Asia, Middle East, Energy Recovery, Wastewater Treatment, Recovery, Cyprus, Hawaii


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Energy Recovery wins deals totalling US$ 10.3 million in Asia and Middle East

Pressure energy technology specialist, Energy Recovery, has won US$ 10.3 million in project awards to install its PX Pressure Exchanger technology in desalination plants in Asia and the Middle East.

Energy Recovery announces deal duo

Industrial fluid pressure technology company, Energy Recovery, has announced its second US$ 1.8 million deal in recent weeks at sites in the Middle East and North Africa region. The latest win to supply its PX Pressure Exchanger system was for a 68 Ml/d desalination plant at an undisclosed site in the Middle East. It closed an earlier, similar deal in Morocco.

FEDCO moves to new Dubai sales and service center

Fluid Equipment Development Company (FEDCO) has relocated its Dubai sales and service office to a new facility during November.

ERI pressure-exchangers chosen for Fujairah expansion

Acciona Agua has chosen Energy-Recovery Inc to provide its PX® Q line of energy-recovery devices (ERDs) for the Fujairah 1 Expansion desalination project in the UAE.

Egyptian SWRO plant to use ERI pressure exchangers

Egypt's largest desalination plant being built at Marsa Matrouh is to be supplied with Pressure Exchanger (PX) energy-recovery devices by Energy Recovery Inc of California.

Flowserve wins pumps and ERDs for Larnaca desalination

DWEER™ energy-recovery units and Flowserve DMX high-pressure pumps are to be supplied for the 60,000 m³/d Larnaca seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant currently being rebuilt in Cyprus.

Nirosoft selects ERI PXs for Limassol desalination

The 50,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant currently under construction in Limassol, Cyprus, will use PX-260 pressure-exchangers from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).

The new IDA board directors take up their post at IDA World Congress 2017 in Brazil

IDA unveils new board of directors

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has named its new board of directors for 2017 to 2019.

Energy Recovery unveils $5.4 million contract for Middle East 'mega projects'

US supplier Energy Recovery has won $5.4 million of contracts to supply desalination "mega projects" in the Middle East.

Juan Miguel Pinto is confident that Latin America’s market for desalination and reuse projects is poised for growth. The question is not if, but when?

Interview: Juan Miguel Pinto, ALADYR president

The new president of ALADYR, the Latin America desalination and water reuse association, sees his organisation as a window onto the region for international companies. His big aim is to step up events during 2018, taking knowledge of desalination and reuse out to the market.

From top left: Juan Miguel Pinto, Energy Recovery Inc, Guillaume Clairet, H20 Innovation, Renato Ramos, Dow Water & Process Solutions, and Miguel Angel Sanz, Suez

The experts' pick of the panels at IDA World Congress 2017

The crack team behind the technical program at IDA World Congress 2017 in Sau Paulo, Brazil, have selected their personal not-be-missed favourite sessions from a packed line-up.

AquaVenture chief executive Doug Brown is an engineer-turned-private equity investor-turned-water industry leader

"We're now at more than $100 million revenue." Doug Brown, AquaVenture chairman and CEO

AquaVenture chief executive Doug Brown has a track record of delivering shareholder value. When he joined water technology and engineering firm Ionics as chief executive in 2003, the struggling business was trading at $16 a share.

Hyflux poised for global diversification says chief

Anticipated growth in the global desalination market is expected to help diversify revenue from Asia to the Middle East and African markets for Singapore water company, Hyflux, according to its chief executive Olivia Lum.

Hager + Elsaesser wins southeast Asia deals topping US$ 20 million

The southeast Asia arm of German water treatment firm, Hager + Elsaesser (H+E), has won contracts worth more than US$ 20 million in recent months.

Environnement in global revamp

Suez Environnement has merged its Degrémont subsidiary into its international operating division under a major restructuring of the group's operations outside of Europe that will create five new regional businesses.

Cadagua orders ERI PX-Q300s for Morocco project

Spanish desalination contractor Cadagua has ordered PX‑Q300 pressure‑exchangers from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) for the first phase of the Jorf Lasfar seawater desalination plant in Morocco.

