Brackish Water, Energy, Iraq, Sludge, Tanks


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Mitsubishi unit bags sludge system order

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Mechatronics Systems (MHI-MS), has picked up an order for wastewater treatment facilities using its two-phase, activated sludge system, for installation at sister company Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation's Yokkaichi Plant in Mie prefecture.

The project site is U-shaped, and is surrounded by lots filled by industrial operators and their associated infrastructure

Jebel Ali project is a new direction for DEWA and Besix

The $237 million contract awarded by Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) for a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant represents a big step for the client, and for Besix Concessions & Assets, which won the work in partnership with Acciona Agua.

South Australian town to get new desalination plant

South Australia's water minister, Ian Hunter, announced on 1 May 2013 that a brackish-water desalination plant to deliver improved water quality to the town of Hawker, in the Flinders Ranges 100km north of Port Augusta, had been approved for construction.

New Mexico city seeking 4 MGD desalination plant

The city of Alamogordo, New Mexico, USA, is looking to use a 4 MGD (15,000 m³/d) desalination plant to provide a safe dependable supply from brackish water wells.

The schedule of tenders on Tuas Nexus was unveiled at Singapore International Water Week 2018 at Marina Bay Sands, Singapore

Singapore to tender S$5 billion of water and waste works

Singapore's PUB and National Environment Agency (NEA) are to tender more than S$5 billion ($3.7 billion) of works covering civil, mechanical and electrical engineering for Tuas Nexus, an integrated wastewater and waste treatment facility.

Grundfos bags US$ 1.1 million grant for wastewater treatment research

Singapore has awarded pump and water technologies company, Grundfos, a S$1.4 million (US$ 1.1 million) grant to develop a wastewater filtration technology which the company says can "significantly reduce" capital investment and operational costs for wastewater treatment.

ABS turbocompressors selected for Jurong MBR plant

Aeration for the membrane bioreactor (MBR) and the biological treatment tanks at Jurong Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore's largest MBR plant, is to be provided by ABS Turbocompressors HST.

June start for Clearwater RO plant in Florida

Construction is due to start in June 2013 on the second reverse-osmosis water treatment plant for City of Clearwater, Florida, following a groundbreaking ceremony on 6 May 2013.

ACWA Emirates' membrane bio-reactor plant at Shaybah Oilfield, Saudi Arabia, recycles water for use at the site's residential complex

ACWA Emirates delivers MBR reuse plant for Saudi Aramco

ACWA Emirates has completed a water reuse plant at Shaybah Oilfield, Saudi Arabia, for crude and natural gas exporter Saudi Aramco.

The solar panels at Beckton desalination plant, UK.

Solar panels commissioned at UK desalination plant

Thames Water in the UK at the end of July commissioned a 450 kW array of solar panels at its 150,000 m³/d Beckton brackish-water desalination plant as part of a bid to become Britain's biggest on-site solar power producer and industrial user.

Nine desalination studies bag US$ 1.4 million funding

Nine research projects and pilot studies will share US$1.4 million in funding under a desalination and water purification research programme set up by the US Bureau of Reclamation.

Multi-technology GE upgrade for Russian refinery treatment

Membrane bioreactor (MBR), electrodialysis reversal (EDR) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology will all feature in a major upgrade for the wastewater treatment at one of Russia's biggest oil refineries.

The Orange County Groundwater Replacement System

Go-ahead for 113,500 m³/d Orange County GWRS expansion

Orange County's world-renowned membrane-based Groundwater Replenishment System (GWRS) in California is to be expanded by another 30 MGD (113,500 m³/d) following approval by the board of the Orange County Water District (OCWD) on 30 March 2011.

The new water treatment plant at Erbil, in Iraqi Kurdistan, will draw from the region's waterways

UK government underpins water works in Iraqi Kurdistan

UK water engineer Biwater has won a $1.2 billion contract from Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG), Iraq, to deliver new and upgrade water projects in the region.

PM opens eight Iraqi desalination plants

Iraq's prime minister, Nouri Al-Maliki, inaugurated eight desalination plants in southern Basra on 20 February 2010, according to the Awat al-Iraq news agency.

