Ceramic, Municipal, Disinfection


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Treatment chemicals annual demand rise to top 3%

Demand for water treatment chemicals in the US will rise 3.2% a year to US$ 7.3 billion by 2019, according to a report by market researcher, ReportLinker.

Former AWWA VP joins NeoTech UV company

The former general manager of Indio Water Authority in California, Debra Kaye, has been been appointed by NeoTech Aqua Solutions Inc, provider of UV disinfection systems, as vice-president of global municipal technologies.

Ozone improves ceramic membrane use for wastewater reclamation

Ceramic membranes have been used in the industrial production of beer, wine and cheese. One of the reasons for this use is the narrow pore size distribution, where careful separation of different size compounds can be achieved. Outside of Japan, the use of ceramic membranes has been almost non-existent for municipal drinking-water systems. The slow adoption of this technology is largely the result of a perception by many that the costs are significantly higher. While the capital costs may be higher, the whole life cycle costs may not be, due to extended membrane life and more reliable operation. Most water reuse today takes the form of indirect potable reuse. These schemes frequently consist of several steps including physical and chemical disinfection and advanced oxidation. They have the disadvantage of high cost and often poor membrane fluxes due to the nature of the wastewater being treated. The study outlined in this article is preliminary, but shows that ozone in conjunction with ceramic membranes for water-reuse applications has many advantages when disinfection and advanced oxidation is required. As opposed to polymeric membrane systems that cannot tolerate ozone, ceramic membranes in conjunction with ozone can achieve multiple key objectives in one step. This article appeared in the May/June issue of D&WR magazine.

B&V find ceramic membranes help water recycling

Ceramic membranes used in conjunction with ozone produce significant benefits for water recycling. Jonathan Clement of Black & Veatch, revealed this research result to the Australian Water Association's (AWA) third specialty conference on membranes and desalination held in Sydney, Australia, on 11-13 February 2009.

Randy Truby joins board of Neo-Tech Aqua Solutions

Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection specialist NeoTech Aqua Solutions Inc announced on 10 March 2014 the addition of Randy Truby, a past president of the International Desalination Association, to its board of directors.

Ovivo to supply largest US MBR to Canton, Ohio

The City of Canton, Ohio, is to use Ovivo membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology to upgrade its water reclamation facility from 39 MGD (147,600 m³/d) to 88 MGD (333,000 m³/d).

IWA looks at organic matter in treatment and reuse

The International Water Association (IWA) is holding a specialist conference with the Australian Water Association (AWA) in Perth in October 2013 on natural organic matter (NOM), which will look at its effects on water treatment and reuse, and desalination.

Parkson moves Middle East work back to USA

Parkson Corp of the USA announced on 15 June 2012 that it is consolidating the operations of its Middle East group into its international division. Parkson says this is to optimize the delivery of its water and wastewater treatment technologies to the rest of its customer base in other parts of the world.

WRA/IUVA webcast looks at disinfection in reuse

The WateReuse Association (WRA) and the International Ultraviolet Association (IUVA) have announced a webcast discussing the various applications of UV technologies for water reuse purposes, including disinfection (inactivation of pathogens) and destruction of chemical constituents.

'The industry's tendency to evaluate technology on capital cost, as opposed to total lifecycle cost, impedes the application of new technologies,' Joe Gifford, Nanostone

Five Minutes With: Joe Gifford, Nanostone vice president of research and development

Joe Gifford, who is listed as an inventor on water technology patents in the US and globally, is Nanostone's new vice president of research and development

Water Planet to use 3M polymer in membrane manufacture

Water Planet Engineering (WPE), a spinoff company from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), has entered into a joint development agreement with global company 3M to explore commercial production of a new polymer material with widespread industrial application.

Pressure-exchanger court case goes to Hauge

The latest round of the "pressure-exchanger wars" between inventor Leif J Hauge, his company Isobarix Inc and energy-recovery equipment manufacturer Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) has gone in favour of Hauge.

Ceramic membranes replace polymer in Saudi projects

German ceramic membrane-maker ItN Nanovation AG has received two orders for its flat membrane filters for groundwater projects in Saudi Arabia, replacing previously used polymer membranes.