Fernandez to boost ACWA's PPP push in MENA

Leading Spanish economist Luis Fernandez has joined environmental solutions provider ACWA Emirates as chief officer concessions for the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region to provide in-depth support for the company's drive into the public-private partnership (PPP) sector.

GDF Suez bags Lahmeyer

GDF Suez' consultancy arm, Tractebel Engineering, has bought Germany-based water and energy consultancy Lahmeyer International from financial investment firm Capiton.

FEDCO opens Dubai sales and service center

US-based desalination equipment manufacturer Fluid Equipment Development Co (FEDCO) has opened a Middle East Sales & Service Center in Dubai, UAE.

Jersey contracts ACWA to upgrade desalination plant

Utility, Jersey Water, has contracted international water and wastewater treatment firm, ACWA Services, to carry a out a £6 million (US$ 9 million) upgrade of the Channel Island's La Rosière desalination plant in a bid to cut operating costs and meet rising demand.

Energy Recovery bags US$ 1 million in desalination orders in India and Ghana

Fluid flow energy efficiency firm Energy Recovery has won desalination orders totalling US$ 1 million for original manufacturer projects using its technology in India and Ghana. The company said the deals were among a continuing revenue stream from small-to-medium sized projects.

FEDCO moves Singapore office to PUB's WaterHub

Following its continued growth in Asia, Michigan-based Fluid Equipment Development Company (FEDCO) has relocated its Singapore office to the WaterHub location of PUB, the national water agency.

Wastewater leads membrane chemicals charge

Growth in the global membrane chemical market to 2020, will be led by the wastewater sector according to market analyst Future Market Insights (FMI). And desalination was expected to witness the highest compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 11.4% in the global membrane chemicals market between 2014 and 2020. 

IDE in talks with Hawaii desalination plant proposer

Desalination designer and builder IDE Technologies has confirmed to D&WR that it has been talking with billionaire Larry Ellison, who is proposing to build a 2.5 MGD (9,500 m³/d) seawater desalination plant on the island of Lanai.

Hawaiian venue for AMTA/SWMOA workshop

The American Membrane Technology Association and the Southwest Membrane Operator Association are to hold a joint technology transfer workshop in Hawaii.

Reclamation Bureau's water recycling and reuse funding criteria published

The US government's Bureau of Reclamation published on 15 October 2010 the funding criteria under its Title XVI - Water Recycling & Reuse Program for two new funding opportunity announcements in fiscal year 2011.

Doosan Babcock wins maintenance and support deal at giant Taweelah plant

Energy engineering company, Doosan Babcock, has won a contract with Taweelah Asia Power Company (Tapco) to provide essential maintenance and technical support services for Tapco's desalination plant in Abu Dhabi.

Asia-Pacific water-recycling conference calls for papers

The Australian Water Association (AWA), an affiliate of the International Desalination Association has collaborated with the Water Services Association of Australia and WateReuse Australia to present the Asia Pacific Water Recycling Conference 2013.

World Bank publishes report on Arab water reuse

Total water reuse in the Arab world is estimated at 2,170 million m³ per year, according to a report just published by the World Bank summarising the findings of the Expert Consultation Meeting on Wastewater Management in the Arab World, convened in Dubai in May 2011.

Pentair to buy CPT division from Norit

Pentair Inc is to acquire the Netherlands-based Clean Process Technologies (CPT) division of Norit Holding BV in the second quarter of this year for € 503 million (US$ 705 million), plus net debt at closing.

Desalitech and Veolia tie up Mexican MoU

Desalitech Inc has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies to bring advanced cost‑effective high‑recovery water solutions to Mexico and additional countries worldwide.

Desalitech ties up with Toyo for international market

Innovative reverse-osmosis (RO) developer Desalitech and Japan's Toyo Engineering Corporation announced on 11 December 2013 the formation of a strategic partnership to introduce water and wastewater treatment solutions to Japanese, East Asian and international markets.

LACSD signs up Desalitech for chloride‑removal test

Desalination system developer Desalitech is to support a pilot project with the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (LACSD) to upgrade two Santa Clarita Valley wastewater treatment plants in order to meet state‑mandated chloride limits, the company announced on 2 October 2013.

