter and biological pathogens. After 18 months of testing, PUB is now exploring whether ceramic membrane filtration can be included as an option in the design to upgrade Choa Chu Kang Waterworks . This article first appeared in the May/June 2013 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Hatenboer-Water provides RO units to new oil vessel
Hatenboer-Water of the Netherlands has supplied three reverse osmosis (RO) units for a new oil production vessel, the Pioneiro de Libra, reports Marine Link.
UN urges desalination industry to improve on brine
The United Nations has called on the desalination industry to clean up its act on brine as the number of desalination plants worldwide continues to climb.
Call for innovations in water, women and agriculture
The US, Netherlands, South Africa, and Sweden have again joined forces to offer millions of dollars to innovators who enhance food productivity by improving water efficiency in agriculture.
SWRO corrosion pre-conference workshop for CaribDA
A workshop on Understanding and Preventing Corrosion in Caribbean SWRO Plants will take place in Aruba, Netherlands Antilles, on 19 May 2012, prior to the 2012 Conference of the Caribbean Desalination Association (CaribDA).
Wetsus seeks out breakthrough water innovations
Wetsus is a not-for-profit foundation located in Leeuwarden, the Netherlands. It is a facilitator for trendsetting expertise development and has the ambition to become the European Union (EU) centre of excellence in water treatment technology. Among its 25 research themes are several desalination projects including Electrospray Desalination, Salt Removal via Ionic Liquids and Seawater Preatreatment with Electrodialysis. This article first appeared in the August/September 2011 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
EC-backed pilots to trial desalination by electrodialysis
A new European Commission-backed series of desalination pilots are about to kick off, as part of Horizon 2020, the European Union's biggest ever research and innovation programme.
Global green group seeks to carve carbon emissions out of desalination
The Global Clean Water Desalination Alliance - H₂0 minus CO₂ initiative, launched at the current climate talks in Paris, has called on its 17-nation membership to use clean energy to power new desalination plants. The call was part of the alliance's aim to tackle the water-energy nexus and climate change.
Five Minutes With: Patrick van Eijik, manager, production and project engineering, Hatenboer-Water
Patrick van Eijik, a 'natural go-between for production and engineering', is newly appointed as manager, production and project engineering, at Netherlands-based Hatenboer-Water
GE wins desalination plant deal for Caribbean island
GE is to supply its Procera water filtration equipment package for a seawater desalination plant expansion project in Hato on the Caribbean island of Bonaire, a Netherlands- governed municipality, 80 km north of Venezuela.
STW fires up Salttech reclamation demonstration in US
US water reclamation company STW Resources has started operation of a Salttech zero liquid discharge water reclamation system demonstration in Fort Stockton, Texas.
Is the axial piston pump the next big efficiency gain?
More and more SWRO plants running parallel trains Danfoss RO Solutions, Netherlands Two articles on the same theme: are we about to see a move away from large high-pressure centrifugal pumps for RO desalination in favour of multiple modules with smaller pumps? The first reviews modular positive-displacement waterlubricated axial-piston pump systems, revealing that this new concept is not only a cost-effective alternative to traditional pump systems, but that it is simpler to operate and brings other advantages during the SWRO facility operating period. This is a shortened and updated version of a paper presented at the International Desalination Association's 2013 World Congress in Tianjin, China. The second article reports that more and more small and medium-sized SWRO plants - even containerized solutions - are specifying multiple trains. This article first appeared in the November/December 2013 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.
Rotec's flow reversal scoops Rising Star Award at TechXchange
Flow reversal firm Rotec has won the Rising Star Award at TechXchange at Singapore International Water Week 2018.
New technical services company set up in Saudi
A new company to offer specialized technical services to the oil and gas, petrochemical, energy and water desalination sectors has been set up in Jubail, Saudi Arabia, by Stork Technical Services of the Netherlands and Saudi Industrial Services Co (SISCO).
IDA World Congress 2017 award winners in full
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has recognised the best technical papers and other contributions at IDA World Congress 2017 with a roster of special awards.
Siemens seeks bigger Israel desalination role
According to reports from Israel, Siemens is looking to up its stake in the 275,000 m³/d Soreq desalination plant from supplier to equity partner.
MEDRC announces new director and deputy
Netherlands ambassador Ronald Mollinger was officially announced as the new director of the Middle East Desalination Research Center (MEDRC) in Oman on 21 January.
Tender issued for Israel's largest desalination plant
The tender has been issued for Israel's largest ever desalination plant. The 411,000 m³/d plant will be in the Soreq region south of Tel Aviv close to the Mediterranean.
Soreq bidders wait for January
All four consortia bidding for the 275,000 m³/d Soreq desalination plant in Israel have passed the prequalification stage and have been told by the Inter-Ministerial Tenders Committee for Desalination that they will be invited to submit bids.
CaribDA opens registration for Aruba conference
The Caribbean Desalination Association (CaribDA) has opened registration for its 2012 Conference & Exposition 80 Years Of Desalination Makes For One Happy Island.
Conwed in feed spacer study
Plastic netting maker, Conwed, has provided its products for a study into options for developing and testing of feed spacers in reverse osmosis (RO) by numerical modelling, three- dimensional (3D) printing of feed spacers and experimental membrane fouling simulator studies.
Water Planet joins forces with Applied Membranes
Water treatment technology firm, Water Planet, and reverse osmosis (RO) systems specialist, Applied Membranes, have formed a strategic alliance to market, sell and service nanofiltration and reverse osmosis based water treatment systems.
