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Ghana desalination plant begun by Agengoa

Construction of the Nungua seawater reverse-osmosis (SWRO) plant in Ghana, the first large desalination plant in West Africa, is now under way.

Private players are reshaping desalination says report

Private water companies are "reshaping global desalination" with nine of the top ten capacity additions in 2015 coming from private sector players according to market researcher Bluefield Research.

Reynolds to lead CH2M Hill in MENA and India

Chartered engineer Neil Reynolds has been appointed regional managing director for CH2M Hill's operations in Middle East/North Africa (MENA) and India.

Environnement in global revamp

Suez Environnement has merged its Degrémont subsidiary into its international operating division under a major restructuring of the group's operations outside of Europe that will create five new regional businesses.

Africa's largest desalination plant opens

Singapore-based desalination company, Hyflux, has officially opened its recently completed 500,000 m³/d desalination plant at Magtaa, Algeria. The facility is Africa's biggest and contains the largest ultrafiltration pre-treatment facility in the world according to Hyflux.

Senegal mulls desalination to counter supply shortfall in capital

Senegal water utility, Senegalaise des Eaux (SDE), is planning investment in desalination to avoid repeats of last year's severe supply shortages in the the rapidly growing capital city, Dakar, according to the firm's chief executive Mamadou Dia.

GDF Suez bags Lahmeyer

GDF Suez' consultancy arm, Tractebel Engineering, has bought Germany-based water and energy consultancy Lahmeyer International from financial investment firm Capiton.

H2O Innovation lands San Jose WTP ultrafiltration contract

A 30 MGD (113,562 m³/d) hollow-fiber ultrafiltration (UF) membrane water treatment system in California is one of three new contracts totaling Can$ 8.8 million (US$ 8.1 million) announced on 21 May 2014 by H2O Innovation.

MottMac buys up South African engineering firm

Johannesburg-based engineering specialist PD Naidoo & Associates has been acquired by global engineering firm Mott MacDonald.

Feasibility started for South African desalination plant

A feasibility study is underway in South Africa's Northern Cape for a 7,000 m³/d seawater desalination plant at Abraham Villiers Bay close to the town of Kotzesrus.

Cadagua orders ERI PX-Q300s for Morocco project

Spanish desalination contractor Cadagua has ordered PX‑Q300 pressure‑exchangers from Energy Recovery Inc (ERI) for the first phase of the Jorf Lasfar seawater desalination plant in Morocco.

Hyflux poised for global diversification says chief

Anticipated growth in the global desalination market is expected to help diversify revenue from Asia to the Middle East and African markets for Singapore water company, Hyflux, according to its chief executive Olivia Lum.

Japan funds Cape Verde desalination scheme

Japan's International Cooperation Agency (JICA) is to provide US$ 150 million towards the funding of a US$ 200 million desalination plant for the Cape Verde republic off the coast of West Africa.

RO plant commissioned for US military base

A reverse-osmosis (RO) drinking-water plant supplied by ThermoEnergy Corporation to a major US military base at an undisclosed location in the Africa/Middle East region was commissioned in early December 2011.

Djibouti 'planning desalination plant with EU aid'

The government of Djibouti in east Africa is planning to build a 45,000 m³/d desalination plant with European Union (EU) finance, according to a report in Gulf News on 4 December 2011.

Acciona Agua makes two new MENA appointments

Spanish desalination company Acciona Agua has appointed José Díaz-Caneja as development manager, Middle East and North Africa.

PWT to be represented by Omya in EMEA region

Professional Water Technologies announced on 6 September 2011 that it had signed a sales representative agreement with Omya International AG, a leading global producer of industrial minerals, and a worldwide distributor of chemical products.

Dow signs Fluor to build new Saudi desalination component factory

The Dow Chemical Company has appointed Fluor Corporation to build a new factory to manufacture reverse osmosis components for desalination plants in Saudi Arabia.

Fluor to build Dow's RO membrane factory in Saudi Arabia

Fluor Corporation has been awarded a contract by the Dow Chemical Company to build Dow's reverse osmosis (RO) membrane manufacturing facility in Jubail Industrial City II in Saudi Arabia.