US$ 6.25 million equity investment for Desalitech

Reverse-osmosis (RO) innovator Desalitech Inc has secured an equity investment of U$$ 6.25 million led by Liberation Capital LLC, which will be used for business expansion and working capital.

Papers invited for 2013 AWWA/AMTA event

With the 2012 AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference under way this week in Phoenix, Arizona, a call for papers has been issued for next year's event in Texas.

Agnihotri elected to board of ThermoEnergy Corp

Dr Dileep Agnihotri, the CEO and president of Advanced Hydro Inc, a company set up to commercialise a novel antifouling membrane coating technology at the University of Texas - Austin, has joined the board of ThermoEnergy Corp, a Massachusetts-based company engaged in development and sales of municipal and industrial wastewater-recovery and clean power-generation technologies.

Ozwater '12 abstracts required before 1 September

The Australian Water Association (AWA) has issued a call for papers for Ozwater '12 to be held on 8-10 May 2012 in Sydney.

China's Tri-Tech acquires Wisconsin desalination provider

Desalination and wastewater treatment provider J&Y International Inc, based in Wisconsin, USA, was acquired by subsidiaries of Tri-Tech Holding Inc of China on 9 June 2011.

STW and Sunstone join to market zero discharge technology

Water management firm, STW Water Process and Technologies, has expanded its role in its exclusive agreement with Sunstone Water Group to commercialize Sunstone's patented wastewater effluent treatment technology to provide direct potable reuse (DPR) in municipal markets.

Suez's international business helped to drive group performance in 2016

Suez buoyed by strong International division

Suez has reported organic revenue growth of 1.1 per cent for the year ended December 2016, driven by a 4.7 per cent rise at its International division.

GE signs Saudi Arabian wastewater-reuse MOU

GE has signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) on wastewater reuse with Miahona, a subsidiary of the Arabian Company for Water & Power Development Ltd.

A pilot Desalitech SWRO commercial plant

Desalitech closed-circuit technology set for BWRO project

Israel-based Desalitech Ltd announced on 7 April 2011 that it had been awarded a contract to design and build a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system for Environmental Protection Technologies (EPT), a global company that leads the industrial wastewater treatment market in Israel.

Veolia tops targets in Masdar desalination pilot programme

Interim findings by engineering giant, Veolia, from trials designed to up efficiency and develop renewable energy-driven desalination have already outstripped energy reduction targets the company has reported.

Possibilities for energy optimisation in design and operation of SWRO plants

Seawater desalination with reverse osmosis (SWRO) has taken a noteworthy upturn during recent years. One of the reasons for the success of the membrane process is its lower energy consumption in comparison with thermal desalination processes. The high-pressure RO desalination stage is undoubtedly the dominating energy consumer of an SWRO plant. Energy consumption of SWRO, despite its energy-recovery aspects, is also influenced by a huge number of additional factors. These are both of an external nature (eg, environmental conditions and stipulations), but are also determined by design and configuration of the plant. On the basis of an SWRO plant model, which covers the different pre-treatment and RO configurations and also the design with energy consumption of potabilisation and additional wastewater treatment and sludge dewatering facilities, the specific energy consumption of an SWRO and its subsystems has been determined in this article. Considering the various aspects to be taken into account for optimization of energy consumption in seawater reverse osmosis plants and the fact that in most cases these measures are offset by increases in capital costs for equipment or possibly also in chemical consumption, optimisation of the energy consumption of SWRO plants during planning and operation is a quite extensive and complicated matter and a demanding engineering task. This article is an expanded and updated version of the article published in the August/September issue of D&WR magazine.

FEDCO wins Ras Az Zawr energy-recovery contract

The energy-recovery device (ERD) contract for the reverse-osmosis (RO) section of the giant Ras Az Zawr (Ras Azzour) desalination project in Saudi Arabia has been awarded to Fluid Equipment Development Co (FEDCO).