Hitachi-led consortium gets large Iraq desalination job

A consortium comprising Hitachi, Veolia Environnement subsidiary OTV and The Arab Contractors, a nationalised Egyptian construction company, has received an order from the Iraqi Ministry of Municipalities & Public Works for the engineering, procurement, and construction of a large desalination plant in Basrah, in the south of Iraq.

The Kay Bailey Hutchison desalination plant

URS to assist El Paso desalination solar project

The Public Services Board in El Paso, Texas, on 10 November 2010 voted to hire URS Corporation as a consultant to assist with the choice of a solar energy system to power part of the Kay Bailey Hutchison desalination plant.

South Africa to focus on desalination and water reuse

Desalination and the reuse of wastewater from municipalities and mining are strongly emphasised in the 2nd National Water Resources Strategy (NWRS2) for South Africa released at the start of July 2013.

Texas state funding wind-powered desalination pilots

The Texas Department of Rural Affairs (TDRA) is offering US$ 1.5 million to smaller local governments in the US state for brackish-water desalination demonstration projects using wind energy. Deadline for applications for the 2010 Desalination Fund is 29 January 2010.

Aquatech wins SWRO desalination contract in Gujarat

Tata Power has awarded Aquatech International Corporation an EPC contract for a 25,200 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant for India's first Ultra Mega Power Project (UMPP) at Mundra in coastal Gujarat.

STW finishes brine concentrator project at Horizon, Texas

Water management firm, STW Resources, has completed a US$ 2.2 million contract for the design, engineering and construction of a reverse osmosis (RO) concentrator for the Texas city, Horizon.

Hitachi and Veolia duo wins US$ 240 million Iraq pretreatment contract

A consortium of Japanese and French industrial giants, Hitachi and Veolia Environnement, alongside Egyptian engineering firm, ArabCo, have won a ¥ 24 billion (US$ 240 million) order from the Iraqi government to build pretreatment facilities at a desalination plant in Basrah, Iraq.

Biwater Florida RO project has manipulated ER unit

Acceptance testing has been successfully completed for a I.5 MGD (5,680 m³/d) reverse osmosis (RO) system being built by Biwater at the Springtree Water Treatment Plant in Sunrise, Florida, USA.

Grant for Texas pilot wind-powered desalination plant

The Texas Department of Rural Affairs (TDRA) has made a US$ 2.75 million grant to Mitchell County, Texas, towards a US$ 8 million pilot project to use wind power for a brackish-water desalination project.

Desalitech building demo plant with Layne Christensen

The originator of the Closed Circuit Desalination (CCD™) technology, Desalitech Ltd, announced on 30 June 2011 that it will work with mineral and water drilling and treatment company Layne Christensen to design and build an innovative desalination system.

US export finance boost for water and energy projects

US exports for renewable-energy, water and nuclear-power projects approved after 1 July 2009 are eligible for a maximum repayment term of up to 18 years under export financing provided by the Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank).

A pilot Desalitech SWRO commercial plant

Desalitech closed-circuit technology set for BWRO project

Israel-based Desalitech Ltd announced on 7 April 2011 that it had been awarded a contract to design and build a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system for Environmental Protection Technologies (EPT), a global company that leads the industrial wastewater treatment market in Israel.

Mobile BWRO system aids Greek power-station completion

Completion of a power-station water treatment project based on mobile brackish-water reverse-osmosis (BWRO) desalination systems was announced in on 3 February by Swiss-based Ecolutia Services, part of the Stulz/Hager & Elsässer group.

Leila Karimi

EDR researcher wins 2013 Channabasappa Scholarship

The International Desalination Association has awarded its 2013 Channabasappa Scholarship to Leila Karimi, a PhD candidate at the Institute for Energy & the Environment, Chemical Engineering Department, New Mexico State University (NMSU).

Desalination capacity increasing by 50% in 2013 says IDA

Desalination plants with a total capacity of 6 million m³/d are expected to come on line during 2013, a 50% increase on 2012, according to new data from the International Desalination Association and GWI DesalData.

The RO hall at the Thames Gateway desalination plant east of London.

Four-stage RO for London desalination plant

The UK's 150,000 m³/d Thames Gateway brackish-water reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination plant, which was opened by Queen Elizabeth's husband, the Duke of Edinburgh, on 2 June 2010, has a four-stage RO process.

