Africa, Energy, Mining, Saudi Arabia, Brackish Water, Reverse Osmosis, Water Quality, Malta


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South Africa to focus on desalination and water reuse

Desalination and the reuse of wastewater from municipalities and mining are strongly emphasised in the 2nd National Water Resources Strategy (NWRS2) for South Africa released at the start of July 2013.

Veolia supplies RO desalination to Mauritania mine

A 1,500 m³/d reverse-osmosis (RO) brackish-water desalination plant has been supplied to a mine in Mauritania by Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies South Africa, with a heat-exchanger to cool the water.

Australian mining town to up quality from boreholes close to pit with desalination plant

The Australian arm of water technology firm, Valoriza Agua, has won a design and construct contract to deliver a 16.5 Ml/d water treatment plant to replace an existing facility and provide drinking water for the Western Australian mining town, Newman and the mine. The plant will include brackish water reverse osmosis and an ultraviolet treatment system to treat a mix of flows from drinking water boreholes sited too close to mining activities.

Desalination capacity increasing by 50% in 2013 says IDA

Desalination plants with a total capacity of 6 million m³/d are expected to come on line during 2013, a 50% increase on 2012, according to new data from the International Desalination Association and GWI DesalData.

MottMac buys up South African engineering firm

Johannesburg-based engineering specialist PD Naidoo & Associates has been acquired by global engineering firm Mott MacDonald.

RO plant commissioned for US military base

A reverse-osmosis (RO) drinking-water plant supplied by ThermoEnergy Corporation to a major US military base at an undisclosed location in the Africa/Middle East region was commissioned in early December 2011.

Cadagua orders ERI PX-Q300s for Morocco project

Spanish desalination contractor Cadagua has ordered PX‑Q300 pressure‑exchangers from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) for the first phase of the Jorf Lasfar seawater desalination plant in Morocco.

RO-based advanced treatment plant for West Virginia mines

A 5 MGD (19,000 m³/d) membrane-based wastewater treatment plant is to be built to serve a number of coal mines in West Virginia, USA, as a result of government action following pollution violations.

Namibian uranium mine ponders desalination project

Namibian uranium mining firm Rössing Uranium is investigating the economic viability of designing, constructing and operating a new desalination plant to supply its operation in the economically important Erongo Region where water is scarce.

Fluor to build Dow's RO membrane factory in Saudi Arabia

Fluor Corporation has been awarded a contract by the Dow Chemical Company to build Dow's reverse osmosis (RO) membrane manufacturing facility in Jubail Industrial City II in Saudi Arabia.

Oxnard AWPF currently under construction

Finance agreed for Camarillo regional desalter studies

Two water districts and two - possibly three - cities in southern California have agree to finance studies for a regional brackish-water desalination plant to be located near Camarillo.

Severn-Trent wins Chilean mining desalination contract

US water and wastewater treatment company Severn Trent Services has been awarded a contract to provide a seawater desalination plant that will serve the potable and process water needs of the Minera Esperanza copper and gold mine in Antofagasta, Chile.

PWT to be represented by Omya in EMEA region

Professional Water Technologies announced on 6 September 2011 that it had signed a sales representative agreement with Omya International AG, a leading global producer of industrial minerals, and a worldwide distributor of chemical products.

RO consumes 4% of Malta's electricity, says new group

Reverse-osmosis desalination plants consume almost 4% of Malta's electricity supply, according to a statement from the newly-formed Malta Water Association (MWA) on 22 March 2011. The group, made up of hydrologists, engineers and other water experts, warned that urgent action is needed to protect Malta's water resources, which "are among the scarcest in the world and under severe stress."

Africa's largest desalination plant opens

Singapore-based desalination company, Hyflux, has officially opened its recently completed 500,000 m³/d desalination plant at Magtaa, Algeria. The facility is Africa's biggest and contains the largest ultrafiltration pre-treatment facility in the world according to Hyflux.

Ghana desalination plant begun by Agengoa

Construction of the Nungua seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant in Ghana, the first large desalination plant in West Africa, is now under way.

GrahamTek is an innovator in 16-inch reverse osmosis membrane technology

GrahamTek wins contract for SWCC pilot project

GrahamTek of South Africa has won a contract for a desalination pilot project for Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC), Saudi Arabia.