The project site is U-shaped, and is surrounded by lots filled by industrial operators and their associated infrastructure

Jebel Ali project is a new direction for DEWA and Besix

The $237 million contract awarded by Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) for a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant represents a big step for the client, and for Besix Concessions & Assets, which won the work in partnership with Acciona Agua.

Cadagua lands RO desalination plant in UAE

The UAE's Federal Electricity and Water Authority (FEWA), responsible for supplying water and electricity in the northern emirates, has given Spanish contractor Cadagua a letter of intent for the award of a reverse-osmosis desalination plant in Al Zawrah, Ajman.

The energy recovery devices will help to save 291 gigawatts of energy a year

Energy Recovery scoops $6.2 million of business in Saudi Arabia

Energy Recovery has won $6.2 million of business to supply desalination projects in Saudi Arabia.

Innovations in IDA Congress technical program

Round-table sessions and touch-screen availability of poster presentations will be used for the first time in the International Desalination Association's World Congress in Dubai on 7-12 November 2009, IDA announced on 19 October 2009.

Rick Stover is executive vice president of Desalitech and an IDA board member

Desalitech's Rick Stover: "The world's experts on desal and reuse are coming to Miami"


Desalitech executive vice president Rick Stover says that delegates can expect stimulating open forum discussions, papers and research at the IDA Energy and Environment Conference in Miami, USA, December 2016

Singapore is testing technology to build water resilience and reduce its treatment footprint

Singapore ratchets up developments in water reuse

PUB aims to complete its 12,500 m3/d demonstration-scale plant for MBR systems for water reuse in mid-2017.

Energy Recovery's latest deals will reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions at desalination plants in India and the Middle East

Energy Recovery unveils $5.5 million of deals in India and the Middle East

Energy Recovery, the water technology specialist that recovers energy from industrial fluid flows and pressure cycles, has won new supply deals in the Middle East and India.

Biwater completes Virgin Islands desalination plant

Water technology company, Biwater, has started full commercial operation of a new 10,400 m³/day reverse osmosis seawater desalination plant constructed by the firm on the island of Tortola in the British Virgin Islands.

Electrochemical desalination MoU signed in Singapore

A memorandum of understanding (MoU) between Singapore's national water agency, PUB, and Evoqua Water Technologies to further develop electrochemical desalination technology was one of five MoUs signed during Singapore International Water Week, which ended on 5 June 2014.

Oman's Sur expansion is 70% complete

Construction of Sharqiyah Desalination Company's expansion project for water desalination in Sur, Oman, is 70% complete. The extension project is expected to be completed by mid-2016, said project manager, Veolia.



Energy Recovery bags US$ 1 mlllion US deal duo

Flow energy technology firm, Energy Recovery,  has won US$ 1 million in deals for desalination projects in California and Texas.

Energy Recovery wins US$ 4 million Oman deal

Pressure energy technology, Energy Recovery, has won a US$ 3.96 million order to install its PX Pressure Exchanger technology at a 50,000 m³/d independent water plant at Qurayyat, Oman.

Energy Recovery hires senior management duo

Pressure energy technology firm Energy Recovery has appointed Chris M Gannon as chief financial officer and Eric O Siebert as vice president of corporate strategy. Both appointments are effective from 8 June 2015.

Energy Recovery ships gear to Oman for Sur project

Pressure energy technology firm, Energy Recovery, has shipped the components for a US$ 1 million desalination plant project in Sur, Oman in partnership with French desalination company, Sidem.

Energy Recovery appoints Gay as chief

Pressure energy technology company Energy Recovery has appointed Joel Gay as chief executive officer with immediate effect. Gay served as the company's chief financial officer since 2014 and joined Energy Recovery in 2012.

Xylem wins US$7.3 million Bahrain wastewater upgrade deal

Switzerland-based water technology company Xylem has signed a US$7.3 million contract with Bahrain's Ministry of Works to upgrade a wastewater treatment facility in the Bahrain capital Manama.

Energy Recovery doubles up

Pressure technology firm, Energy Recovery, has won orders totalling US$ 2 million for two separate projects in France and Egypt.

Energy Recovery chief to quit

Chief executive officer (CEO) of pressure technology specialist Energy Recovery, Thomas Rooney, has resigned as the company increases its focus on the oil and gas sector.