Ion exchange + ceramic MF for UK water treatment plant

A water treatment plant using suspended ion-exchange (SIX) and ceramic microfiltration is to be built by the UK's South West Water using CeraMac technology from PWN Technologies of the Netherlands.

Ceramic MBR demonstration project agreed in Singapore

A ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) demonstration plant is to be built at Singapore's Jurong Water Reclamation Plant following the signing of an agreement between the country's water agency, PUB, and Meiden Singapore (MSL), a subsidiary of Meidensha of Japan.

IPO in summer for China's H2O Solutions

Shanghai-based H2O Solutions announced on 11 May 2012 that the company, which specializes in nano-membrane purification and multi-charged plate desalination technologies, was taking its stock public in the summer of 2012.

Buenos Aires membrane papers deadline 15 June

A deadline of 15 June 2012 has been set for papers for the International Water Association (IWA) 3rd Regional Conference on Membrane Technology.

US ceramic membrane company expands to Singapore

Ceramic filter-maker LiqTech International Inc of Nevada, USA, announced on 17 January 2012 the opening of an expansion office in Singapore.

German/Saudi JV to make ceramic membranes for RO pretreatment

German nanotechnology investment company Nanostart announced on 20 October 2011 that one of its holdings, ItN Nanovation AG, had finalised a joint venture (JV) agreement with Saudi Arabian company Jaffali to produce ceramic flat membranes (CFMs) primarily for pretreatment for reverse-osmosis.

Dutch to build ceramic membrane demo plant in Singapore

PWN Technologies (PWNT) of the Netherlands is to build Singapore's first ceramic membrane demonstration plant at Choa Chu Kang Waterworks.

RO, IX and ceramic membranes in Veolia oilfield reuse contract

A 45,000 bpd (7,154 m³/d) produced-water reclamation facility is to be installed at the Arroya Grande oilfield in California by Veolia Water through a design-build-operate contract.

Ceramic filters bought for Saudi RO pretreatment

German start-up company ItN Nanovation AG, which makes nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 15 March 2011 an order in Saudi Arabia for its CFM Systems® nanoceramic-based filtration system for water purification.

Ceramic nanofiltration company gets big investor

ItN Nanovation AG, a start-up company in Saarbrucken, Germany, making nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 9 December 2010 a framework investment agreement with the US investment fund YA Global Master SPV Ltd, part of the Yorkville Group.

ERI appoints Dyer as CTO

Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) has appointed Tim Dyer as chief technology officer (CTO) to replace Rick Stover, who left ERI in January to join forward-osmosis company Oasys. Previously ERI chief scientist, Dyer will manage all engineering and R&D initiatives.

Water Planet wins produced water contracts

Water treatment technology firm, Water Planet, has won a contact to provide industrial wastewater treatment and reuse systems for two recycling centres in California, USA that could recycle oil and gas industry produced water at nearly 20 Ml/d.

Singapore desalination plant upgrade will use ceramic membranes

An upgrade planned for later this year at Singapore's Choa Chu Kang Waterworks will use ceramic membranes in a first for the country.

Membrane pioneer draws new investment

Water treatment membrane and solutions developer, Water Planet, has received a new Series B round of investment for its development and commercialization of its industrial wastewater treatment technologies.

Partnership launches ceramic trial

Netherlands-based PWN Technologies, in partnership with Indian water treatment firm VA Tech Wabag and Japanese membrane maker, Metawater, has launched a trial to demonstrate the effectiveness of ceramic membranes as pre-treatment for seawater reverse osmosis.

Aquarion acquires Germany's MFT

Swiss oil and gas industry water systems company, Aquarion Group, has acquired Membran- Filtrations-Technik (MFT) of Germany for an undisclosed sum.

AMTA NEWS Novel sub-nanofiltration ceramic membrane production uses DNA

A novel method for creating ceramic reverse osmosis membranes with sub-nanometre pores by using the genetic material, DNA, as a template former, overcomes the poor reproducibility encountered in conventional methods according to the developer of the technology, Cerahelix.

IX + ceramic membrane water treatment plant unveiled

A water treatment plant in the Netherlands combining ion-exchange (IX) with ceramic membranes was presented to the water industry for the first time on 12 May 2014 by PWN Technologies of Velserbroek.