New Mexico BWRO seeking waste revenue stream

Processing residual wastes from a proposed brackish-groundwater desalination plant in New Mexico, USA, could provide a revenue of around US$ 4.6 million/year, according to a preliminary engineer report just completed.

EU to support saline-aquifer desalination in Djibouti

A 22,500 m³/d brackish-water desalination plant, expandable to double that size and powered by renewable energy, is to be built in the East African state of Djibouti with support from the European Union (EU).

Veolia supplies RO desalination to Mauritania mine

A 1,500 m³/d reverse-osmosis (RO) brackish-water desalination plant has been supplied to a mine in Mauritania by Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies South Africa, with a heat-exchanger to cool the water.

San Antonio to get brackish desalination in 2016

The San Antonio Water System (SAWS) in Texas has announced that by October 2016 it will start up a brackish water desalination plant that will eventually become the largest in the US.

Desalination featured on redesigned SAWS website

San Antonio Water System (SAWS) has featured its brackish-water reverse-osmosis desalination project as one of the headlines on its newly redesigned website.

Land commission looking at Texas desalination

The Texas General Land Commission (GLO) has contracted two consulting firms to investigate the possibility of brackish-water desalination north of New Braunfels.

Drilling starts for SAWS brackish-water desalination

San Antonio Water System (SAWS) in Texas, USA, launched work on its 25 MGD (95,000 m³/d) brackish-water desalination system on 27 March 2012.

Papers invited for 2013 AWWA/AMTA event

With the 2012 AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference under way this week in Phoenix, Arizona, a call for papers has been issued for next year's event in Texas.

NWC report boosts Australian brackish desalination

Brackish groundwater desalination can be considered a viable community water supply option in some areas, says a report just announced by Australia's National Water Commission (NWC).

Delayed Tarpon Springs reverse osmosis plant nears completion

Construction of a long-awaited US$ 45 million brackish water reverse-osmosis plant at the US city of Tarpon Springs, Florida is close to completion a few weeks behind schedule.

City of Lake Worth's new RO plant (image: Bird's Eye View)

RO desalination plant completed in Lake Worth

A 4.5 MGD (17,000 m³/d) reverse-osmosis drinking-water plant for Lake Worth, Florida, USA, began a month of testing in late July following completion earlier in the month.

Planned Texas inland desalination plant will be USA's biggest

San Antonio Water System (SAWS) is constructing what will become the largest inland desalination plant in the USA. The plant will desalinate groundwater from the Wilcox Aquifer in southern Bexar County, Texas.

Texas Desalination Association plans September conference

The Texas Desalination Association is hosting its second annual conference Texas Desal 2014: Best Practices and Emerging Technology on 11-12 September 2014 in Austin, Texas.

Intensive short desalination course from UNESCO-IHE

An intensive short course on Membrane Technology in Drinking & Industrial Water Treatment has been announced by UNESCO-IHE).

Reclamation grant for Sweetwater desalination expansion

The US Bureau of Reclamation is to provide the Sweetwater Authority in California with a US$ 1.5 million grant towards the expansion of the Richard A Reynolds desalination plant.

Oxnard AWPF currently under construction

Finance agreed for Camarillo regional desalter studies

Two water districts and two - possibly three - cities in southern California have agree to finance studies for a regional brackish-water desalination plant to be located near Camarillo.

Fluor to build Dow's RO membrane factory in Saudi Arabia

Fluor Corporation has been awarded a contract by the Dow Chemical Company to build Dow's reverse osmosis (RO) membrane manufacturing facility in Jubail Industrial City II in Saudi Arabia.

MIT membrane start-up completes funding round

The conclusion of an initial round of funding for Clean Membranes Inc, a start-up company based in Lexington, USA, will permit progress on development of a new generation of non-fouling membranes usable for sea and brackish water desalination.

SAWS brackish desalination test plant.

Further funding for San Antonio BWRO desalination project

Initial project construction for the brackish groundwater desalination program planned by San Antonio Water System (SAWS) in the USA will now be possible following a US$ 24.6 million loan from the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB).

