Bahamas, Seawater, Hawaii, Energy Recovery, Energy, Recycling, Seawater, Desalination, Wastewater Treatment, Recovery, Cyprus, Oil & Gas, Hawaii
IDE in talks with Hawaii desalination plant proposer
Desalination designer and builder IDE Technologies has confirmed to D&WR that it has been talking with billionaire Larry Ellison, who is proposing to build a 2.5 MGD (9,500 m³/d) seawater desalination plant on the island of Lanai.
ERI pumps and ERDs selected for Bahamas desalination expansion
High-pressure pumps and energy-recovery technology are to be provided for the 18,500 m³/d expansion to the Blue Hills seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in the Bahamas by Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).
Reclamation Bureau's water recycling and reuse funding criteria published
The US government's Bureau of Reclamation published on 15 October 2010 the funding criteria under its Title XVI - Water Recycling & Reuse Program for two new funding opportunity announcements in fiscal year 2011.
Nirosoft selects ERI PXs for Limassol desalination
The 50,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant currently under construction in Limassol, Cyprus, will use PX-260 pressure-exchangers from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).
Hawaiian venue for AMTA/SWMOA workshop
The American Membrane Technology Association and the Southwest Membrane Operator Association are to hold a joint technology transfer workshop in Hawaii.
Flowserve wins pumps and ERDs for Larnaca desalination
DWEER energy-recovery units and Flowserve DMX high-pressure pumps are to be supplied for the 60,000 m³/d Larnaca seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant currently being rebuilt in Cyprus.
Turks & Caicos SWRO goes to Aqua‑Chem
A contract for the supply and installation of a 300,000 GPD (1,135 m³/d) seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant the Turks Caicos Islands in the Caribbean has been awarded to Aqua‑Chem Inc.
West Basin desalination demo could begin next year
Construction could begin in 2010 on the Ocean-Water Desalination Demonstration Project at Redondo Beach near Los Angeles, California, the West Basin Municipal Water District announced on 30 July 2009.
Biwater completes Virgin Islands desalination plant
Water technology company, Biwater, has started full commercial operation of a new 10,400 m³/day reverse osmosis seawater desalination plant constructed by the firm on the island of Tortola in the British Virgin Islands.
Electrochemical desalination MoU signed in Singapore
A memorandum of understanding (MoU) between Singapore's national water agency, PUB, and Evoqua Water Technologies to further develop electrochemical desalination technology was one of five MoUs signed during Singapore International Water Week, which ended on 5 June 2014.
New Consolidated JV to build Bahamas UF/RO plant
Seawater desalination water company Consolidated Water Co Ltd, based in the Cayman Islands, announced 23 May 2012 that it has formed a joint venture (JV) with The New Providence Development Company Limited (NPDC) in Nassau, Bahamas.
Jersey contracts ACWA to upgrade desalination plant
Utility, Jersey Water, has contracted international water and wastewater treatment firm, ACWA Services, to carry a out a £6 million (US$ 9 million) upgrade of the Channel Island's La Rosière desalination plant in a bid to cut operating costs and meet rising demand.
Second Chennai SWRO plant commissioned
The Nemmeli desalination plant in Tamil Nadu, India, was commissioned on 22 February 2013 by the state's chief minister, Selvi J Jayalalithaa. It is the second seawater reverse-osmosis (RO) plant to provide drinking water for the city of Chennai.
ERD comparison tool developed by WateReuse project
A tool to allow engineers to evaluate commercially available energy-recovery devices (ERDs) for reverse-osmosis (RO) systems has been developed under a research project funded by the WateReuse Research Foundation.
Cadagua orders ERI PX-Q300s for Morocco project
Spanish desalination contractor Cadagua has ordered PX‑Q300 pressure‑exchangers from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) for the first phase of the Jorf Lasfar seawater desalination plant in Morocco.
Sadyt chooses ERI pressure-exchangers for Ashdod
Israel's giant Ashdod desalination plant is to use PX-Q300 energy-recovery pressure-exchangers supplied by Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) of the USA.
