Arizona, Industrial, Desalination, Desalination, Alabama, Arizona


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Arizona wants DPR/seawater desalination plan to start now

An immediate start on work to prepare for direct potable water reuse and seawater desalination is proposed by the Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) in a report recently published by the US state's government.

Jack August to give AWWA/AMTA keynote speech

Dr Jack L August Jr, historian and executive director of the Barry Goldwater Center for the Southwest and visiting scholar in legal history at Snell & Wilmer LLP will be keynote speaker at the AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition, which opens in Pheonix, Arizona, next week.

FO pilot plant could follow HTI Dubai link-up

Forward-osmosis (FO) system manufacturer Hydration Technology Innovations LLC (HTI) has signed an international distribution, services and cooperation agreement for FO technology with Future Technologies LLC of Dubai. Future Technologies will distribute HTI's FO OsMem™ membrane technology for industrial applications.

Aerial view of the Yuma desalting plant, Arizona

Yuma salinity/desalination conference - abstract deadline nears

Abstracts for the Salinity & Desalination in the Southwest conference in Yuma, Arizona, USA, on 26-27 April 2011 must be in by the end of February.

Yuma desalination plant restarted for pilot run

Representatives from the US Department of the Interior and three municipal water agencies gathered on 28 April 2010 to launch a one-year pilot run of the Bureau of Reclamation's Yuma Desalting Plant.

Arizona centre opens to address water scarcity

The University of Arizona's Water and Energy Sustainable Technology (WEST) Centre has opened with a brief to "help enable researchers, public officials, and industry leaders to work together in developing new technologies and more energy sustainable solutions to address water scarcity," according to founding member and sponsor, Dow Water and Process Solutions.

July abstract deadline for joint AWWA/AMTA conference

A deadline of 22 July 2011 has been set for abstracts for the joint Membrane Technology Conference & Exposition being held in Arizona, USA, next year by the American Water Works Association and the Membrane Technology Association.

AMTA lists tech transfer and AWWA events

The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has fixed dates for technology-transfer workshops this year including a joint event with the South West Membrane Operators Association (SWMOA),

Puretec acquires Layne Christensen's DI assets

California-based Puretec Industrial Water announced at the end of March 2013 that it had acquired the assets of Layne Christensen's Arizona-based deionization water purification and water system maintenance services as from 1 April 2013.

Tri-Tech planning forward-osmosis pilot plants

Chinese water and wastewater treatment company Tri-Tech Holdings announced on 13 May 2011 that its current plans include constructing and operating one or more forward-osmosis (FO) pilot units using technology licensed from Arizona-based Hydration Technology Innovations (HTI).

Reverse-osmosis racks at the Scottsdale AWT expansion

Large RO membranes at heart of Scottsdale expansion

The 7.1 MGD (26,900 m³/d) expansion of the City of Scottsdale's Water Campus Advanced Water Treatment (AWT) plant in Arizona, USA, is now fully operational creating a total of 20 MGD (75,700 m³/d) of reused wastewater.

Arizona RO plant gets solar energy boost

The Arizona town of Gila Bend is to build a 460 kW photovoltaic solar‑energy system to power its 1 MGD (3,785 m³/d) reverse‑osmosis (RO) water treatment system.

Arizona panel makes water-reuse recommendations

More than 60 recommendations including many on wastewater reuse have been forwarded to the governor of the US state of Arizona by a "Blue Ribbon" panel formed by the governor, Jan Brewer, in 2009.

Siemens to supply 88,000m³/d UF pretreatment for Scottsdale

Siemens Water Technologies announced on 14 December 2010 a US$ 7 million contract to supply 11 Memcor CP membrane filtration systems for the City of Scottsdale Water Campus Advanced Water Treatment (AWT) Facility expansion in Arizona, USA.

Arizona RO plant opens solar-energy system

A 459 kW photovoltaic (PV) solar power system has been completed at the Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment Facility for the Town of Gila Bend, Arizona, by Solon Corporation, the company announced on 13 February 2013.