Saudi boost for LiqTech ceramic membranes

The Saudi Arabian Ministery of Water & Electricity has announced that ceramic flat-sheet membranes are the technology of choice for groundwater applications, according to Danish company LiqTech International.

Ceramic MBR + UASB water reuse plant opens in Singapore

Singapore's first ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant coupled with an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) was opened on 7 March 2014 to treat and recycle industrial used water.

Italy's De Nora bags Severn Trent's electrochlorination arm

UK-based electrochlorination firm Severn Trent and Italy's Industrie De Nora have agreed the sale of Severn Trent's Water Purification business to De Nora.

Urban surge drives 57% growth in Indian municipal water treatment market by 2018

Urban population growth in India will create huge demand for municipal water and wastewater treatment systems including desalination adding 57% to revenues over five years according to a recent report by market analyst Frost an Sullivan (F&S).

West Basin declares record year in recycled water output

West Basin Municipal Water District in California has declared fiscal year 2013-14 a record 12 months in recycled water production at its Edward C Little Water Recycling Facility. The plant produced 60,000 Ml of recycled water in the period.

Biwater bags California reuse contract

UK water technology group Biwater has been awarded a contract to design, supply and commission all process, mechanical, electrical and control components for a planned wastewater reuse demonstration project in California, USA.

Carollo selected for Texas DPR health check

Carollo Engineers has been selected by the Texas Water Development Board to carry out detailed public health analysis of the first direct potable water reuse (DPR) facility in the USA.

AmaLine 'maintenance can be performed by a single operator', says Berson-Hanovia

Hanovia and Berson present new UV range, combine into one company

Halma businesses Hanovia and Berson have together launched a new low-pressure ultraviolet (UV) disinfection system for treating municipal, reuse, and wastewater.

District backs out of California's GRIP water-reuse project

One of the three main partners in a US$ 210 million indirect potable water-reuse scheme in California's San Gabriel Valley has walked away from the project.

EPA funding for Arlington Desalter's biological denitrification

California's Western Municipal Water District (WMWD) confirmed on 10 February 2011 that it had secured a US$ 528,000 federal grant in January for design work on a treatment system that uses naturally occurring bacteria to remove toxic contaminants, including perchlorate and nitrate, from drinking water.

High-visibility reuse demo awarded to APTwater

California-based APTwater, Inc has been awarded a contract to use its technology for a municipal water-reuse system for the City of Anaheim, California.

Texas wastewater-reuse plant could be first of three

The Colorado River Municipal Water District (CRMWD) in Texas, USA, is anticipating the construction phase early in 2011 of its first regional water reclamation plant, which will be membrane-based and located in Big Spring.

Desalination and reuse in California/New Mexico get funding

US Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar announced on 1 July 2009 27 water reclamation and reuse projects in California and New Mexico identified by the Bureau of Reclamation to share in a total of US$ 134.3 million under the American Recovery & Reinvestment Act of 2009.

The Edward C Little Water Recycling Facility

US districts fight saline intrusion with reused water

Two California water districts announced an agreement on 18 April 2009 to transfer and use recycled wastewater as a barrier against saline intrusion into groundwater, replacing 5.5 billion gallons (20.8 million m³) of drinking water per year previously used for this purpose.

Two direct potable reuse projects are currently in operation worldwide, in Texas, US, and Windhoek, Namibia

The Long Read: Do we have the technology for potable water reuse?

Water reuse for drinking purposes is racing up the agenda in the US and elsewhere. Work to draw up new rules for potable reuse is advancing in states including California and Arizona, as well as in Canada and the European Union. Technologies are being piloted, and plants permitted.

Evoqua is expanding its product portfolio through a series of acquisitions in 2016

Evoqua and Neptune Benson together snap up Delta Ultraviolet

Evoqua Water Technologies together with Neptune Benson which it acquired in June, has bought ultraviolet C technology specialist Delta Ultraviolet.

Q&A: AMTA president Brent Alspach on why the need for membranes has never been more acute

In the week of the AMTA/AWWA Membrane Technology Conference 2018, in Florida, US, Brent Alspach, president of AMTA and director of applied research at Arcadis, outlines the water challenges and how current and in-development membrane-based treatments are addressing them.