Perth desalination expansion to use ERDs from ERI
The expansion to the Southern Seawater Desalination Plant in Western Australia is to use PX Pressure Exchanger energy-recovery devices as were used in the original plant.
Cadagua selects PX devices for Al Zawrah desalination
PX energy-recovery devices have been selected for the 45,000 m³/d Al Zawrah seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in Ajman, UAE, by the consortium led by Spanish company Cadagua.
ERI chief calls for less plant downtime
The new CEO of Energy Recovery Inc (ERI), Tom Rooney, in an interview with Desalination & Water Reuse (D&WR) at the International Desalination Association's World Congress in Perth, Australia, on 7 September 2011, revealed that the company was now focusing on the issue of plant utilization.
ERI pressure-exchangers for Spanish desalination plant
The 50,000 m³/d Marina Baja-Mutxamel seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant currently under construction near Alicante, Spain, is to be fitted with PX-260 energy-recovery devices.
Magtaa desalination turbocharger delivery complete
Delivery of 25 TurboCharger energy recovery devices for the largest seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in the world has been completed by Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).
Two Spanish desalination plants get ERI PX devices
Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) is to supply energy recovery-devices for two new seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants currently under construction along the Mediterranean coast of Spain.
ERI lands Al-Jubail contract in Saudi Arabia
Acciona Agua has awarded a contract to Energy Recovery Inc for PX Pressure Exchanger energy‑recovery equipment for the SWRO‑4 desalination plant in Al Jubail, Saudi Arabia.
Befesa chooses ERI again for Qingdao seawater desalination
The 100,000 m³/d Qingdao seawater desalination plant in China is to become the seventh Befesa- built reverse-osmosis plant to use PX isobaric energy-recovery devices from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).
Fedco pressure-booster beats 80% efficiency
"We're now ready to go after any project in the world," Eli Oklejas, president of Fedco, told D&WR, after he had announced that a performance test on the company's hydraulic pressure booster (HPB) energy-recovery device for desalination had surpassed 80% efficiency.
Hydrochem chooses DWEERs for Oman's Salalah desalination
DWEER energy-recovery systems will be used in the Salalah Independent Water & Power Plant (Salalah IWPP) in Oman to recover energy from the high-pressure brine stream in the desalination process.
Aqualyng begins first phase of Chinese SWRO plant
Norwegian desalination company Aqualyng on 15 March 2010 began the construction phase of the 50,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis plant to serve the water needs of the Caofeidian Industrial Zone 220km east of Beijing in China.
ERI equipment chosen for Melbourne desalination
The AquaSure consortium has chosen PX Pressure Exchanger energy-recovery technology from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) for the Victorian Desalination Project, which will supply drinking water to Melbourne, Australia.
Second Perth plant chooses ERI pressure exchangers
The 140,000 m³/d Southern Seawater Desalination Plant (SSDP) in Western Australia will use PX Pressure Exchanger energy-recovery devices made by Energy Recovery Inc (ERI), the California-based company announced on 6 October 2009.
PX energy-recovery for Hadera desalination expansion
Energy Recovery Inc's PX Pressure Exchanger (PX) devices have been selected by IDE Technologies for the expansion of its seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Hadera, Israel.
PX energy-recovery units selected for Palmachim expansion
Energy Recovery Inc announced on 9 September 2009 that its PX Pressure Exchanger (PX) devices have been selected for use in the expansion of the 115,000 m³/d Palmachim desalination plant, one of the largest seawater reverse osmosis plants in Israel.
ERI to provide pressure-exchangers for Carlsbad SWRO
IDE Technologies has selected pressure-exchangers from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) for the 189,000 m³/d Carlsbad seawater desalination plant in California, USA.
ERI wins ninth Algerian supply contract
UTE Cap Djinet, a consortium consisting of Spanish contractors Inima and Aqualia, has selected PX Pressure Exchanger energy-recovery devices from Energy Recovery Inc for a large desalination plant to be built in Algeria.