South Florida funds 19 alternative water projects

Desalination and water reclamation plants were among 19 alternative water supply projects for which South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) approved funding assistance worth US$ 3.45 million on 10 November 2010.

STW opens up Texas brackish source project

Water management firm, STW Water Process and Technologies, has started to develop a newly acquired brackish water lease in the Imperial, Texas area. The move is part of STW's West Texas Water Project to discover new brackish water sources.

Hitachi in Libyan MBR tie-up

Libyan water technology company El Zulal announced on 21 July 2010 that it has signed a sales and marketing agreement with Hitachi of Japan to distribute Hitachi's membrane bioreactor (MBR) product range in Libya.

Desalination booming in Tunisia

Desalination in Tunisia took a major step forward in July with the award of the 50,000 m³/d Djerba seawater desalination contract to a consortium including Befesa of Spain, announced on 14 July 2010, and the launch of a tender for the supply of ten brackish-water desalination plants at the end of the month.

Veolia in mineral recovery partnership at inland desalination plant

Texas-based company, Enviro Water Minerals (EWM), is to deploy its novel mineral recovery technology in a partnership with water and waste giant, Veolia, to produce potable water from brackish water desalination effluent.

Texas creates state desalination committee

Following recent severe droughts, a Joint Interim Committee to Study Water Desalination has been created by the legislature in the US state of Texas, including members of both houses.

Yuma desalination plant restarted for pilot run

Representatives from the US Department of the Interior and three municipal water agencies gathered on 28 April 2010 to launch a one-year pilot run of the Bureau of Reclamation's Yuma Desalting Plant.

California city ponders desalination revival

California's city of Morro Bay is poised to apply to the state Coastal Commission to operate continually its currently idle reverse osmosis desalination plant. The city let its operating permit expire in 2000, and the plant - built in 1992 - has not operated since then except for occasional emergency use.

Texas county opens up brackish desalt project

The San Antonio Water System (SAWS) in Texas, US has begun a ten-year phased brackish water desalination programme that will provide the county with potable water at over 150 Ml/d.

Chinese Desalination Society joins unconventional-water seminar

A national seminar on Unconventional Water-Use Technology is to be held in Urumqi in Xinjiang province, China, from 5-9 August 2009 to discuss sea- and brackish-water desalination and use of flood water.

Pall wins 100,000m³/d BWRO system in Manila

A 100,000 m³/d brackish-water desalination system is to be built in Manila, Philippines, by Pall Corporation.

Veolia buys rights to ZDD desalination technology

Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies has acquired worldwide rights to commercialize a new patented zero discharge desalination (ZDD) technology developed at the University of South Carolina by ZDD Inc.

SEDA workshop to look at RO operational variances

The Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA) is to hold a Workshop on Brackish and sea water reverse osmosis operational variances in Gibsonton, Florida, at the Tampa Bay Desal II Water Treatment Plant.

EDR plant at Abrera

Large EDR river desalination plant opens in Spain

GE Water and Aigües Ter-Llobregat (ATLL) of Spain announced on 19 May 2009 the opening of the 220,000 m³/d electrodialysis reversal (EDR) brackish water desalination plant on the Llobregat river.

Workshop on membrane water technologies set for March

A workshop on alternative water resources, such as brackish-water desalination and wastewater reuse is being organised in Thessaloniki, Greece on 5 March 2009 by the Center for Research and Technology Hellas and the Berlin Centre of Competence for Water.

New desalination capacity up by 39% in first half of 2008

Newly contracted desalination capacity has risen in the first six months of 2008 by 39%, according to the International Desalination Association (IDA). This comes on top of a 43% growth during 2007.

The Aquatech process

Aquatech prepares membrane-thermal ZLD for Columbia gold mine

The new hybrid membrane-thermal system is to be installed in April and commissioning is expected to be completed by Q4 2019.

Florida company to build Clearwater RO desalination plant

Poole & Kent Company of Florida has been awarded a contract to install a reverse‑osmosis desalination plant in Clearwater, Florida.

Toray's NHP MBR module features densely packed thin membrane flat sheets

Toray introduces new high performance MBR module

Toray Membrane USA is showing its New High Performance membrane bioreactor (NHP MBR) module at IDA World Congress 2017.