Hyflux sees Dahej desalination funding 'within year'

Hyflux has extended the time it foresees for financial closure on its Dahej seawater desalination plant in India to "within this year".

Xylem appoints new emerging markets head

Water technology firm, Xylem, has appointed Steven Leung as senior vice president and president, emerging markets, In this newly created position, Leung will lead the company's commercial operations in China, greater Asia, India, the Middle East, Africa and Latin America, as well as Australia and New Zealand.

UNEP report informs financiers about power-water relationship

The opportunities available to financial institutions to encourage the adoption of best practices, which may include the introduction of eco-friendly technologies, such as membrane technology to recycle wastewater, are stressed in a report just published by the UN Environment Programme's Finance Initiative (ENEP FI).

'We have been more than 70 years working in the EPC market', Pedro Almagro, Abengoa Agua CEO

Interview: Pedro Almagro, CEO, Abengoa Agua

As comebacks go, Abengoa's has been pretty impressive. The company that has been through a traumatic one-and-a-half years, in April 2017 wowed the industry with a massive €240 million contract win from Saudi Arabia's ACWA Power.

Desalination capacity increasing by 50% in 2013 says IDA

Desalination plants with a total capacity of 6 million m³/d are expected to come on line during 2013, a 50% increase on 2012, according to new data from the International Desalination Association and GWI DesalData.

Dow Saudi factory ships first elements

Dow Water & Process Solutions' (DW&PS) has made its first shipment of its Filmtech reverse osmosis (RO) elements from its new Jubail Operations manufacturing facility in Saudi Arabia.

The new membrane facility will serve markets across the Middle East, North Africa and Asia

DuPont opens membrane factory in Saudi Arabia

DuPont Water Solutions has opened a new membrane manufacturing facility in Saudi Arabia.

A generation of knowledge and experience in water is being lost as baby boomers retire

Is water in the grip of a skills crisis?

In an engineering-heavy sector such as water, it's a truism that well qualified people are thin on the ground. But is it more accurate to say that the global water industry in the grip of a skills crisis?

Malaysia's Malakoff eyes desalination in global advance

Malaysian power and water engineering firm, Malakoff Corporation, is looking to expand its operation and maintenance (O&M) arm, Teknik Janakuasa, beyond its home market with an emphasis that includes desalination.

Yokogawa to provide control system for Jubail SWRO plant

Yokogawa Middle East & Africa has received an order from Petroleum, Chemicals & Mining Company Limited (PCMC) to supply the control system for the SWRO-4 desalination plant, which is being built in Jubail, Saudi Arabia, by the Power & Water Utility Company for Jubail & Yanbu (Marafiq).

German/Saudi JV to make ceramic membranes for RO pretreatment

German nanotechnology investment company Nanostart announced on 20 October 2011 that one of its holdings, ItN Nanovation AG, had finalised a joint venture (JV) agreement with Saudi Arabian company Jaffali to produce ceramic flat membranes (CFMs) primarily for pretreatment for reverse-osmosis.

Hyflux wins Saudi deal for Yanbu

Desalination specialist, Hyflux, has won a US$ 48 million contract to build a containerised desalination system for Saudi Arabia.

Dow to build FilmTec RO factory in Saudi Arabia

Dow Water & Process Solutions announced on 26 July 2011 that it is going to manufacture FilmTec™ reverse-osmosis (RO) elements in Saudi Arabia.

Saudi deal gives Toray fourth membrane‑making base

A new joint venture to sell desalination and water treatment membranes in the Middle East has been set up between Toray Industries of Japan and Abunayyan Holding, headquartered in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

CDM and Miahona in Saudi water partnership

US consultant CDM and Miahona (Our Water), a subsidiary of ACWA Power Development, have announced a new partnership to execute water projects in Saudi Arabia. The partnership will manage engineering and consulting for water sector projects, including providing studies, designs, construction management, operations, and management consulting services.

Energy Recovery bags US$ 1 million in desalination orders in India and Ghana

Fluid flow energy efficiency firm Energy Recovery has won desalination orders totalling US$ 1 million for original manufacturer projects using its technology in India and Ghana. The company said the deals were among a continuing revenue stream from small-to-medium sized projects.

South African RO plant begins production

The 15,000 m³/d reverse-osmosis desalination plant for Mossel Bay, South Africa, should go into full production this week, after three weeks of commissioning.