First Water Standard vessel will use ERI units
Water Standard plans to use the PX Pressure Exchanger energy-recovery device made by Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) in its first Seawater Desalination Vessel (SDV), the two companies announced on 19 May 2009. Florida-based Water Standard builds and operates vessels that deliver desalinated water to clients onshore and to the offshore energy industry.
ERI to supply 75,000 m³/d Venezuelan desalination plant
Spanish EPC contractor Acciona Agua has awarded Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) of the USA the energy-recovery technology contract for the 75,000 m³/d (20 MGD) Paraguana desalination plant in Venezuela.
ERI wins another Algerian contract
Another large-scale energy-recovery contract for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination in Algeria was announced by Energy Recovery Inc on 11 December 2008.
ERI to supply Hyflux project in Algeria
The Souk Tleta seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Tlemcen in north-western Algeria, is to be supplied by Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) with 269 PX-220 energy recovery devices.
Tordera expansion to use ERI devices
The energy recovery contract for the expansion of the Tordera seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant near Barcelona, Spain, has been awarded to Energy Recovery Inc.
ERI supplies Andalucian desalter
Fifty PX-220 energy recovery devices to operate in the first-stage of the reverse osmosis process are to be supplied for the Bajo Almanzora seawater desalination project in Spain by Energy Recovery Inc.
Kuwait's 136,000 m³/d Shuwaikh plant awarded to Doosan
Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction won the contract in September for the 136,000 m³/d (36 MGD) Shuwaikh Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) Desalination Plant, the first in the country to use SWRO. Simultaneously, Doosan awarded the energy-recovery contract to Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).
Consolidated Water lines up Mexican mega-project
The Playas de Rosarito seawater RO desalination mega-plant project has been six years in the making. It began as a twinkle in Consolidated Water's eye even before Mexico had introduced its new public-private partnerships law, but the act's introduction in 2012 gave the project a clear structure for moving ahead.
Al Ghubrah desalination to use ERI energy-recovery devices
Energy Recover Inc is to supply its PX Q300 Pressure Exchanger® technology for the Al Ghubrah seawater desalination plant in Oman.
Egyptian SWRO plant to use ERI pressure exchangers
Egypt's largest desalination plant being built at Marsa Matrouh is to be supplied with Pressure Exchanger (PX) energy-recovery devices by Energy Recovery Inc of California.
Second Isobarix ER unit installed in Mexico
Isobarix has installed its second commercial XPR energy-recovery unit for Memco Sistemas de Separacion SA de CV, who operate several seawater reverse-osmosis plants at resorts in Cancun and Los Cabos, Mexico.
Papers invited for 2013 AWWA/AMTA event
With the 2012 AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference under way this week in Phoenix, Arizona, a call for papers has been issued for next year's event in Texas.
PEI wins giant Magtaa energy-recovery contract
Hyflux Ltd has selected HTCAT TurboChargers from Pump Engineering Inc (PEI) as the energy-recovery technology for the 500,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant at Magtaa on the Mediterranean coast of Algeria.
Flowserve wins three Calder orders in Spain
Flowserve Corporation announced on 9 July 2009 that it had received three orders for Calder energy-recovery devices for seawater reverse-osmosis desalination projects in Spain including the Campo de Dalais project, which will receive the recently upgraded DWEER units.
West Basin demonstrating desalination intake and outfall technologies
One of the first seawater desalination demonstration facilities to employ ocean-protection technology at the source of intake and discharge has begun construction in Southern California, USA.
IDA finalises Huntington Beach desalination energy conference topics
The International Desalination Association (IDA) has finalised the speakers and topics for its new-style conference Desalination: An Energy Solution, which is being held on 2-3 November 2010 in Huntington Beach, California, the city likely to host the USA's next large desalination plant after Carlsbad.
Funding for reuse offered by Bureau of Reclamation
The US government's Bureau of Reclamation has announced a funding opportunity for feasibility studies of water reclamation and reuse for non-federal government entities, indian tribes, water districts, wastewater districts or rural water districts in the 17 western US states and Hawaii.