IDA World Congress in California

A pivotal event in the global desalination and water reuse sector will be held at the US industry's epicentre amid an historic drought when the 2015 IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse convenes in San Diego, California at the end of August 2015. The "location, theme and timing could not be more appropriate," said IDA secretary general, Patricia A Burke.

Xylem bags Singapore UV deal

Water technology specialist, Xylem, has won a US$ 500,000 contract to supply a major municipal water reclamation facility with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection solutions.

LiqTech specialises in developing technologies to clean up water and emissions from industrial sites including power plants

LiqTech International hails 'breakthrough' with Finnish industrial reuse contract

New York Stock Exchange-listed LiqTech International has hailed an "international breakthrough" after it won an industrial water reuse contract for a power plant in Finland.

Ng Joo Hee, chief executive of PUB, Singapore's national water agency, addresses Singapore International Water Week (2015).

Singapore pledges S$200 million for water research

Singapore's National Research Foundation is pledging S$200 million ($148 million) for the water industry through its research, innovation and enterprise (RIE) 2020 plan.

Denis Vial

Vial appointed business development manager by inge

Denis Vial has been appointed business development manager by German ultrafiltration (UF) membrane manufacturer inge GmbH, effective 1 March 2014.

STW Water bags Horizon, Texas US$ 2.2 million brine concentrator deal

STW Water has won the US$ 2.2 million contract to design, engineer and construct a reverse osmosis concentrator for the Municipal Utility District of Horizon City, Texas.

IChemE forecasts more UK municipal desalination by 2050

By 2050, at least four municipal desalination plants and up to 800 smaller units could be providing water to UK households and industry.

Wastewater reuse set for 61% growth by 2015

Market researcher, Bluefield, has forecast 61% growth in the US market for wastewater reuse in municipal utilities over the next ten years with potable reuse increasing from 15% of the total capacity to 19% by 2025.

Perth groundwater replenishment project gets go-ahead

The Western Australia state government announced on 1 August 2013 that it was adopting groundwater replenishment with reused municipal and industrial wastewater to help secure Perth's water supplies.

Q&A: De Nora group CEO Paolo Dellacha on the acquisition of MIOX

Electrochemical tech company De Nora has acquired water purification firm MIOX. De Nora group chief executive Paolo Dellacha explains the thinking behind the deal and what the future holds

De Nora's ozone generators have applications in industrial and municipal water treatment plants

De Nora pushes ozone generators as answer to Asia's water quality rules

De Nora has introduced its Capital Controls ozone generators to Asia at Singapore International Water Week (SIWW) 2018.

Interview: Kati Bell, Stantec global reuse leader

Canadian engineering giant Stantec acquired water business MWH Global for $795 million, back in 2016. Now that the dust has settled on the deal, how well is the integration of the two organisations proceeding, and as the global water reuse practice hits its stride, how could its work help to shape the water markets of the future?

The upgrade of La Mesa-2 will improve water supply to five million people in Manila, Philippines

Wabag wins $60 million contract to upgrade La Mesa-2 in Manila

Wabag Philippines has won a project to retrofit and upgrade the 900,000 m3/d La Mesa-2 water treatment plant in Manila, Philippines.

Burgos wastewater treatment plant serves a population of one million in Spain's Castile and Leon region

FCC Aqualia bags E3million contract against 'reckless' competitors

FCC Aqualia has won the contract to operate Burgos wastewater treatment plant in northwestern Spain against other "recklessly low" financial tenders.

Evoqua continues water technology purchasing spree

Evoqua has continued on its acquisition trail with a clutch of purchases covering wastewater solutions and irrigation components.

The new desalination plant will be largely below ground, with parkland on the roof at ground level

Keppel unveils designs for Marina East Desalination Plant

Keppel has shared design details of its Marina East Desalination Plant project in Singapore, as it broke ground on 29 June 2017.

Anurag Bajpayee is co-founder and chief executive of Gradiant

"We become part of our customers' business." Anurag Bajpayee

Gradiant's philosophy on technology is to take fundamental concepts and develop them into water technologies that speak directly to customers' experiences in the field.