Inside the desalination plant at Teshie-Nungua, in Ghana's greater Accra region

Ghanaian utility staggers under weight of desalination costs

Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL) is reviewing its options over Teshie-Nungua desalination plant, as it emerged that the facility results in a loss to the utility of about $2 million a month, reports CitiFMonline.com.

Abengoa inaugurates West Africa's first desalination plant

Spain-based energy and environment company Abengoa has inaugurated the first desalination plant in West Africa. The 60,000 m³/d plant will make potable water for some 500,000 people in Ghana's capital, Accra.

The Ikusasa ultrafiltration membrane plant

UF solution to rural water supplies?

Sub-Saharan Africa is not a region generally associated with membrane technology, but that is now changing. Desalination projects are already appearing in, for example, South Africa and Ghana, and South Africa is fast developing its own technologies. Water treatment manufacturer Ikusasa is developing its own UF modules both for rural water supply and for desalination pretreatment. The company is also developing its reverse-osmosis desalination capability and is currently looking at anodic Zn for scaling protection in treating high-calcium groundwater. This article appeared in the February-March 2010 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse.

Teshie-Nungua desalination plant had improved access to water in the greater Accra region of Ghana

Abengoa in talks aimed at re-opening Ghana desalination plant

Abengoa has confirmed that it is actively re-negotiating with Ghana Water Company Ltd (GWCL) the terms of its Teshie-Nungua desalination plant contract.

Ex-Adelaide desalination chief joins Singapore's Hyflux

Milind Kumar, formerly project director of the Adelaide Desalination Plant for South Australia Water, has been appointed to a senior position in Singapore group Hyflux Ltd.

The transaction closed on 23 March 2018

Stantec expands UK footprint with ESI Consulting acquisition

Stantec is expanding operations in the UK through the acquisition of environmental firm ESI Consulting.

World Bank to help energy/water development link

The World Bank is to help developing countries to better plan and scale-up their energy demand in tandem with water resource management.

Suez's international business helped to drive group performance in 2016

Suez buoyed by strong International division

Suez has reported organic revenue growth of 1.1 per cent for the year ended December 2016, driven by a 4.7 per cent rise at its International division.

Xylem wins US$7.3 million Bahrain wastewater upgrade deal

Switzerland-based water technology company Xylem has signed a US$7.3 million contract with Bahrain's Ministry of Works to upgrade a wastewater treatment facility in the Bahrain capital Manama.

Barka desalination plant will supply 218,000 m3/d of potable water to the people of Oman

Dow to supply RO elements to Barka desalination plant project

Dow Water & Process Solutions is to supply advanced reverse osmosis (RO) elements to Barka desalination plant project in Oman, after selection by Suez.

The project to desalinate water from Thane Creek is under fire primarily for its water price

Desal project in Thane, India, draws legal challenge

A desalination plant project to supply the city of Thane, in Maharashtra, India, has come under fire from activists and politicians who oppose the local authority's plan, reports Mumbai Mirror.

Mombasa is hoping to become the first African city to host the IDA World Congress

Kenya's a contender for IDA 2021 World Congress

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has shortlisted Mombasa, Kenya, among four finalists to host its 2021 World Congress, reports The Star.

Indians providing MBR wastewater treatment in Africa

Indian water technology provider Shivsu Canadian Clear International Ltd has won orders worth US$ 6 million from private organizations and governments in Africa to set up membrane-based industrial wastewater treatment plants in Kenya, Tanzania and Ethiopia.

Hyflux and JBIC in collaboration agreement

Singapore water treatment and desalination firm Hyflux has entered into an agreement with the Japan Bank for International Cooperation for global collaboration on water projects.

IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse will make a return visit to Dubai in 2019

IDA to return to Dubai for World Congress 2019

The International Desalination Association (IDA) is to return to Dubai, United Arab Emirates, for its World Congress in 2019, building on the earlier success of the IDA World Congress held in the emirate in 2009.

Abengoa Water's expansion driven by pure R&D

Carlos Cosin Fernandez is currently the chairman and CEO of Abengoa Water, the water subsidiary of Abengoa Group, which has constructed desalination plants in Spain, North Africa, India and China, and is now looking at Latin America. Here he talks to D&WR editor, Robin Wiseman. This article first appeared in the February/March 2014 issue of Desalination & Water Reuse magazine.