Germany's Lahmeyer acquires GKW Consult

Two long-standing German consulting engineering firms have been combined, hard on the heels of the Dutch DHV-Haskoning merger.

Energy Recovery supplies Mirfa project

US fluid pressure recycling specialist, Energy Recovery, is to provide its PX Pressure Exchanger technology to the giant Mirfa desalination project in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Rochem and APTwater announce merger

A merger was announced on 9 November 2011 between APTwater Inc of California, USA, and Rochem AG of Switzerland.

Biwater Florida RO project has manipulated ER unit

Acceptance testing has been successfully completed for a I.5 MGD (5,680 m³/d) reverse osmosis (RO) system being built by Biwater at the Springtree Water Treatment Plant in Sunrise, Florida, USA.

Pressure-exchanger court case goes to Hauge

The latest round of the "pressure-exchanger wars" between inventor Leif J Hauge, his company Isobarix Inc and energy-recovery equipment manufacturer Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) has gone in favour of Hauge.

Piedmont Pacific's Jim Medanich dies at 75

One of the best loved characters of the desalination world passed away on 9 November 2013 - James Medanich, founder and president of Piedmont Pacific Corporation.

Al Ghubrah desalination to use ERI energy-recovery devices

Energy Recover Inc is to supply its PX Q300 Pressure Exchanger® technology for the Al Ghubrah seawater desalination plant in Oman.

ERI lands Al-Jubail contract in Saudi Arabia

Acciona Agua has awarded a contract to Energy Recovery Inc for PX Pressure Exchanger energy‑recovery equipment for the SWRO‑4 desalination plant in Al Jubail, Saudi Arabia.

ERI to provide pressure-exchangers for Carlsbad SWRO

IDE Technologies has selected pressure-exchangers from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) for the 189,000 m³/d Carlsbad seawater desalination plant in California, USA.

Cadagua choses ERI for Valdelentisco desalination refit

Spain's Cadagua has chosen PX® energy-recovery technology for its refit contract for the Valdelentisco desalination plant in Murcia, Spain.

ERI Q Series chosen for Acciona project in Chile

Spanish contractor Acciona Agua has chosen Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) energy-recovery equipment for its contract for the Minera CAP expansion desalination project in the Copiapó Valley in Chile's Atacama Region III, ERI announced on 16 July 2013.

Japanese pump maker buys 50% of FEDCO

Torishima Pump Mfg Co Ltd of Japan has acquired a 50% stake in Fluid Equipment Development Company (FEDCO), the US manufacturer of high- and low‑pressure pumps and energy-recovery equipment for desalination.

ERI providing energy-recovery in Ghana and Oman

Spanish contractor Abengoa will use Energy Recovery Inc's pressure-exchanger technology in two desalination plants it is building in Ghana and Oman.

Parkson moves Middle East work back to USA

Parkson Corp of the USA announced on 15 June 2012 that it is consolidating the operations of its Middle East group into its international division. Parkson says this is to optimize the delivery of its water and wastewater treatment technologies to the rest of its customer base in other parts of the world.

Second Chennai SWRO plant commissioned

The Nemmeli desalination plant in Tamil Nadu, India, was commissioned on 22 February 2013 by the state's chief minister, Selvi J Jayalalithaa. It is the second seawater reverse-osmosis (RO) plant to provide drinking water for the city of Chennai.

ERD comparison tool developed by WateReuse project

A tool to allow engineers to evaluate commercially available energy-recovery devices (ERDs) for reverse-osmosis (RO) systems has been developed under a research project funded by the WateReuse Research Foundation.

ERI denies 'takeover target' story

Energy Recover Inc (ERI), US manufacturer of desalination energy-recovery devices, denied on 20 November 2012 that it was a takeover target, following a report on Bloomberg Business Week based on a telephone interview with ERI's CEO, Tom Rooney.

Memco's ERI PX-180 (left) and its Isobarix replacement (right)

Second Isobarix ER unit installed in Mexico

Isobarix has installed its second commercial XPR energy-recovery unit for Memco Sistemas de Separacion SA de CV, who operate several seawater reverse-osmosis plants at resorts in Cancun and Los Cabos, Mexico.