'Challenges are shared across the border', Mitch Thompson, Otay

Water from NSC Agua's desalination plant in Rosarito, Baja California, is a critical component of Otay's diversification efforts.

'Challenges are shared across the border', Mitch Thompson, Otay

Water from NSC Agua's desalination plant in Rosarito, Baja California, is a critical component of Otay's diversification efforts.

New entity Gradiant Energy Services will focus on oil and gas reuse applications

Gradiant spins out subsidiary Gradiant Energy Services

Boston based industrial water solutions specialist Gradiant has formed a new subsidiary, oilfield services company Gradiant Energy Services (GES).

Sprinklers irrigate an agricultural field off Highway 33 in Ventura County near Cuyama, California

Xylem ultraviolet disinfection systems win California approval

Xylem has won approval for two ultraviolet disinfection systems from the drinking water division of California's water resources control board.

Boost for San Angelo water reuse plan

Plans for a water reuse project in San Angelo, Texas, received a boost this week, with local council staff given the green light to take the next step in seeking funding for the project.

Xylem treatment boosts Chesapeake water quality project

Water technology firm, Xylem, has won a contract to provide advanced treatment to an existing wastewater treatment plant in the city of Frederick, Maryland and play a key role in an initiative focused on improving water quality in the Chesapeake Bay.

Home desalination market to top US$ 24 billion by 2020

The market for domestic countertop water treatment devices and other point-of-use treatment systems is estimated to reach US$ 24.5 billion by 2020. And the compound annual growth rate for the market is forecast at 9.86%, from 2015 to 2020 according to a report by market analyst, MarketsandMarkets.

Global membrane market growth nears 11%

The global membrane separation market is heading to top US$ 39 billion in 2019, at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.8% over the period according to a recent report published by market analyst, Persistence Market Research.

Melbourne researchers' anti fouling membrane claim

Researchers from the Melbourne School of Engineering at the University of Melbourne have developed what they claim to be an anti fouling microfiltration system that outstrips existing technology on energy efficiency with negligible compromise on performance.

San Diego gives green light to potable reuse plan

San Diego's city council has given the green light to the construction of a 415Ml/d facility for direct potable reuse of wastewater costing up to US$ 3.5 billion. The reverse osmosis recycling scheme is expected to meet as much as a third of San Diego's daily drinking water requirement by 2035 making it the second largest potable reuse plant in the US.

RWL wins contract to build desalination plant in Argentina

RWL Water has won a contact to build what it claims will be Argentina's largest seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant.

WABAG completes Namibia reclamation plant

Austria-based water engineering group, WABAG, has completed a water reclamation plant in Namibia's capital Windhoek.

Singapore picks builder for new water reclaim plant

Singapore's water agency, the Public Utilities Board (PUB), has selected a consortium led by Bejing Enterprises Water Group and United Engineers as the preferred bidder for the Changi II plant under PUB's Newater marque.

Joint venture wins Perth groundwater replenishment contract

Western Australia's Water Corporation has awarded a contract to design, construct, and commission a full-scale advanced water replenishment plant (AWRP) to a joint venture between CH2M Hill,and engineering company Thiess. The project will help secure Perth's drinking water supplies through 2060

Scientists report low energy, non-membrane desalination technique

A team of American and German researchers have reported an electrochemical method for desalination of seawater that uses no membranes and which they claim consumes only a small amount of energy.

Biwater wins reuse treatment plant contract in Morocco

UK contractor Biwater has been awarded a turnkey project to design and construct a new wastewater treatment plant in the city of Aourir, a tourist destination close to Agadir on Morocco's Atlantic coast.



Electrochemical desalination MoU signed in Singapore

A memorandum of understanding (MoU) between Singapore's national water agency, PUB, and Evoqua Water Technologies to further develop electrochemical desalination technology was one of five MoUs signed during Singapore International Water Week, which ended on 5 June 2014.

H2O Innovation lands San Jose WTP ultrafiltration contract

A 30 MGD (113,562 m³/d) hollow-fiber ultrafiltration (UF) membrane water treatment system in California is one of three new contracts totaling Can$ 8.8 million (US$ 8.1 million) announced on 21 May 2014 by H2O Innovation.