The ultrafiltration treatment system at High Point water treatment plant

Clarifier brings quality increase to UF treatment plant

Alabama is not a US state that immediately springs to mind in connection with membrane water treatment, which is why a poster paper at the recent AWWA/AMTA conference in Arizona caught the eye of D&WR. Opened in January 2011, the High Point Water Treatment Plant has used a solids contact clarifier and ultrafiltration to improve its overall water quality by reducing turbidity, removing pathogens, and meeting secondary standards.This article first appeared in the May/June 2012 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

Desalitech building demo plant with Layne Christensen

The originator of the Closed Circuit Desalination (CCD™) technology, Desalitech Ltd, announced on 30 June 2011 that it will work with mineral and water drilling and treatment company Layne Christensen to design and build an innovative desalination system.

AMTA receives US$ 150,000 from ADC dissolution

The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) revealed on 28 February 2012 how it was going to use the US$ 151,000 donated to it by the Affordable Desalination Consortium (ADC) on its dissolution.

Brackish desalination studied for Oklahoma aquifer

The Central Oklahoma Water Resources Authority (COWRA) in the USA is currently working with local company Guernsey Engineering and California's Separation Processes Inc to do a feasibility study and pilot project to use brackish water from the Garber Wellington aquifer which underlies 3,000 sq miles (7,700 km²) of central Oklahoma.

Nine water purification projects bag US$ 1.49 million in funding

The US Bureau of Reclamation has selected nine projects to receive US$ 1.49 million under its Desalination and Water Purification Research programme.

Renewables advocate takes chair in desalination at Murdoch University

Murdoch University's School of Engineering and IT has appointed Professor Wendell Ela as the inaugural chair of desalination and water treatment. He is an advocate of the use of renewable energy for desalination and has developed small solar desalination systems for remote Navajo communities in USA.

AWWA launches Desalination Community web page

The American Water Works Association (AWWA) announced on 27 February 2012 that it had launched a Desalination Community, a page on its website for networking and exchanging ideas.

The Yuma desalination plant

Yuma desalination plant pilot run concluded successfully

The year-long pilot run of the revamped Yuma desalination plant on the Colorado river in the USA has ended in success, the Bureau of Reclamation announced on 1 April 2011.

LA utility tops US water bond risk says report

A report published on 21 October 2010 by Ceres and Water Asset Management alleges that few participants in the US water and electricity bond market -- including investors, bond rating agencies and the utilities themselves -- are accounting for growing water scarcity, legal conflicts and other threats in their analyses.

Two direct potable reuse projects are currently in operation worldwide, in Texas, US, and Windhoek, Namibia

The Long Read: Do we have the technology for potable water reuse?

Water reuse for drinking purposes is racing up the agenda in the US and elsewhere. Work to draw up new rules for potable reuse is advancing in states including California and Arizona, as well as in Canada and the European Union. Technologies are being piloted, and plants permitted.

The CoGenera SunPac concentrating photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar system will drive the plant.

Hybrid solar energy for Navajo Nation membrane distillation project

The University of Arizona and the US government's Bureau of Reclamation are developing a project combining advanced water treatment in the form of membrane distillation with hybrid solar energy to provide water supplies for the Native-American area, Navajo Nation, in the south-west USA. Installation is currently under way and the system will be tested for a year from March 2013. This article first appeared in the November/December 2012 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

AMTA schedules workshops up to 2016 conference

The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has published a list of workshops and conferences up to and including its 2016 Membrane Technology Conference, which will be held with the American Water Works Association (AWWA) in San Antonio, Texas, on 1‑5 February 2016.

Papers invited for 2013 AWWA/AMTA event

With the 2012 AWWA/AMTA Membrane Technology Conference under way this week in Phoenix, Arizona, a call for papers has been issued for next year's event in Texas.

Reverse osmosis to drive US membrane demand to $6.2 billion in 2018

Water and wastewater industry demand for membranes will drive a 7.9%-a-year increase in US demand to reach US$ 6.2 billion by 2018 with reverse osmosis membranes surging 8.6% a year according to report by market research firm, The Freedonia Group.

CH2M Hill reports to USEPA on industrial water use

Water reuse is one of a number of trends for water usage in American industry identified in a report just published by engineering company CH2M Hill for the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA).