Feasibility started for South African desalination plant

A feasibility study is underway in South Africa's Northern Cape for a 7,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant at Abraham Villiers Bay close to the town of Kotzesrus.

A pilot Desalitech SWRO commercial plant

Desalitech closed-circuit technology set for BWRO project

Israel-based Desalitech Ltd announced on 7 April 2011 that it had been awarded a contract to design and build a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system for Environmental Protection Technologies (EPT), a global company that leads the industrial wastewater treatment market in Israel.

GDF Suez bags Lahmeyer

GDF Suez' consultancy arm, Tractebel Engineering, has bought Germany-based water and energy consultancy Lahmeyer International from financial investment firm Capiton.

H2O Innovation lands San Jose WTP ultrafiltration contract

A 30 MGD (113,562 m³/d) hollow-fiber ultrafiltration (UF) membrane water treatment system in California is one of three new contracts totaling Can$ 8.8 million (US$ 8.1 million) announced on 21 May 2014 by H2O Innovation.

Yokogawa to provide control system for Jubail SWRO plant

Yokogawa Middle East & Africa has received an order from Petroleum, Chemicals & Mining Company Limited (PCMC) to supply the control system for the SWRO-4 desalination plant, which is being built in Jubail, Saudi Arabia, by the Power & Water Utility Company for Jubail & Yanbu (Marafiq).

The new membrane facility will serve markets across the Middle East, North Africa and Asia

DuPont opens membrane factory in Saudi Arabia

DuPont Water Solutions has opened a new membrane manufacturing facility in Saudi Arabia.

Reynolds to lead CH2M Hill in MENA and India

Chartered engineer Neil Reynolds has been appointed regional managing director for CH2M Hill's operations in Middle East/North Africa (MENA) and India.

South Australian town to get new desalination plant

South Australia's water minister, Ian Hunter, announced on 1 May 2013 that a brackish-water desalination plant to deliver improved water quality to the town of Hawker, in the Flinders Ranges 100km north of Port Augusta, had been approved for construction.

IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse will make a return visit to Dubai in 2019

IDA to return to Dubai for World Congress 2019

The International Desalination Association (IDA) is to return to Dubai, United Arab Emirates, for its World Congress in 2019, building on the earlier success of the IDA World Congress held in the emirate in 2009.

Dow signs Fluor to build new Saudi desalination component factory

The Dow Chemical Company has appointed Fluor Corporation to build a new factory to manufacture reverse osmosis components for desalination plants in Saudi Arabia.

Private players are reshaping desalination says report

Private water companies are "reshaping global desalination" with nine of the top ten capacity additions in 2015 coming from private sector players according to market researcher Bluefield Research.

Installed desalination growth slowed in 2011‑2012

Installed desalination capacity around the world rose by only 9% last year to reach 78.4 million m³/d, according to the latest data published by the International Desalination Association (IDA) and Global Water Intelligence (GWI).

Dow project seeks to promote reuse

Dow Water & Process Solutions, is participating in one of ten European Commission-funded projects that aim to stimulate innovation and improve cohesion in Europe's water reuse sector.

Hyflux poised for global diversification says chief

Anticipated growth in the global desalination market is expected to help diversify revenue from Asia to the Middle East and African markets for Singapore water company, Hyflux, according to its chief executive Olivia Lum.

Djibouti 'planning desalination plant with EU aid'

The government of Djibouti in east Africa is planning to build a 45,000 m³/d desalination plant with European Union (EU) finance, according to a report in Gulf News on 4 December 2011.

Acciona Agua makes two new MENA appointments

Spanish desalination company Acciona Agua has appointed José Díaz-Caneja as development manager, Middle East and North Africa.

Ex-Adelaide desalination chief joins Singapore's Hyflux

Milind Kumar, formerly project director of the Adelaide Desalination Plant for South Australia Water, has been appointed to a senior position in Singapore group Hyflux Ltd.

CaribDA pretreatment workshop set for Antigua

A workshop on pretreatment for seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants is being held by the Caribbean Desalination Association (CaribDA) on the island of Antigua on 7-8 April 2011.