Desalitech teams with TEC to target municipalities

Reverse osmosis (RO) specialist, Desalitech, has tied up with Treatment Equipment Company (TEC) to provide sales support for municipal water treatment projects.

Wabag wins Libyan power station treatment job

The General Electric Company of Libya (GECOL) has awarded a contract to VA Tech Wabag for four industrial water treatment plants in Tobruk, Tripoli and Derna.

H2O Innovation lands three water/wastewater contracts

H2O Innovation Inc announced on 14 January 2014 recent contracts totalling Can$ 6.5 million (UA$ 5.93 million) in Western Canada's energy sector.

Direct membrane filtration simplifies reuse process

Recent trials have proven that direct membrane filtration of high solids (algae) and disinfection provides a simpler treatment process with substantial cost reduction. In Pillbara, Australia, two plants are being constructed to treat wastewater for recycling aiming for a 4-log removal of bacteria and viruses by filtering alone. Ultraviolet treatment provides the final requirement to reach the required 6-log removal rate. This article gives an overview of the application, and details on the technology and design used. It first appeared in the August/September 2013 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Municipal desalination plant planned for Chile's Copiapó

Construction of a municipal desalination plant will form part of urgent measures to address water shortages in the region around the Chilean city of Copiapó.

ASTM to develop standard for fracking water quality

The US standards body ASTM International is to develop standards to be used by contract laboratories, water utilities and other requiring or developing methods for hydraulic fracturing in the oil & gas industry.

Florida company to build Clearwater RO desalination plant

Poole & Kent Company of Florida has been awarded a contract to install a reverse‑osmosis desalination plant in Clearwater, Florida.

Aquatech shale-gas treatment center opened

The formal opening of a central water treatment center set up for shale gas producers in Pennsylvania by local company Aquatech took place on 18 April 2013.

Wastewater drive to boost membrane use in GCC region says analyst

Government identification of wastewater treatment in the municipal sector as a priority area in water production will be a key revenue generation source for membrane elements in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries according to market analyst Frost & Sullivan. And the demand for water in the region was set to double within twenty years the analyst forecast.

Monterey consultant can't choose between projects

The Monterey Peninsula Regional Water Board (MPRWA) in California still has to decide between three competing seawater desalination projects for the area after its Technical Advisory Committee accepted on 17 September 2012 a report by consultants Separation Processes Inc of Carlsbad.

IX system improves Alabama MF plant's performance

The City of Oneonta in Alabama, USA, commissioned a 3 MGD (10,500 m³/d) MIEX® ion-exchange system in August 2012 to provide dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal prior to coagulation and microfiltration of Oneonta Utilities' Little Warrior river water source.

Mann+Hummel buys into membrane-maker Microdyn-Nadir

Industrial filtration group Mann+Hummel announced on 8 May 2014 that it had taken a 50% stake of the German‑based company Microdyn‑Nadir.

Grundfos buys American UV disinfection specialist

Danish pump manufacturer Grundfos announced on 5 June 2012 that it had acquired Enaqua, a San Diego-based company specializing in ultraviolet disinfection technology and specialized membranes for water purification.

MBR/RO at heart of PepsiCo reuse plant in Chile

A membrane bioreactor (MBR), reverse osmosis (RO) and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection are all part of a wastewater treatment and reuse plant upgrade being completed by Siemens Industry Automation Division for PepsiCo in Chile.

New membrane and desalination leaders in CH2M Hill changes

A number of leadership changes to the top water team of US engineer CH2M Hill were announced on 5 April 2012, including new leaders for membrane and desalination technology.

Hyflux sells half-share of Singapore membrane R&D firm

Singapore's Hyflux Ltd announced on 11 March 2014 that it had agreed with Marmon Water (Singapore) Pte Ltd (MWS) to sell to MWS its entire 50% equity interest in Hyflux Marmon Development Pte Ltd (HMD), a company devoted to membrane/media filtration research.

Construction work on the South Bay Advanced Water Treatment Facility

City seeks to join South Bay reuse system

The City of Sunnyvale in California voted on 6 March 2012 to explore connecting its recycled water system to the South Bay Water Recycling (SBWR) system operated by the City of San Jose in partnership with the Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD).


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