AMTA's awards recognise individuals for a variety of contributions to the field of membrane technology

AMTA unveils annual gongs for membrane experts

The American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA) has conferred its annual roster of awards for membrane specialists, include its Lifetime Service Award, Hall of Fame Awards, and Operator of the Year Award.

Direct potable reuse to be debated at WRA symposium

The WateReuse Association has announced the program for its annual symposium, including a closing panel discussion entitled Direct Potable Reuse: Not a Pipe Dream Anymore?

Abstracts invited for WateReuse Symposium in Arizona

Abstracts have been invited for the 26th Annual WateReuse Symposium, which will be held in Phoenix, Arizona, on 11-14 September 2011.

Nine desalination studies bag US$ 1.4 million funding

Nine research projects and pilot studies will share US$1.4 million in funding under a desalination and water purification research programme set up by the US Bureau of Reclamation.

Large Diameter RO Desalination Elements

In recent years, increasing the diameter of spiral elements has been studied as a method of lowering the cost of membrane treatment. It has been shown that the installed cost of a reverse osmosis (RO) plant can be reduced by up to 27% using larger diameter elements.Large diameter elements provide savings in footprint and building costs, as well as savings in the number of connections, to reduce the installed cost of a brackish water RO or nanofiltration (NF) system. This article presents case studies where large diameter reverse osmosis (RO) elements were used, including the reasons why large diameter elements were selected for specific projects. Systems desalinating brackish groundwater for potable water supply in the United States include the City of Goodyear, Arizona; the City of Waupun, Wisconsin; and the Tate-Monroe Water Association of Ohio. In Australia, the Bundamba AWT Plant in Queensland treats municipal effluent for reuse. At Joe White Maltings, an integrated membrane system, combining a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and an RO system, allows wastewater from the plant to be recycled. This article appeared in D&WR magazine's February/March 2009 issue.

IX system improves Alabama MF plant's performance

The City of Oneonta in Alabama, USA, commissioned a 3 MGD (10,500 m³/d) MIEX® ion-exchange system in August 2012 to provide dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal prior to coagulation and microfiltration of Oneonta Utilities' Little Warrior river water source.

The WateReuse awards recognise extraordinary leadership and contribution

WaterReuse awards recognise people and projects

The WateReuse Association has unveiled its annual award winners of people and projects that have made significant contributions to water reuse.

The WateReuse Association awards are designed to recognise leadership in advancing water reuse in the US

Winners of awards for water reuse projects unveiled

America's WateReuse Association has unveiled the winners of this year's awards for leadership in water reuse.

UF units from Innovative bound for Arizona and Haiti

Eight ultrafiltration (UF) drinking water treatment plants are to be provided by Innovative Water Technologies Inc (IWT) for the Central Arizona Project in remote locations throughout Arizona, USA. Units are also being sent urgently to Haiti.

1,100 US counties face water supply crisis by 2050, says report

A new analysis for the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), examining the effects of global warming on water supply and demand in the contiguous United States, has found that more than 1,100 counties will face higher risks of water shortages by mid-century as the result of global warming.

Papermaker ups water performance with Desalitech reverse osmosis

Arizona-based papermaker, Doubletree Paper Mills, said it has increased its purified water recovery by 20% at its Gila Bend plant since replacing its reverse osmosis water treatment system in 2014 with Desalitech's ReFlex RO system. The modification has also cut wastewater output by almost two thirds and lopped 25 % off energy consumption said Doubletree.

ConocoPhillips becomes 3rd Saltworks Technologies investor

Canadian desalination and brine treatment company Saltworks Technologies announced on 23 May 2014 that it had received investment funding from ConocoPhillips Company, Saltworks' third industrial shareholder.

Desalitech RO wastewater use 'will pay back in 6 months'

Desalitech, developer of the closed-circuit desalination (CCD) system, is to supply a zero liquid discharge (ZLD) advanced wastewater treatment system for a pesticide plant in Gujarat, India.

Oasys announces sales hook-up with oil & gas servicer

Forward-osmosis specialist Oasys Water announced on 12 December 2013 that it had recently signed an exclusive sales agreement with National Oilwell Varco LP (NOV), a leading global provider of equipment and services used in the oil and gas market.