Trekkopje SWRO opened at Namibian uranium mine

The 55,000 m³/d Trekkopje seawater desalination plant in Nambia was opened opened on 16 August 2010 in the presence of Namibia's minister of agriculture, water and forestry, John Mutorwa, and former president, Same Nujom

Gold miner opts for desalination to supply planned Mexican mine

The gold mining arm of energy firm, Chesapeake, has opted to use desalinated seawater to supply water for its proposed Metates gold and silver mining project in Durango state, Mexico. It has tendered for proposals to build and operate a 55Ml/d desalination facility to supply the mine with fresh water.

Tunisia and Malta to share desalination expertise

Tunisia has signed an agreement with the Mediterranean island of Malta involving sharing of expertise on desalination plants.

Oil sands UF water treatment won by H2O Innovation

A Can$ 9.4 million (US$ 9.6 million) contract for a membrane-based water treatment package has been awarded to H2O Innovation Inc by Fort Hills Energy LP for the Fort Hills Oil Sands Project in Alberta, Canada.

Environnement in global revamp

Suez Environnement has merged its Degrémont subsidiary into its international operating division under a major restructuring of the group's operations outside of Europe that will create five new regional businesses.

Japan funds Cape Verde desalination scheme

Japan's International Cooperation Agency (JICA) is to provide US$ 150 million towards the funding of a US$ 200 million desalination plant for the Cape Verde republic off the coast of West Africa.

Metito backs low-temperature distillation to challenge lead desalination technologies

Dubai-based water technology firm, Metito, is set to make a "significant investment" in clean-tech company Thermal Purification Technologies (TPTec), to develop TPTec's patented low-temperature distillation (LTD) technology. Metito claims LTD could displace existing membrane and thermal desalination technologies.

Texas state funding wind-powered desalination pilots

The Texas Department of Rural Affairs (TDRA) is offering US$ 1.5 million to smaller local governments in the US state for brackish-water desalination demonstration projects using wind energy. Deadline for applications for the 2010 Desalination Fund is 29 January 2010.

Aquatech wins SWRO desalination contract in Gujarat

Tata Power has awarded Aquatech International Corporation an EPC contract for a 25,200 m³/d seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant for India's first Ultra Mega Power Project (UMPP) at Mundra in coastal Gujarat.

A generation of knowledge and experience in water is being lost as baby boomers retire

Is water in the grip of a skills crisis?

In an engineering-heavy sector such as water, it's a truism that well qualified people are thin on the ground. But is it more accurate to say that the global water industry in the grip of a skills crisis?

Escondida desalination is first Doosan job in Latin America

Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction announced its first seawater desalination plant project in the Latin American market on 25 August 2013.

H2O Innovation takes Californian reuse contract

A contract to expand the Leo J Vander Lans Advanced Water Treatment Facility in Long Beach, California, has been awarded to Canadian company H2O Innovation Inc.

Ministry reported to have rejected Chile desalination EIS

The Ministerio del Medio Ambiente (Environment Ministry) in Chile has apparently rejected the environmental impact study (EIS) produced by Suez subsidiary Agbar Chile for an 86,000 m³/d desalination plant in Northern Region III.

Chilean mine SWRO gets environmental approval

An environmental impact study (EIS) for a 26,000 m³/d desalination plant for a mining operation in northern Chile is reported to have been approved by the regional office of the Ministerio del Medio Ambiente (environment ministry).

Acciona to build RO plant for Chile mines

Spain's Acciona Agua has been selected by Grupo CAP to design, build, bring into service and operate for 20 years a seawater desalination plant to service mining operations in the Copiapó Valley in Chile's Atacama Region III.

Senegal mulls desalination to counter supply shortfall in capital

Senegal water utility, Senegalaise des Eaux (SDE), is planning investment in desalination to avoid repeats of last year's severe supply shortages in the the rapidly growing capital city, Dakar, according to the firm's chief executive Mamadou Dia.

IDE lands big Australian mining RO contract

IDE Technologies has been awarded the design and supply contract for a 140,000 m³/d desalination plant for the Sino Iron Project in Western Australia by CITIC Pacific Mining.

Papers deadline stretched for IWA reuse conference

The International Water Association (IWA) has extended the deadline for submission of outline papers for the 9th IWA International Conference on Water Reclamation & Reuse.