Stover becomes Oasys vice-president of engineering
Rick Stover, whose exit from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) was announced last week, joined Oasys, the developer of Engineered Osmosis systems for desalination, energy and resource recovery, as vice- president of engineering, on 19 January 2010.
West Basin district dedicates desalination demo facility
California's West Basin Municipal Water District is nearing completion of its new desalination demonstration facility, following formal dedication of the plant on 12 November 2010.
Metito lands Bechtel SWRO desalination in Australia
Dubai-based Metito has landed two new seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants in Australia and is currently nearing completion of one in Qatar.
North Sea gas RO package supplied by UK company
A containerised reverse‑osmosis (RO) desalination package is to be supplied for an unmanned gas platform in the North Sea by Salt Separation Services of Rochdale, UK.
Desalitech closed-circuit technology set for BWRO project
Israel-based Desalitech Ltd announced on 7 April 2011 that it had been awarded a contract to design and build a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system for Environmental Protection Technologies (EPT), a global company that leads the industrial wastewater treatment market in Israel.
Consolidated seeks to sell Mexican desalination stake
Caribbean-based Consolidated Water Co is looking to sell its 50% stake in the 100 MGD (378,500 m³/d) Rosarito desalination project in Baja California, Mexico.
Energy Recovery announces deal duo
Industrial fluid pressure technology company, Energy Recovery, has announced its second US$ 1.8 million deal in recent weeks at sites in the Middle East and North Africa region. The latest win to supply its PX Pressure Exchanger system was for a 68 Ml/d desalination plant at an undisclosed site in the Middle East. It closed an earlier, similar deal in Morocco.
Energy Recovery bags US$ 1 million in desalination orders in India and Ghana
Fluid flow energy efficiency firm Energy Recovery has won desalination orders totalling US$ 1 million for original manufacturer projects using its technology in India and Ghana. The company said the deals were among a continuing revenue stream from small-to-medium sized projects.
Energy Recovery chief to quit
Chief executive officer (CEO) of pressure technology specialist Energy Recovery, Thomas Rooney, has resigned as the company increases its focus on the oil and gas sector.
ERI providing energy-recovery in Ghana and Oman
Spanish contractor Abengoa will use Energy Recovery Inc's pressure-exchanger technology in two desalination plants it is building in Ghana and Oman.
Tonner to join Consolidated Water as COO
Experienced desalter John Tonner is joining Consolidated Water Co Ltd as chief operating officer from 1 September 2011.
China's Tri-Tech acquires Wisconsin desalination provider
Desalination and wastewater treatment provider J&Y International Inc, based in Wisconsin, USA, was acquired by subsidiaries of Tri-Tech Holding Inc of China on 9 June 2011.
Biwater gets Barclays backing for Caribbean SWRO plant
A Caribbean water and wastewater project, including a 10,400 m³/d seawater desalination plant, has received financial backing worth US$ 43 million from Barclays, backed by a UK Export Finance Guarantee.
World's largest SWRO desalination plant operational
The world's largest seawater reverse-osmosis plant, the 624,000 m³/d Sorek plant in Israel, is now fully operational.
ERI pressure-exchangers chosen for Fujairah expansion
Acciona Agua has chosen Energy-Recovery Inc to provide its PX® Q line of energy-recovery devices (ERDs) for the Fujairah 1 Expansion desalination project in the UAE.
Veolia tops targets in Masdar desalination pilot programme
Interim findings by engineering giant, Veolia, from trials designed to up efficiency and develop renewable energy-driven desalination have already outstripped energy reduction targets the company has reported.
Interview: Juan Miguel Pinto, ALADYR president
The new president of ALADYR, the Latin America desalination and water reuse association, sees his organisation as a window onto the region for international companies. His big aim is to step up events during 2018, taking knowledge of desalination and reuse out to the market.
Pretreatment adaptation for Namibian SWRO plant
A 400 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Walvis Bay, Namibia, is to be upgraded under a contract announced at the end of September by Aqua Services & Engineering (ASE).