EIS filed for SWRO desalination plant for Chile fishery

An environmental impact study (EIS) has been filed by Seven Seas Water Chile SpA for the Bahía Caldera Desalination Plant in Chile's Region III.

Desalination capacity increasing by 50% in 2013 says IDA

Desalination plants with a total capacity of 6 million m³/d are expected to come on line during 2013, a 50% increase on 2012, according to new data from the International Desalination Association and GWI DesalData.

Perth groundwater replenishment project gets go-ahead

The Western Australia state government announced on 1 August 2013 that it was adopting groundwater replenishment with reused municipal and industrial wastewater to help secure Perth's water supplies.

China names seawater desalination project sites

China's National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), the country's top economic planner, announced on 15 March 2013 the first batch of regions and companies selected to carry out seawater desalination projects.

Desalitech launches US base and hires new staff

Desalitech Ltd, developer of the Closed Circuit Desalination (CCD) sytem, announced on 18 December 2013 that it will be establishing its US headquarters in Massachusetts. It has also hired four new staff in the US.

Aeromix to build giant desalination plant for Pakistan port

A 97 MIGD (440,000 m³/d) seawater desalination plant is to be built in Port Qasim, Pakistan, by Aeromix Systems, a subsidiary of RWL Water Group.

Hitachi and Hyflux in Indian desalination agreement

A co-developer agreement for a seawater desalination project in Gujarat state, India, was announced on 22 March 2012 by a consortium of Hitachi Ltd and Itochu Corporation of Japan with Hyflux Ltd of Singapore.

EDS/Wetsus issues membrane conference call for papers

A deadline of 30 June 2012 has been set for abstracts for the eighth in the series of conferences on Membranes in Drinking & Industrial Water Production, which will take place at Leeuwarden in the Netherlands on 10‑12 September 2012.

Carmine Ciccocioppo, general manager operations for Osmoflo, and Matt Reed, general manager mines and export, for OneSteel at the commissioning.

Osmoflo commissions 4,000 m³/d SWRO desalination plant

A 4,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant has been commissioned in Whyalla, South Australia, for steel manufacturer OneSteel.

Italian project in Libya includes desalination plant

Italian energy company Eni announced on 19 December 2010 that it had signed a memorandum of understanding for development of a social project in El Agheil, Libya, including construction of a desalination plant.

The ultrafiltration system in Abu Dhabi supplied by inge watertechnologies AG will treat 80,000 m³/d.

UF modules ordered for UAE steelworks' RO pretreatment

Ultrafiltration modules from Germany's inge watertechnologies AG have been ordered for a 80,000 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis desalination plant at the Emirates Steel Industries steelworks in Mussafah, UAE.

Malaysian desalination plant in Tianjin will be ZLD

A groundbreaking ceremony took place on 29 May 2014 for an industrial desalination project in Tianjin, China, which is claimed to be the first zero-liquid discharge seawater desalination project in the world.

Texas county desalination scheme slated to supply industry

The Texas General Land Office has agreed a deal with desalination firm, Seven Seas Water, to develop a plan for building a seawater desalination plant in the San Patricio-Nueces county.

Seven groups bid for giant Oman scheme

Seven multinational company-led consortiums have pitched for the Oman's largest independent water desalination project. The 330 Ml/d scheme will include two sites at Barka and Sohar on Oman's Batinah coast.



China ups daily desalt capacity by a billion cubic metres

China built 112 seawater desalination plants in 2014, with a total output of 927 Ml/d the State Oceanic Administration revealed recently in a report on seawater use during last year.

Solar desalination champion teams with university

Louisiana, engineer and solar powered desalination entrepreneur, Hill Kemp, has teamed up with University of Texas, El Paso (UTEP) to market the technology to industrial customers.

Probe finds staff ignored manual as Oman desalination plant went down

Lack of staff emergency skills and failure to follow operating manual instructions were among the reasons for a catastrophic loss of power and water production at Oman's Sohar 1 power and desalination plant in May according to a report issued by the Oman Authority for Electricity Regulation.