Dow Saudi factory ships first elements

Dow Water & Process Solutions' (DW&PS) has made its first shipment of its Filmtech reverse osmosis (RO) elements from its new Jubail Operations manufacturing facility in Saudi Arabia.

AquaVenture chief executive Doug Brown is an engineer-turned-private equity investor-turned-water industry leader

"We're now at more than $100 million revenue." Doug Brown, AquaVenture chairman and CEO

AquaVenture chief executive Doug Brown has a track record of delivering shareholder value. When he joined water technology and engineering firm Ionics as chief executive in 2003, the struggling business was trading at $16 a share.

Mombasa is hoping to become the first African city to host the IDA World Congress

Kenya's a contender for IDA 2021 World Congress

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has shortlisted Mombasa, Kenya, among four finalists to host its 2021 World Congress, reports The Star.

NWC report boosts Australian brackish desalination

Brackish groundwater desalination can be considered a viable community water supply option in some areas, says a report just announced by Australia's National Water Commission (NWC).

Water scarcity is the biggest driver of water reuse, say respondents to our industry survey

Water reuse: a growing market of opportunity and challenge

Survey findings suggest a market with the technical expertise, innovative ideas, and will to service customers' water needs, while a lack of money, reluctance to take chances on new technology, and instances of poor governance present challenges.

Australia funds water study for coal-seam gas industry

The Australian government is spending up to Aus$ 3.88 million (US$ 3.61 million) on a water feasibility study for the Queensland coal-seam gas industry.

New Mexico BWRO seeking waste revenue stream

Processing residual wastes from a proposed brackish-groundwater desalination plant in New Mexico, USA, could provide a revenue of around US$ 4.6 million/year, according to a preliminary engineer report just completed.

Adionics launches liquid-to-liquid desalination system

France-based Adionics has launched a smart desalination solution that is able to remove specific salts to address the growing demand coming from oil and gas, food and beverages as well as mining.

Acciona forecasts Chilean desalination surge on back of revitalized copper mining

Spanish clean energy and water company, Acciona, has forecast a surge in demand for desalination plants in Chile as the country's copper mining industry expands.

Maltese desalination test-bed shows SalTec energy-recovery advantages

Throughout the desalination industry, plant operators are looking for long-term solutions with lower lifecycle cost because of the link between water costs and energy costs. In order to meet operators' demands and requirements, equipment manufacturers are investing considerable resources in the development of new technologies that will reduce energy costs. The Water Services Corporation in Malta is one example of a forward-looking operator of a seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant seeking to ensure the production of high-quality drinking water at an affordable price. Established in 1993 to produce and distribute potable water on the islands of Malta and Gozo, WSC has an annual production target of 35 million m to satisfy the needs of its 400,000 residents and in excess of one million tourists. With the drive to produce greater efficiencies and water quality WSC has taken an opportunity to investigate and monitor the potential of a new technology from KSB, the SalTec pressure boosting and energy recovery system. The SalTec DT pressure exchanger in combination with KSB's HGM RO high-pressure pump creates a highly attractive proposition for RO plant designers and operators. The SalTec DT system provides a nominal capacity of 250 m /h, giving it the capability to operate in plants with train sizes ranging between 4,400 m /d and 5,000 m /d of permeate at common recovery rates.

The new research paper synthesises data to create a world map of brine production

UN urges desalination industry to improve on brine

The United Nations has called on the desalination industry to clean up its act on brine as the number of desalination plants worldwide continues to climb.

Veolia Peru wins operation deal for mine desalination

Veolia Peru, has won a three-year operation and maintenance contract for a 4.1 Ml/d reverse osmosis desalination plant at the Cerro Lindo multi metal mine owned by Lima-quoted exploration and mining firm, Milpo.

Chilean politicians launch mining desalination bill

A cross-party group of eight deputies in the lower house of the Chilean national congress has submitted a bill to require mining companies using more than 150 L/s of water for extraction purposes to install seawater desalination equipment.

Aqualogy starts up copper mine desalination plant in Chile

Aqualogy has inaugurated the operation and maintenance of a US$ 100 million reverse osmosis desalination plant built for the Mantoverde copper mine.