Sydney desalter construction reaches halfway point
Construction of Sydney's 250,000 m³/d Kurnell seawater desalination plant is just over 50% complete, D&WR has been told by Sydney Water. The intake and outlet tunnels were completed in December 2008.
Brownsville pilot study published
Pilot study results from consultant NRS Consulting Engineers have confirmed that seawater desalination on the shore of the Ship Channel in Brownsville, Texas, USA, is technically feasible.
"We're now at more than $100 million revenue." Doug Brown, AquaVenture chairman and CEO
AquaVenture chief executive Doug Brown has a track record of delivering shareholder value. When he joined water technology and engineering firm Ionics as chief executive in 2003, the struggling business was trading at $16 a share.
ERI lands contract for Ghalilah desalination project
Aquatech International has awarded Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) a contract for provision of energy‑recovery devices for a large‑scale desalination plant in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Gold Coast desalination plant finally handed over
The Tugun desalination plant in Gold Coast, Australia, was handed over to the Queensland state government on 1 October 2010 and has become part of the South East Queensland Water Grid (SEQWG).
Cadagua choses ERI for Valdelentisco desalination refit
Spain's Cadagua has chosen PX® energy-recovery technology for its refit contract for the Valdelentisco desalination plant in Murcia, Spain.
CaribDA opens registration for Aruba conference
The Caribbean Desalination Association (CaribDA) has opened registration for its 2012 Conference & Exposition 80 Years Of Desalination Makes For One Happy Island.
Possibilities for energy optimisation in design and operation of SWRO plants
Seawater desalination with reverse osmosis (SWRO) has taken a noteworthy upturn during recent years. One of the reasons for the success of the membrane process is its lower energy consumption in comparison with thermal desalination processes. The high-pressure RO desalination stage is undoubtedly the dominating energy consumer of an SWRO plant. Energy consumption of SWRO, despite its energy-recovery aspects, is also influenced by a huge number of additional factors. These are both of an external nature (eg, environmental conditions and stipulations), but are also determined by design and configuration of the plant. On the basis of an SWRO plant model, which covers the different pre-treatment and RO configurations and also the design with energy consumption of potabilisation and additional wastewater treatment and sludge dewatering facilities, the specific energy consumption of an SWRO and its subsystems has been determined in this article. Considering the various aspects to be taken into account for optimization of energy consumption in seawater reverse osmosis plants and the fact that in most cases these measures are offset by increases in capital costs for equipment or possibly also in chemical consumption, optimisation of the energy consumption of SWRO plants during planning and operation is a quite extensive and complicated matter and a demanding engineering task. This article is an expanded and updated version of the article published in the August/September issue of D&WR magazine.
Consolidated chooses ERI for Red Gate replacement
Consolidated Water Co Ltd has chosen Energy Recovery Inc's PX devices to replace the existing DWEER energy-recovery technology in a refit for the Red Gate desalination plant on Grand Cayman Island.
ERI Q Series chosen for Acciona project in Chile
Spanish contractor Acciona Agua has chosen Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) energy-recovery equipment for its contract for the Minera CAP expansion desalination project in the Copiapó Valley in Chile's Atacama Region III, ERI announced on 16 July 2013.
Desalitech's Rick Stover: "The world's experts on desal and reuse are coming to Miami"
Desalitech executive vice president Rick Stover says that delegates can expect stimulating open forum discussions, papers and research at the IDA Energy and Environment Conference in Miami, USA, December 2016
Consolidated awarded two Cayman desalination contracts
Consolidated Water Co Ltd announced on 9 April 2014 a new contract to refurbish the Lower Valley desalination plant, which it built in 1997, and the extension of an existing contract to operate the North Sound desalination plant.
Lamberts Bay seawater desalination goes to Veolia
A 1,700 m³/d seawater desalination plant, upgradeable to 5,000 m³/d, is to be built in Lamberts Bay in South Africa for the Cederberg Municipality by Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies South Africa.
Pump Engineering takeover gives ERI turbine technology
Energy Recovery Inc, manufacturer of PX energy-recovery devices for the desalination industry, announced on 2 December 2009 that it has entered into a definitive agreement to acquire all of the equity interests of competitor Pump Engineering LLC, based in New Boston, Michigan.