New distributors and EU compliance for PWT

Membrane chemicals supplier Professional Water Technologies (PWT), the US arm of Canada's H2O Innovation, recently signed agreements with two new distributors in Brazil and Argentina, increasing its presence in South America.

AquaVenture chief executive Doug Brown is an engineer-turned-private equity investor-turned-water industry leader

"We're now at more than $100 million revenue." Doug Brown, AquaVenture chairman and CEO

AquaVenture chief executive Doug Brown has a track record of delivering shareholder value. When he joined water technology and engineering firm Ionics as chief executive in 2003, the struggling business was trading at $16 a share.

Installed desalination growth slowed in 2011‑2012

Installed desalination capacity around the world rose by only 9% last year to reach 78.4 million m³/d, according to the latest data published by the International Desalination Association (IDA) and Global Water Intelligence (GWI).

EDS urges knowledge sharing at Rome conference

The European Desalination Society (EDS) conference opened on Monday (23 May) with calls for greater collaboration among desalination professionals to address the rising gap between water supply and demand worldwide.

Veolia chief executive for Middle East and North Africa Xavier Joseph is targeting ambitious growth in 2018

Veolia Middle East CEO Xavier Joseph targets significant growth

Veolia has investment capacity of $200 million for power and water projects across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) for 2018, regional chief executive Xavier Joseph has told Emirati news outlet The National.

Desalination to grow by 9% up to 2016, says report

Global installed desalination capacity is expected to grow by about 55 million m³/d over the period 2010-2016 at a compound annual growth rate of more than 9%, according to a new report from Pike Research.

(Left to right) Paul Fox, British consul general to Dubai and the Northern Emirates; Ahmad Al Mulla, senior manager sales, Dubai Airport Freezone; Joel Hagan, i2O chief executive; Jamal Bin Marghoob, director of sales, Dubai Airport Freezone; and Mohamed Sadek, i2O sales director for the Middle East and North Africa

i2O opens new base in Middle East and North Africa

UK smart water network solutions firm i2O has opened its first office in the Middle East and North Africa to support clients in the region.

Hyflux first half revenue 90% municipal

Singapore, desalination group, Hyflux, generated more than 90% of its revenue for the six months to 30 June 2015 in municipal markets with almost a half of its sales in its home market and more than a third in China according to its first half 2015 report. Group profit after tax and minority interests was S$31.6 million (US$ 22.6 million) for the period.

IDA energy task force meeting in Abu Dhabi

The International Desalination Association (IDA) will convene the first meeting of its global Energy Task Force in conjunction with the International Water Summit, which takes place on 15-17 January 2013 in Abu Dhabi.

GrahamTek is an innovator in 16-inch reverse osmosis membrane technology

GrahamTek wins contract for SWCC pilot project

GrahamTek of South Africa has won a contract for a desalination pilot project for Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC), Saudi Arabia.

Oceana is installing its own independent desalinated water supply to support its fish canning operations, in readiness for the day when Cape Town municipal supplies run dry

Western Cape food producer adopts desalination

Oceana, a canned fish producer based in Western Cape, South Africa, is installing two desalination plants in readiness for 'day zero,' in April 2018, when the region is expected to run out of water.

Namibia wants to expand its desalination capacity to ensure food security

Israeli private investors eye Namibia desalination project

Officials from the Erongo region in Namibia and Israeli private investors are in advance stage talks over a second desalination plant in the county, reports New Era.

Henry Charrabé is a protégé of investor Ronald Lauder, and is backed by him as CEO of newly created Fluence Corp

Interview: Henry Charrabe, Fluence Corp

Henry Charrabe, newly appointed chief executive of Fluence Corporation, the company formed in July by the merger of RWL Water and Emefcy, has worked for the business' major investor Ronald Lauder for 16 years.

Areva set to hand over desalination plant to Namibia

French nuclear group, Areva, is poised to hand over a desalination plant to the Namibian government, for an undisclosed sum according to the south west African country's chamber of mines.