Bechtel contract for Escondida desalination project

BHP Billiton has contracted Bechtel to provide engineering, project management and construction services for the water supply to the Escondida copper mine in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.

“We are looking at organic growth, and mergers, acquisitions, and joint ventures.

Energy Recovery: 'hyper-focused' on water

The former chief financial director of Energy Recovery has now stepped into the top job as chief executive on a permanent basis. He reveals plans to develop new packaged product for the desalination market, and takes a wry line on the industry's lively rumour mill.

IDA releases program details for Morocco conference

The International Desalination Association released details on 19 January 2012 of the Program Highlights of the Desalination and Sustainability conference which will take place on 1-2 March 2012 in Casablanca, Morocco.

Juan Miguel Pinto is confident that Latin America’s market for desalination and reuse projects is poised for growth. The question is not if, but when?

Interview: Juan Miguel Pinto, ALADYR president

The new president of ALADYR, the Latin America desalination and water reuse association, sees his organisation as a window onto the region for international companies. His big aim is to step up events during 2018, taking knowledge of desalination and reuse out to the market.

'Project bankability is one of the big challenges,' Miguel Angel Sanz, IDA World Congress 2017 technical program chair

Highlights to watch at IDA World Congress 2017

Technical program chair Miguel Angel Sanz introduces his highlights from the line up at IDA World Congress 2017

Aquarion in tie with mining cleantech player

Ottawa-based cleantech company, BluMetric Environmental, has teamed up with Swiss water technology firm, Aquarion, in a technology, business, and project development agreement with an industrial wastewater focus.

Jorge T Aguinaldo

New quartet joins RWL's Aeromix and Nirosoft

RWL Water has recently added four new staff to its group companies Aeromix and Nirosoft.

Mobile BWRO system aids Greek power-station completion

Completion of a power-station water treatment project based on mobile brackish-water reverse-osmosis (BWRO) desalination systems was announced in on 3 February by Swiss-based Ecolutia Services, part of the Stulz/Hager & Elsässer group.

The Kay Bailey Hutchison desalination plant

URS to assist El Paso desalination solar project

The Public Services Board in El Paso, Texas, on 10 November 2010 voted to hire URS Corporation as a consultant to assist with the choice of a solar energy system to power part of the Kay Bailey Hutchison desalination plant.

The RO hall at the Thames Gateway desalination plant east of London.

Four-stage RO for London desalination plant

The UK's 150,000 m³/d Thames Gateway brackish-water reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination plant, which was opened by Queen Elizabeth's husband, the Duke of Edinburgh, on 2 June 2010, has a four-stage RO process.

Peruvian mine desalination 'viable' says Southern Copper

The construction of a desalination plant for Southern Copper's US$ 1 billion Tia Maria copper mine, in the Islay province of Arequipa in Peru, is "a viable option", according to the company's executive president Oscar Gonzales, quoted by Reuters on 24 May 2010.

Ceramic nanofiltration company gets big investor

ItN Nanovation AG, a start-up company in Saarbrucken, Germany, making nanofiltration ceramic products for the water industry, announced on 9 December 2010 a framework investment agreement with the US investment fund YA Global Master SPV Ltd, part of the Yorkville Group.

EDR plant at Abrera

Large EDR river desalination plant opens in Spain

GE Water and Aigües Ter-Llobregat (ATLL) of Spain announced on 19 May 2009 the opening of the 220,000 m³/d electrodialysis reversal (EDR) brackish water desalination plant on the Llobregat river.

Agency approves W Australian desalination plant

Western Australia's Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on 13 February 2012 announced conditional approval for Grange Resources Ltd's proposal to construct and operate the Cape Riche Desalination Plant.

Mining water treatment market to grow 85% by 2019

The global water treatment market for hard-rock mining - iron, copper, gold, nickel - is set to grow 85% to US$ 17 billion by 2019 according to market analyst, Bluefield Research.

Acciona wins desalination deal in Cape Verde islands

A consortium of Spanish water technology firm, Acciona Agua, and construction firm Sade-CGTH, has won a €16 million (US$ 18.5 million) design and build contract for a 5,000 m³/d seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant on each of the African Cape Verde islands of Sal and São Vicente from the local energy and water utility, Electra-SARL.