Santa Cruz desalination EIR delayed until fall

The environmental impact report (EIR) for the proposed 2.5 MGD (9,500 m³/d) desalination plant (scwd²) for Santa Cruz, California, will not now be published until fall 2012.

ERI lands contract for Ghalilah desalination project

Aquatech International has awarded Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) a contract for provision of energy‑recovery devices for a large‑scale desalination plant in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Sadyt chooses ERI pressure-exchangers for Ashdod

Israel's giant Ashdod desalination plant is to use PX-Q300 energy-recovery pressure-exchangers supplied by Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) of the USA.

ERI to supply two S American mining desalination plants

Two large contracts in desalination projects for the mining industry in South American were announced on 1 March 2012 by Energy Recovery Inc (ERI), which will be supplying its PX Pressure Exchangers to both projects.

Perth desalination expansion to use ERDs from ERI

The expansion to the Southern Seawater Desalination Plant in Western Australia is to use PX™ Pressure Exchanger™ energy-recovery devices as were used in the original plant.

Cadagua selects PX devices for Al Zawrah desalination

PX energy-recovery devices have been selected for the 45,000 m³/d Al Zawrah seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in Ajman, UAE, by the consortium led by Spanish company Cadagua.

ERI chief calls for less plant downtime

The new CEO of Energy Recovery Inc (ERI), Tom Rooney, in an interview with Desalination & Water Reuse (D&WR) at the International Desalination Association's World Congress in Perth, Australia, on 7 September 2011, revealed that the company was now focusing on the issue of plant utilization.

Tonner to join Consolidated Water as COO

Experienced desalter John Tonner is joining Consolidated Water Co Ltd as chief operating officer from 1 September 2011.

ERI hires oil expert from Schlumberger

Energy Recovery Inc has hired seasoned oil and gas expert Ismail Nawaz as its vice president, oil and gas product development.

ERI to vacate its facility in Michigan

Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) is vacating the old Pump Engineering (PEI) base in Michigan, USA, where it has assembled turbochargers and pumps for desalination projects since taking over PEI in 2009.

The Blue Hills SWRO plant

ERI pumps and ERDs selected for Bahamas desalination expansion

High-pressure pumps and energy-recovery technology are to be provided for the 18,500 m³/d expansion to the Blue Hills seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant in the Bahamas by Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).

ERI pressure-exchangers for Spanish desalination plant

The 50,000 m³/d Marina Baja-Mutxamel seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant currently under construction near Alicante, Spain, is to be fitted with PX-260 energy-recovery devices.

Dr Michael Lamminen

Parkson appoints international business director

Water recycling and treatment specialist Parkson Corporation has named Dr Michael Lamminen to a new post of international business director to market the company's lineup of cost-efficient and environmentally-sustainable technology around the world.

Dr Richard Stover pictured at a Japan Desalination Association forum in February 2011.

Stover leaves Oasys for Desalitech

Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) old boy Dr Richard Stover has joined Tel Aviv-based Desalitech, a company with a desalination process that does away with energy-recovery devices.

New CEO appointed at ERI as 'GG' retires

Almost the last recognizable face of the original team at Energy Recovery Inc (ERI), provider of energy-recovery devices for desalination, will now disappear with the retirement of its CEO, GG Pique.

Al Sharif made VP sales for ERI's OEM group

California-based Energy Recovery Inc announced on 26 January 2011 the promotion of its former global sales director, Imad Al Sharif, to vice president of sales of OEM group, one of the fastest growing business groups at ERI.

Magtaa desalination turbocharger delivery complete

Delivery of 25 TurboCharger energy recovery devices for the largest seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant in the world has been completed by Energy Recovery Inc (ERI).

Two Spanish desalination plants get ERI PX devices

Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) is to supply energy recovery-devices for two new seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants currently under construction along the Mediterranean coast of Spain.

The facility site at SEA Lab

West Basin district dedicates desalination demo facility

California's West Basin Municipal Water District is nearing completion of its new desalination demonstration facility, following formal dedication of the plant on 12 November 2010.


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