New digital business practices will change desal and reuse project development and operations

The Long Read: How digital is transforming desal and reuse

The digital economy is transforming water utilities and industrial players, and bringing potentially profound changes for desalination and reuse specialists. The common thread is data.

Singapore is testing technology to build water resilience and reduce its treatment footprint

Singapore ratchets up developments in water reuse

PUB aims to complete its 12,500 m3/d demonstration-scale plant for MBR systems for water reuse in mid-2017.

Culligan's new skid-mounted seawater reverse osmosis solution, SW Evo

Culligan introduces reverse osmosis and membrane bioreactor systems

Italian water treatment firm Culligan has introduced a new skid-mounted seawater RO desalination solution, SW Evo, and a containerised membrane bio reactor system.

T Park sets the bar high with advanced desalination plant

Veolia chief executive Antoine Frerot hailed "the sewage stations of the future" on opening T Park in Hong Kong, the world's largest sewage treatment plant, on 26 May.

Doosan Babcock wins maintenance and support deal at giant Taweelah plant

Energy engineering company, Doosan Babcock, has won a contract with Taweelah Asia Power Company (Tapco) to provide essential maintenance and technical support services for Tapco's desalination plant in Abu Dhabi.

PUB and Mitsubishi join to test water recycling technology

Singapore's national water agency, PUB. has contracted Japan's Mitsubishi Corporation to build a demonstration-scale plant to test energy saving technologies that may be deployed at the proposed Tuas Water Reclamation Plant (WRP).

Masterclass webinar to look at combining reuse and desalination using forward osmosis

Award-winning researcher, Gaetan Bandin, will present the next Desalination and Water Reuse Masterclass Webinar on 30 June looking at opportunities and challenges for forward osmosis and pressure assisted osmosis (PAO) to combine water reuse and desalination.

Urban surge drives 57% growth in Indian municipal water treatment market by 2018

Urban population growth in India will create huge demand for municipal water and wastewater treatment systems including desalination adding 57% to revenues over five years according to a recent report by market analyst Frost an Sullivan (F&S).

Australian mining town to up quality from boreholes close to pit with desalination plant

The Australian arm of water technology firm, Valoriza Agua, has won a design and construct contract to deliver a 16.5 Ml/d water treatment plant to replace an existing facility and provide drinking water for the Western Australian mining town, Newman and the mine. The plant will include brackish water reverse osmosis and an ultraviolet treatment system to treat a mix of flows from drinking water boreholes sited too close to mining activities.

Offshore desalination prototype wins funding

Renewable sector engineering company 4NRg has won funding for its development of a prototype mechanical offshore desalination unit.

Electrochemical desalination MoU signed in Singapore

A memorandum of understanding (MoU) between Singapore's national water agency, PUB, and Evoqua Water Technologies to further develop electrochemical desalination technology was one of five MoUs signed during Singapore International Water Week, which ended on 5 June 2014.

Veolia gains Colombian produced-water clean-up contract

Ecopetrol America Inc, the US subsidiary of the Colombian national oil company, has awarded a contract to Veolia to provide equipment and services that will be used to treat the produced water from the Castilla oilfields in the Llanos Basin, southeast of Bogota.

H2O Innovation lands three water/wastewater contracts

H2O Innovation Inc announced on 14 January 2014 recent contracts totalling Can$ 6.5 million (UA$ 5.93 million) in Western Canada's energy sector.

Aerial view of Sorek desalination plant

World's largest SWRO desalination plant operational

The world's largest seawater reverse-osmosis plant, the 624,000 m³/d Sorek plant in Israel, is now fully operational.

Nirosoft wins large Colombian desalination plant

Nirosoft Industries Ltd has been awarded a contract by Pacific Rubiales Energy Corp (PREC) for design and construction of a produced-water desalination plant in Colombia.

Ceramic MBR demonstration project agreed in Singapore

A ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) demonstration plant is to be built at Singapore's Jurong Water Reclamation Plant following the signing of an agreement between the country's water agency, PUB, and Meiden Singapore (MSL), a subsidiary of Meidensha of Japan.

Pentair X-Flow wins UF order for Ghallilah desalination

Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes and skids are to be supplied to the 15 MIGD (68,000 m³/d) seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant at Ghallilah, Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates, by Pentair X-Flow.