IDA World Congress in California

A pivotal event in the global desalination and water reuse sector will be held at the US industry's epicentre amid an historic drought when the 2015 IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse convenes in San Diego, California at the end of August 2015. The "location, theme and timing could not be more appropriate," said IDA secretary general, Patricia A Burke.

Pakistan province pushes delayed desalination project

Pakistan's National Accountability Bureau (NAB) chairman, Qamar Zaman Chaudhry, has pushed the bureau's Balochistan arm to bring a long-awaited 2 Ml/d desalination plant at Karwat, Gwadar finally into operation.

Israel needs no more desalination this decade

Despite a record level of drought in 2014, Israel will not need to build more major desalination capacity this decade according to a new report by the country's Water Authority.

Masterclass webinar to look at combining reuse and desalination using forward osmosis

Award-winning researcher, Gaetan Bandin, will present the next Desalination and Water Reuse Masterclass Webinar on 30 June looking at opportunities and challenges for forward osmosis and pressure assisted osmosis (PAO) to combine water reuse and desalination.

IDE celebrates its half-century 

Staff at IDE Technologies and their families have recently returned from a weekend of festivity in Eilat, Israel to commemorate the desalination company's 50th anniversary.

Hyflux wins Saudi deal for Yanbu

Desalination specialist, Hyflux, has won a US$ 48 million contract to build a containerised desalination system for Saudi Arabia.

Sohar desalination plant problems could cost US$ 1.8 million

Sohar Power Company (SPC) has said its water desalination plant will be brought back to full capacity by 20 June following earlier operational problems that will cost between OMR 0.7 million (US$ 1.82 million) and OMR 1.4 million, depending on the outcome of remedial actions, the company said in an online statement.

Adionics launches liquid-to-liquid desalination system

France-based Adionics has launched a smart desalination solution that is able to remove specific salts to address the growing demand coming from oil and gas, food and beverages as well as mining.

Oman lays out desalination plans

Oman Power and Water Procurement Company (OPWP) has outlined plans for its procurement of a string of independent water projects (IWPs) at a number of locations around the country totalling more than 220 m³/d in capacity.

Norwegian desalination barge venture seeks Israeli expertise

Norwegian company, EnviroNor, is recruiting Israeli expertise to provide the water-processing technology necessary for its project to convert secondhand oil barges into floating desalination and wastewater treatment plants.



Areva set to hand over desalination plant to Namibia

French nuclear group, Areva, is poised to hand over a desalination plant to the Namibian government, for an undisclosed sum according to the south west African country's chamber of mines.

Oman calls for tenders to build its largest desalination plant

Oman Power and Water Procurement Company (OPWP) has opened pre-qualification for the selection of a private developer to build Oman's biggest independent water desalination project with a capacity of 531,000 m³/d.

IDE opens shop in Texas

IDE Technologies has furthered its expansion in the US with a new office in Texas headed up by newly appointed regional director of sales, Mark Ellison.

Australian study finds way to up value of desalination for farming

Scientists at Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) have found that the addition of nutrients could make desalinated water more financially attractive to farmers.

Energy Recovery supplies Mirfa project

US fluid pressure recycling specialist, Energy Recovery, is to provide its PX Pressure Exchanger technology to the giant Mirfa desalination project in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Asia and industrials to counter desalination decline

Declining drought in new desalination markets has weakened growth but a long-term counter from expansion in Asia and elsewhere creates a positive outlook for 10,000m³-plus plants according to a recent forecast by market researcher, Bluefield.

Aqualogy starts up copper mine desalination plant in Chile

Aqualogy has inaugurated the operation and maintenance of a US$ 100 million reverse osmosis desalination plant built for the Mantoverde copper mine.

Oman calls for tenders on desalination plant pair

Oman's Public Authority for Electricity and Water (PAEW) has unveiled plans to open the construction of two water desalination plants to tender.

Scientists to probe outlet brine risks to sealife

Scientists have been commissioned to investigate whether brine waste from two proposed 150 Ml/d seawater reverse osmosis desalination plants could damage or alter the marine environment along the KwaZulu-Natal coastline in South Africa.

STW fires up Salttech reclamation demonstration in US

US water reclamation company STW Resources has started operation of a Salttech zero liquid discharge water reclamation system demonstration in Fort Stockton, Texas.