GE expands HERO licensing agreement

GE Power & Water announced on 1 February 2011 that it has completed a new expanded licensing agreement to allow it to continue offering High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HERO™) systems to help more of its industrial customers increase their water usage efficiency and reuse capacity.

Billiton clears finance for 216,000 m³/d Chile desalination

An investment of US$ 1,972 million was approved by mining giant BHP Billiton on 25 July 2013 for its 216,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant in Escondida, Chile.

Municipal desalination plant planned for Chile's Copiapó

Construction of a municipal desalination plant will form part of urgent measures to address water shortages in the region around the Chilean city of Copiapó.

BASF water business combined with other sectors

German chemical giant BASF has combined its water business with its oilfield and mining businesses as from 1 April 2013 to increase efficiency and support growth.

Giant Canadian potash project buys Veolia evaporator

Evaporation and crystallization equipment from Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies has been bought by K+S Potash of Canada to constitute the core process for a potash project in Saskatchewan, Canada.

Desalitech building demo plant with Layne Christensen

The originator of the Closed Circuit Desalination (CCD™) technology, Desalitech Ltd, announced on 30 June 2011 that it will work with mineral and water drilling and treatment company Layne Christensen to design and build an innovative desalination system.

License sought for seawater desalination plant in Chile

White Mountain Titanium Corporation announced on 26 April 2012 that it has applied for an access license to draw seawater for a planned desalination plant in Chile.

Henry Charrabé is a protégé of investor Ronald Lauder, and is backed by him as CEO of newly created Fluence Corp

Interview: Henry Charrabe, Fluence Corp

Henry Charrabe, newly appointed chief executive of Fluence Corporation, the company formed in July by the merger of RWL Water and Emefcy, has worked for the business' major investor Ronald Lauder for 16 years.

Olympic Dam desalination plan approved with conditions

BHP Billiton's proposed 200,000-280,000 m³/d desalination plant in southern Australia's Upper Spencer Gulf will be covered by the 100-plus conditions imposed by national and state government approval of the Olympic Dam uranium mining project announced on 10 October 2011.

Opportunities await at IDA World Congress 2017 in Brazil

Latin America, and particularly Brazil, is a big user of desalination and water reuse technology, and there is huge potential for the growth of these technologies in the region, writes Emilio Gabbrielli, president of the International Desalination Association (IDA).

Biwater Florida RO project has manipulated ER unit

Acceptance testing has been successfully completed for a I.5 MGD (5,680 m³/d) reverse osmosis (RO) system being built by Biwater at the Springtree Water Treatment Plant in Sunrise, Florida, USA.

Olympic Dam supplementary EIS satisfies opposition leader

South Australia's opposition leader, Isobel Redmond, was quoted on 20 June 2011 in the Australian media as being "satisfied" that the Olympic Dam desalination plant will not cause any damage to the local environment, including the area's giant cuttlefish population.

Olympic Dam desalination EIS released by BHP Billiton

The desalination plant in South Australia to feed BHP Billiton's Olympic Dam mining development moved a step closer when the company released the final supplementary environmental impact statement (SEIS) for the project on 13 May 2011.

Chile's copper mines will turn to desalination for half their water

Desalination will provide half the water demand of Chile's copper mining industry by 2026, according to findings in a report by the Chilean state copper commission, Cochilco.

Water rights row could delay Western Australia desalination plant

A row over water rights in the north-west of Australia could lead to delay in the construction of the West Pilbara Seawater Desalination Plant, despite assurances in February 2011 from Western Australia's (WA) state government that the project was on track.

CaribDA to sponsor Chile desalination seminar

The Caribbean Desalination Association (CaribDA) announced on 14 October 2010 that it would be a sponsor of a seminar on Desalination, Innovations & Sustainable Development to be held in Antofagasta, Chile, during 29 November - 1 December 2010.

Mining firm strikes funding deal for desalination plant at planned mine

Mining firm, White Mountain Titanium, has agreed a deal with US private equity company, Nexo Capital Partners, to fund, construct and manage a desalination plant to form part of White Mountain's planned Cerro Blanco mining project in Chile.


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