ERI hires oil expert from Schlumberger
Energy Recovery Inc has hired seasoned oil and gas expert Ismail Nawaz as its vice president, oil and gas product development.
Pratt & Witney to validate PEI equipment
US space and aero engine-builder Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Inc (PWR) is to provide engineering and development services for Pump Engineering Inc (PEI), manufacturer of desalination pumping and energy-recovery equipment.
Stover leaves Oasys for Desalitech
Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) old boy Dr Richard Stover has joined Tel Aviv-based Desalitech, a company with a desalination process that does away with energy-recovery devices.
Osmoflo to supply two ship-mounted ROs to gas field
Potable and process water is to be supplied to a gas field north of Australia by ship-mounted seawater reverse-osmosis (RO) plants supplied by Adelaide-based desalination specialist Osmosflo.
DWEER units chosen for Sorek desalination
The consortium building the Sorek desalination plant in Israel has ordered Calder DWEER units with an approximate value of US$ 10 million from Flowserve Corporation of the USA.
Aquatech plant to treat three different sources
A complex water treatment system, including a high-efficiency reverse-osmosis (HERO) system is to be delivered in 2009 for the Hawaiian Electric Company's 110 MW simple-cycle biofueled powerplant at the Campbell Industrial Park.
Severn-Trent wins Chilean mining desalination contract
US water and wastewater treatment company Severn Trent Services has been awarded a contract to provide a seawater desalination plant that will serve the potable and process water needs of the Minera Esperanza copper and gold mine in Antofagasta, Chile.
US reuse to get US$ 23 million government injection
The US Bureau of Reclamation has unveiled plans this year to invest in water reuse and efficiency upgrades to the tune of US$ 23 million.
Desalia starts works on Egypt reverse osmosis plant
Spain's Desalia has started site works for a new, 24,000 m³/d seawater reverse osmosis plant west of Alexandria, Egypt near the city of Matrouh.
Pressure-exchanger court case goes to Hauge
The latest round of the "pressure-exchanger wars" between inventor Leif J Hauge, his company Isobarix Inc and energy-recovery equipment manufacturer Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) has gone in favour of Hauge.
More desalination and reuse potential in Western Australia
Western Australia's Water Corporation is considering up to three seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plants along the southern coast of its area, known as Lower Great Southern, as part of a potential portfolio of water resources for the next 30 years.
Hawaii considers special bonds for solar desalination
Hawaii Island is looking to introduce new special purpose bonds to build and operate solar-powered desalination plants, reports westhawaiitoday.com.
US DoE awards $21 million for solar desalination projects
The US Department of Energy has unveiled funding of $21 million for 14 projects to advance solar-based thermal desalination technologies.
ClydeUnion pumps for Kindasa desalination expansion
UK-based ClydeUnion Pumps has been awarded a contract by Kindasa Water Services to supply pumps for an additional train for the existing Kindasa seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in Saudi Arabia.
Energy Recovery supplies Mirfa project
US fluid pressure recycling specialist, Energy Recovery, is to provide its PX Pressure Exchanger technology to the giant Mirfa desalination project in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Evoqua bags municipal deals worth US$ 20 million
Water treatment firm, Evoqua, has won contracts worth more than US$ 20 million supplying its Memcor microfiltration and ultrafiltration product line to six US and Canadian municipalities. The deals were for filtration, water reuse, drinking water treatment, and reverse-osmosis pre-treatment applications.
New CEO appointed at ERI as 'GG' retires
Almost the last recognizable face of the original team at Energy Recovery Inc (ERI), provider of energy-recovery devices for desalination, will now disappear with the retirement of its CEO, GG Pique.
Desalitech ties up with Toyo for international market
Innovative reverse-osmosis (RO) developer Desalitech and Japan's Toyo Engineering Corporation announced on 11 December 2013 the formation of a strategic partnership to introduce water and wastewater treatment solutions to Japanese, East Asian and international markets.