Oman plans desalination for Duqm

Oman's Public Authority for Electricity and Water has requested Oman Power and Water Procurement Company (OPWP) to initiate procurement for a new 30,000 m³/d independent water project to be completed in the fourth quarter of 2017 according to OPWP annual report.

Chinese firms form desalination plant joint venture

Water technology firm Beijing Origin Water and Chinese state-owned a water supplier Qingdao Water Group have established the Qingdao Water Origin Science Development joint venture (JV) to build a 100,000 m³/d seawater reverse osmosis plant in the northeastern Chinese province of Qingdao.

Degrémont eyes desalination contracts in Mexico

French water services company Degrémont is seeking to participate in a public tender to construct a desalination plant in three Mexican states according to a Mexican state news outlet.

Indian steel firm plans new desalination plant

Indian state-run steel firm Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited (RINL) is planning to set up a desalination plant to make up for the shortfall in water supply to its Visakhapatnam steel plant (VSP) on the country's east coast and become self-reliant in water.

Doosan Heavy predicts more desalination wins as demand soars

Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction has predicted more desalination plant orders after the South Korean industrial giant won a U$1 billion order to build a desalination plant in Saudi Arabia - its single largest contract in nine months.

New desalination plant will meet Sharjah's demand

A water desalination plant with a capacity of 100 million litres a day has opened at Al Hamriya at a total cost of Dh446 million ($120 million).

Korea and Iran in desalination deal

An agreement to construct a new 60 Ml/d desalination plant in Iran is one of three deals worth some US$ 1.6 billion signed by Iran and South Korea recently.

Abengoa to build SWRO plant in Agadir, Morocco

Spanish contractor Abengoa has been chosen by Morocco's Office National de l'Electricité et de l'Eau Potable (ONEE) to construct a new desalination plant in Agadir, Morocco.

Dow Saudi factory ships first elements

Dow Water & Process Solutions' (DW&PS) has made its first shipment of its Filmtech reverse osmosis (RO) elements from its new Jubail Operations manufacturing facility in Saudi Arabia.

Fluor to build Dow's RO membrane factory in Saudi Arabia

Fluor Corporation has been awarded a contract by the Dow Chemical Company to build Dow's reverse osmosis (RO) membrane manufacturing facility in Jubail Industrial City II in Saudi Arabia.

Hyflux sees Dahej desalination funding 'within year'

Hyflux has extended the time it foresees for financial closure on its Dahej seawater desalination plant in India to "within this year".

Abengoa takes stake in Beijing-based GreenTech

Spanish desalination and energy contractor Abengoa has acquired 25% of the Beijing-based water company GreenTech.

Registration open for WateReuse research conference

Registration is open for the 18th Annual Water Reuse & Desalination Research Conference to be held by the WateReuse Research Foundation in Las Vegas on 19-20 May 2014.

MD plant using generator heat starts on Maldive island

The world's first desalination unit using waste heat from a power generator with membrane distillation has started up on Guhli island in the Maldives in the Indian Ocean.

ALADYR affiliates to International Desalination Association

The Asociación Latinoamericana de Desalación y Reuse del Agua (ALADYR) has become the newest affiliate organization to join the International Desalination Association (IDA), bringing to 15 the number of regional and association IDA affiliates around the world.

Rodrigo Turra

New Chile office and country chief for IDE Technologies

IDE Technologies has opened a new office in Chile and appointed Rodrigo Turra as country sales director.

Doosan Enpure secures Escondida pretreatment contract

Doosan Enpure has secured a US$ 17 million contract to design, procure and supply the pretreatment plant for the desalination part of the Escondida Water Supply Project at the world's largest copper mine in Chile's Atacama desert.

Drought stricken California county looks to nuclear plant desalination plant

California's San Luis Obispo County board of supervisors has approved a sewage reclamation project that could add treated wastewater to an aquifer and the expansion of a desalination facility at the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant as emergency water supply options.

Abstracts invited for WateReuse symposium in Dallas

The WateReuse Association (WRA) has issued a call for presentations and posters for its 29th Annual WateReuse Symposium, which will be held on 7-10 September 2014 in Dallas, Texas, USA.


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