Oil/gas sector MBR leads new H2O Innovation jobs

Supply of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) wastewater treatment and reuse system to an industrial user in the oil and gas industry in Alberta, Canada, was announced by H2 O Innovation Inc on 8 March 2012.

USBF/MBR system allows Canadian wastewater reuse

A wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) expansion featuring an upward sludge blanket filter (USBF) combined with a membrane bioreactor (MBR) has been completed at Snug Cove on Bowen Island in British Columbia, Canada.

New contracts announced by H2O Innovation

A 150,000 GPD (568 m³/d) membrane wastewater treatment system for a First Nation community in Manitoba, Canada, is one of new contracts totaling US$ 2.4 million announced on 12 January 2011 by H2O Innovation.

The facility site at SEA Lab

West Basin district dedicates desalination demo facility

California's West Basin Municipal Water District is nearing completion of its new desalination demonstration facility, following formal dedication of the plant on 12 November 2010.

Italy's Osmo Sistemi bags brackish desalination deal

Fano, Italy-based Osmo Sistemi has won a turnkey supply deal for two brackish water reverse osmosis units for Libya's Arabian Gulf Oil Company oil field.

West Basin demonstrating desalination intake and outfall technologies

One of the first seawater desalination demonstration facilities to employ ocean-protection technology at the source of intake and discharge has begun construction in Southern California, USA.

MemPulse MBR equipment with air scouring technology significantly reduces energy consumption.

Modesto water quality project gets Siemens MBR equipment

Equipment for a 12.6 MGD (47,700 m³/d) membrane bioreactor (MBR) system is to be supplied to City of Modesto, California, USA, by Siemens Water Technologies for the Jennings Road Water Quality Control Facility.

MBR at heart of innovative wastewater reuse project

An innovative wastewater treatment/water reuse project was opened for the City of Clovis, California, USA, on 19 March 2010, featuring membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology, ultraviolet (UV) disinfection and a patented sludge-reduction system

CDM and Miahona in Saudi water partnership

US consultant CDM and Miahona (Our Water), a subsidiary of ACWA Power Development, have announced a new partnership to execute water projects in Saudi Arabia. The partnership will manage engineering and consulting for water sector projects, including providing studies, designs, construction management, operations, and management consulting services.

Parsons lands SAWS brackish water desalination job

Parsons Corporation is leading a joint venture to serve as the construction manager at risk for the San Antonio groundwater desalination program in Texas, USA.

Construction starts on Durrat Al Bahrain desalination plant

Bahrain-based utility Energy Central Co (ECC)announced on 4 March 2009 that a groundbreaking ceremony has taken place at the Durrat Al Bahrain development, where the company is building a seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant with an ultimate capacity of 32,000 m³/d.

Aerial view of the Sydney construction site.

Sydney desalter construction reaches halfway point

Construction of Sydney's 250,000 m³/d Kurnell seawater desalination plant is just over 50% complete, D&WR has been told by Sydney Water. The intake and outlet tunnels were completed in December 2008.

Possibilities for energy optimisation in design and operation of SWRO plants

Seawater desalination with reverse osmosis (SWRO) has taken a noteworthy upturn during recent years. One of the reasons for the success of the membrane process is its lower energy consumption in comparison with thermal desalination processes. The high-pressure RO desalination stage is undoubtedly the dominating energy consumer of an SWRO plant. Energy consumption of SWRO, despite its energy-recovery aspects, is also influenced by a huge number of additional factors. These are both of an external nature (eg, environmental conditions and stipulations), but are also determined by design and configuration of the plant. On the basis of an SWRO plant model, which covers the different pre-treatment and RO configurations and also the design with energy consumption of potabilisation and additional wastewater treatment and sludge dewatering facilities, the specific energy consumption of an SWRO and its subsystems has been determined in this article. Considering the various aspects to be taken into account for optimization of energy consumption in seawater reverse osmosis plants and the fact that in most cases these measures are offset by increases in capital costs for equipment or possibly also in chemical consumption, optimisation of the energy consumption of SWRO plants during planning and operation is a quite extensive and complicated matter and a demanding engineering task. This article is an expanded and updated version of the article published in the August/September issue of D&WR magazine.


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