Cape Town ponders giant desalination project as resources dwindle

Cape Town, South Africa is nearing completion of its feasibility study for a 450 Ml/d desalination plant that could be built near Koeberg on South Africa's west coast within the next 10 years at a cost of some R14.9 billion (US$ 1.23 billion).

Acciona wins desalination deal in Cape Verde islands

A consortium of Spanish water technology firm, Acciona Agua, and construction firm Sade-CGTH, has won a €16 million (US$ 18.5 million) design and build contract for a 5,000 m³/d seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant on each of the African Cape Verde islands of Sal and São Vicente from the local energy and water utility, Electra-SARL.

Djibouti's desalination plant project was developed over five years in partnership with the EU

Eiffage and Tedagua clinch Djibouti desalination contract

French engineering firm Eiffage Genie Civil in consortium with Tedagua of Spain has won a contract to build a desalination plant in Djibouti, east Africa.

Hyflux forecasts end to Middle East desalination doldrums

Following its recent landing of its first major Middle Eastern municipal water contract in five years,  Singapore water treatment firm Hyflux said it anticipated demand in the region to accelerate.

IDA to be knowledge partner at the International Water Summit for third year in a row

The International Desalination Association (IDA) has been appointed as a 'knowledge partner' for the International Water Summit for the third consecutive year.

Asia and industrials to counter desalination decline

Declining drought in new desalination markets has weakened growth but a long-term counter from expansion in Asia and elsewhere creates a positive outlook for 10,000m³-plus plants according to a recent forecast by market researcher, Bluefield.

Global desalination pump market to grow 7.7% a year

Market researcher, TechNavio, has forecast growth in the global water desalination pumps market at 7.7% during 2015-2019 with "intelligent" pumps showing an increasing profile.

Egypt is building desalination capacity in Sinai to support economic development

Egypt finalises finance for south Sinai desal plants

The Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development (KFAED) is to loan $100 million to the government of Egypt, completing the finance for five desalination plans in south Sinai.

Metito backs low-temperature distillation to challenge lead desalination technologies

Dubai-based water technology firm, Metito, is set to make a "significant investment" in clean-tech company Thermal Purification Technologies (TPTec), to develop TPTec's patented low-temperature distillation (LTD) technology. Metito claims LTD could displace existing membrane and thermal desalination technologies.

Renewables advocate takes chair in desalination at Murdoch University

Murdoch University's School of Engineering and IT has appointed Professor Wendell Ela as the inaugural chair of desalination and water treatment. He is an advocate of the use of renewable energy for desalination and has developed small solar desalination systems for remote Navajo communities in USA.

The beach at Strandfontein, Cape Town, was the proposed site for the desalination plant

Cape Town scraps proposal for 'extremely expensive' desalination plant

A proposal for a desalination plant in Cape Town, South Africa, has been scrapped amid claims that it is "extremely expensive" as an option to fulfil the city's water demand.

A small scale desalination plant is planned for Cape Town's V&A Waterfront

Blame game begins ahead of Cape Town's 'day zero'

Mmusi Maimane, leader of South Africa's opposition party the Democratic Alliance, has slammed the national ministry of water and sanitation for failing in its duties, pointing out the high cost of building desalination plants.

Sonitec-Vortisand appoints MENA manager

Canada-based Sonitec-Vortisand has appointed Nikhil Bhatia, as regional manager for its newly formed subsidiary, Sonitec-Vortisand Middle East and North Africa (MENA).

Sulzer's acquisition of JWC Environmental assumes an enterprise value of $215 million

Sulzer to acquire JWC Environmental

Sulzer is to acquire JWC Environmental, a leading supplier of municipal and industrial wastewater equipment.

Scientists to probe outlet brine risks to sealife

Scientists have been commissioned to investigate whether brine waste from two proposed 150 Ml/d seawater reverse osmosis desalination plants could damage or alter the marine environment along the KwaZulu-Natal coastline in South Africa.

Tapping into Table Mountain aquifer is among the measures proposed to beat the drought

Western Cape looks to desal, as Eksom issues RFP

Western Cape, South Africa, is to expedite an environmental impact assessment for a mobile desalination plant, as the area is officially declared a disaster zone due to water scarcity.

Global desalination market to grow 9% a year

The global water desalination market is set to grow at nearly 9% a year to 2018 according a report by market researcher, TechNavio.