Evoqua bags municipal deals worth US$ 20 million
Water treatment firm, Evoqua, has won contracts worth more than US$ 20 million supplying its Memcor microfiltration and ultrafiltration product line to six US and Canadian municipalities. The deals were for filtration, water reuse, drinking water treatment, and reverse-osmosis pre-treatment applications.
Global membrane market growth nears 11%
The global membrane separation market is heading to top US$ 39 billion in 2019, at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.8% over the period according to a recent report published by market analyst, Persistence Market Research.
Treatment chemicals annual demand rise to top 3%
Demand for water treatment chemicals in the US will rise 3.2% a year to US$ 7.3 billion by 2019, according to a report by market researcher, ReportLinker.
Desalination tops user growth in membrane chemicals
The global market for membrane chemicals was worth US$ 1,013.8 million in 2013 and is expected to show a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8.1% to 2020 according to a report by market researcher, Future Market Insights. And desalination was expected to witness the highest end use sector growth of 11.4% between 2014 and 2020.
Wastewater leads membrane chemicals charge
Growth in the global membrane chemical market to 2020, will be led by the wastewater sector according to market analyst Future Market Insights (FMI). And desalination was expected to witness the highest compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 11.4% in the global membrane chemicals market between 2014 and 2020.
Toray membranes for giant Korean purification plant
Toray Industries has received an order to supply Torayfil hollow fibre ultrafiltration membrane modules to South Korea's largest membrane-based water purification facility in Yeosu.
Wastewater drive to boost membrane use in GCC region says analyst
Government identification of wastewater treatment in the municipal sector as a priority area in water production will be a key revenue generation source for membrane elements in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries according to market analyst Frost & Sullivan. And the demand for water in the region was set to double within twenty years the analyst forecast.
Kuwait plant to get GE membranes
Kuwait's Sulaibiya wastewater treatment and reclamation plant will be upgraded with GE's water reuse technology.
Live Webinar Masterclass - Membrane Fouling Control
The first in a series of Desalination and Water Reuse Masterclass webinars will run on 12 February this year. Each event will offer practical, readily applicable guidance delivered by an expert in the topic covered.
Reverse osmosis to drive US membrane demand to $6.2 billion in 2018
Water and wastewater industry demand for membranes will drive a 7.9%-a-year increase in US demand to reach US$ 6.2 billion by 2018 with reverse osmosis membranes surging 8.6% a year according to report by market research firm, The Freedonia Group.
Membrane market growth to run until 2020
The fruits of growing research and development in forward osmosis for desalination are highlighted in a recent sector report as drivers of growth in the market for membrane separation technologies running to at least 2020.
Aquarion buys Hager + Elsaesser
Water treatment firm Aquarion Group has acquired German water technology company Hager + Elsaesser (H+E) for an undisclosed sum.
Toyobo desalination membrane plant opened in Rabigh
The ACWA-Toyobo joint venture in Saudi Arabia, Arabian Japanese Membrane Company LLC (AJMC), opened its reverse-osmosis membrane production facility in Rabigh on 29 May 2014.
Woongjin America changes name to TCK Membrane America
Woongjin Chemical America Inc, which makes both spiral-wound and hollow-fibre desalination and water treatment membranes, has changed its name to TCK Membrane America Inc.
Fluor to build Dow's RO membrane factory in Saudi Arabia
Fluor Corporation has been awarded a contract by the Dow Chemical Company to build Dow's reverse osmosis (RO) membrane manufacturing facility in Jubail Industrial City II in Saudi Arabia.
H2O Innovation lands San Jose WTP ultrafiltration contract
A 30 MGD (113,562 m³/d) hollow-fiber ultrafiltration (UF) membrane water treatment system in California is one of three new contracts totaling Can$ 8.8 million (US$ 8.1 million) announced on 21 May 2014 by H2O Innovation.
AMTA/SWMOA joint workshop program available
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has published the program for its joint technology transfer workshop with the Southwest Membrane Operator Association, which is being held on 15‑17 July 2014 in Newport Beach, California.
Mann+Hummel buys into membrane-maker Microdyn-Nadir
Industrial filtration group Mann+Hummel announced on 8 May 2014 that it had taken a 50% stake of the German‑based company Microdyn‑Nadir.
NanoH2O confirms its acquisition by LG Chem
Desalination membrane manufacturer NanoH2O confirmed on 12 May 2014 the finalization of its sale to Korea's LG Chem on 30 April 2014.
Hyflux sees Dahej desalination funding 'within year'
Hyflux has extended the time it foresees for financial closure on its Dahej seawater desalination plant in India to "within this year".
Desalination quartet booked for Masdar pilot plants in UAE
Three major contractors in the global desalination business - Abengoa, Degrémont and Sidem/Veolia - together with forward-osmosis developer Trevi Systems, were awarded contracts on 5 May 2014 by Abu Dhabi's Masdar, to each start the construction of a 1,500 m³/d desalination plant as part of Masdar's pilot project announced in 2013.
Doosan chooses BEL for Escondida pressure‑vessels
Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction has chosen BEL reverse‑osmosis (RO) membrane pressure‑vessels for its Escondida seawater RO project in Chile.
SEDA to hold May Day membrane cleaning workshop
The Southeast Desalting Association is holding a workshop in Cape Coral, Florida, on 1 May 2014 focused on reverse osmosis (RO) membrane cleaning.
AMTA schedules workshops up to 2016 conference
The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has published a list of workshops and conferences up to and including its 2016 Membrane Technology Conference, which will be held with the American Water Works Association (AWWA) in San Antonio, Texas, on 1‑5 February 2016.
Forward-osmosis companies launch international association
Four companies specializing in forward osmosis membrane technology launched the International Forward Osmosis Association (IFOA) on 7 April 2014.