Qatar and Sweden will hold technical workshops on a project to fuel desalination entirely by solar and wind power

Qatar and Sweden plot renewables-fuelled desalination project

A renewables-fuelled desalination project aiming to produce water for $1/m3 is to be jointly developed by Qatar and Sweden, reports The Peninsular.

Israeli group to build desalination plants in Dar-es-Salaam

Water authorities in Dar-es-Salaam are planning to work with an Israeli consortium in constructing two reverse osmosis desalination plants to alleviate water shortage in the Tanzanian commercial capital.

The site of Koeberg Nuclear Power Station, north of Cape Town, South Africa, may host a project to pilot desalination for municipal use

South Africa nuclear plant to install desal unit amid worsening water crisis

South Africa's electricity utility Eskom is to install a desalination unit at Koeberg Nuclear Power Station, as water shortages in Cape Town hit crisis levels, reports South Africa's News24.com.

Namibian uranium mine ponders desalination project

Namibian uranium mining firm Rössing Uranium is investigating the economic viability of designing, constructing and operating a new desalination plant to supply its operation in the economically important Erongo Region where water is scarce.

Pure Aqua builds solar-powered desalination for Cameroon

US-based Pure Aqua has designed and manufactured six solar-powered reverse osmosis water purifiers for river water in the African state of Cameroon.

Hitachi to partner with Veolia on overseas desalination projects

Hitachi and Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies are to cooperate on desalination projects, mainly in emerging countries.

Dow and Veolia system wins ultrafiltration deal for new Total floating oil production unit

Dow Water and Process Solutions and Veolia Water Technologies are to provide ultrafiltration technology for Total's new Moho Nord offshore floating deep water oil production unit off the Republic of the Congo coast.

Biwater wins reuse treatment plant contract in Morocco

UK contractor Biwater has been awarded a turnkey project to design and construct a new wastewater treatment plant in the city of Aourir, a tourist destination close to Agadir on Morocco's Atlantic coast.



A desalination project between SABMiller, Marina Sea Salt, and Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality could potentially add potable water supplies to Port Elizabeth, South Africa

South Africa fosters public-private co-operation on desalination

Talks on building a large scale desalination plant in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, have begun between Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality, beer maker SABMiller, and salt producer Marina Sea Salt, reports Construction Review Online.

Egypt anticipates a reduction in Nile river water availability following completion of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam

Egypt's al-Sisi has a mega desal scheme in his sights

Egypt is to build a mega desalination plant in response to water scarcity concerns, reports news24.com.

The new desalination plant will supply residents of the country's capital, Djibouti city

Gulf of Aden project inches forward

Three firms have been pre-selected for a reverse osmosis desalination project in Djibouti, East Africa.

Mott MacDonald aims to enhance its services and market opportunities with Wideurope acquisition

Mott MacDonald buys up Wideurope Engineering

UK-based global consultancy Mott MacDonald has acquired Wideurope Engineering, whose portfolio features a number of power and desalination plants in the Middle East and south west Asia.

Tubular membranes replaced at South Africa coal plant

More than 2,500 tubular reverse-osmosis (TRO) membrane modules have been replaced at a South African coal-to-liquids refinery by Veolia‑owned Membratek in a subcontract.

Ark W Pang

Pang joins Seven Seas Water as senior vice president

Ark W Pang has joined Seven Seas Water Corporation as senior vice president, chief business development officer and a member of the executive committee.

Japan's Yokogawa is looking to expand its control systems business in the power and water infrastructure market

Japan's Yokogawa wins first control systems order in UAE

Yokogawa Middle East & Africa is to supply a distributed control system for a power and desalination plant in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) for the first time.

Water industry leader Carlos Cosin has launched new venture Almar Water Solutions

New water company Almar Water Solutions launched by former Abengoa CEO

Almar Water Solutions, a new water infrastructure development company led by former Abengoa chief executive Carlos Cosin, was launched at World Future Energy Summit in Abu Dhabi, January 2017.

MEDRC to run membrane courses in Oman

The Middle East Desalination Research Centre (MEDRC) has obtained an exclusive license to present two David H Paul seminars in the Middle East/North Africa region.


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